Anda di halaman 1dari 28

' 01

P466:

BigZ NePat

Fire ProtectIon

Ufuntnes

cHAP: 254n

----_t

l--;"*;-]
u n J l r ' - F I R' 'E

l__::rE*oN__--i

cnRGocoMPARTtvIENTS':
I
r l R ED E l - E C T l o N
I

DErEC-rloN)
tsuor:E

L___

_j

a u x t l I A R YP o \ / v E R
u N t r . -F I R E :

u'rsFN3
r-t'^rG

I
I

___l

L_

Til--'-:'^;-L;r
l;t-----:-l
I
I

I
I

t-L_T*']i'":___i
I

t;;;--l
L__iT:11___l

cnnc(f coMPAlrfilElJrs*

a-=;GT,a.e--__l
U,AVATOR\/I
I
I

n u r { l M A T l cF I R E

i
r*t'*o''1to
____i
L_

! V I N GL E A D I N GE D G E /
lv4Al{IFOLI)
Ol{
0VE:RFlEAT D ETECT'I

PORTABLE
f:IRE
6 X 1 ' l t r l 1 3l suHI N G

Detectlon
FI relSmoke/Overheat
Zones

Flre Zones
Deslgnated

of deshows the location


The figure
i
o
r
P
l
a
n
es:
u
s
e
d
o
n
systems
tection
sYstem,
- engine fire. detection
sYstem,
- APU fire detection
- cargo comPartment smoke detection
.systemt
system'
- wheel weII overheat detection
- wing leading edge overheat detection

s)'s tem t
- manifold

detection

overheaL

Designated

fire

zones in

all

airplanes

aro

system.

the
the

engine power sect,ionr'


section,
engine.accessorY

any conpletF powerplant compartment


is provided
in which no isolation
power
sectlon'and
between the engine
sectl-on,
the engine' acce'ssorY
power unit compartment,
any.auxiliary
heater and other
any fuel-burning
conbustion eguipment installation,
the cofopressor and accessory sections
of turbine engines and
combustor, turbine and tail-pipe
sections of turbine engine instal"Lations that contain lines or compoor
nents carrylng flamrnable fluids
gases.

Fire/Overheat/SmokeDetectionZones /-':r*o6clnWING LE OVERHEAT


THERMAL SW]TCHES
IYHEEL I'{ELL
OVERHEAT
DETECTORS

AFT T.OWERCARGO
COMPARTMENT
SMOI(E OETE

Aru FIRE
OETECTORS

o
a

MAIN DECK CARGO


COMPARTMENT
SMOKE OETECTORS

a
o

a
MAIN DECK
CARGO
COMPARTMENT

SHUTOOV/NMODULE
TIVI{ELV'ELU

s.\{oKE

OETECTORS
a

i...-.'-

5TRUT OVE6HEAT

.WARNtNG CONTROL
MONITORINO. ANO
TEST FACILITIES

'

FORWAND.
LOWER CARGO
COMPANTMENT
SMOKE OETECTORS

rxenmet 5wtTcHEs

E N . G I N EF I R E
OETECTORS

\#

Nepat

Fine Protection

Wfunrnes
Locatlorrs:
The
ruost
F,re i

: 3i g u r e
shovrs; tfre l.oca t i,en of the
inr6rortarrt- l1rc,
e>:tiirguishi.rrgr__ _

FilRE

i I r .)e.

EXrTNG&$//[B

- en!tine: fire extingui.sh:.ng


sysLern,
- APtl fj.re extinguishing
systern,
- cclr:go cornpartment fire exringuishing
s y s ; C e n l( t i x e d i n s t a l l a t , i o n ) .
N o t s ; h o v , ' na r e t h e p o r t a b t e
::irr: e:xtingu._
ishers in 1:he cockpit,
ca.bin and the
car9c) cc,mp;trtrnents.

Fire Extingeriishing
Systems
b

,A
EX T I N G U I S I ] R

NOZZLES

,/ lf

I
AT'U F I A E
EXTIIJGIJISHN
F t R E E X . . t - I I ] G U I S HI i l G
CONTROt. ANO TT:57
FAClLlTll:S

-./'

_ E i l G t f . l Eo u A L
FlAe :XTINGLISHt:RS

(,i\/.) cv .'t5

1(

\ -.1-

?r
\l

.4K:?
Q>n'.

LO!\,ER CANGO
CO{/ PA N TM N T
Flnc gorTL:S

\
Ex r r N G u r : ; t l E r t
NOZZT_ES

APU ':IN
SITUT DOIt N
MOOLILE IVJH{:EL
\4'E L LI

NGIN OUAL
FIR E.XTINGUISHI1S
AND OTJCT (TYI'ICALI

P A G E : Ol,

\tgtr Nepal

Fire Protection

=Atntnes

25-oo

Typesof Systems:
The neecl for fj-re r'rarning and overheat
has led to the clevesysLerns in aircraft
types
lopmen-' of a nunrlcer of different
of designs and installations'
They all meel Lhe following
requirements:
or overAn immediate warning of fire
ireat by means of a red or amber-'-Iight
and an audible signal in Lhe cockpit'
indicators
(Sometimes temperature
in addition)
that the fire
An accurate indication
a
s well as
e
x
t
i
n
g
u
i
s
h
e
d
,
has been
re-ignltes'
a
f
i
r
e
i
f
an indication
to damage
r
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
I I , Durability
and
factors
e
v
i
r
o
n
m
e
n
t
a
l
due to aII the
where
l
o
c
a
t
i
o
n
t
h
e
at
which may exist
the system is installed
of an accurate and
Incorporation
s]tstem to ensure
t
e
s
t
i
n
g
effective
t
h
e sYstem.
o
f
the integritY
JL A s y s t e m r v h i c h i s e a s i l y r e m o v e d a n d

+
+r

+F

installed

from the
without
s
Y
s
t
e
m
electric
aircrafL
or other special equipment
inverters
a minimum of power
and wirich requires

I L A system wirich oPerates

1T

High temperatureS may be detected by a


Among these are
.rlt{,.b.gf.-pf devices.
or maLerials
Lherrnistors -(resistors
substantially
which change resistanqe
with chbnges in LemPeraLure) , gases iir
thermal
sealed elemenLs, bimetallic
swit-ches, and smoke detectors - .Fire
a n d o v e r h e a t d e'Laencdt-oarIss o a : : e c o n s t r ! : c , t e d
as tubular:-units
uni-ts
,.i truii
5 m !9I
t
h
a
n
m
o
r
e
t
o
m
0
.
4
from
Diarneters of
.
r
J
o
p
;
y
!
i
"
t
n
=
continuo-ug.
i
t_il-Y9-Y-JoSP
t h e c on
--s9.1.: lS "J I I pSl t s
1 . 5'-nrn-Lo*more
f
rol1.less*-t-han
may vary
thaq -L.3.-mm.
In geleral senriconductor loops are .used in engine, APU, wlteel tvell' and
duct areas.
detectors
Pneumatic fire
in engine and APU areas.

Bime ta I I ic
installe{

can be found

tbe rrnal*.ildJ,gbes-axe-norna
next

to

ho!,,e-!E

1-

dq.t-eg"!o5s a5e to b.e..found.in


compartments. .

cargo.

in
Tirermocouples are only j-nstalled
with reciprocating
engines
airplanes

Fire Protectiont

i l) n:'
F t re E.xt I ngtl I slt j ircr S'\':r
- T l l e r c l t n r - t s Lb e a i ' i r e e x i : i ' l c u i s h e r
fire
systclrr :;erving ear:h rlt::;j'tll;'t-eti
turbine
z c n e t e ] : c e p t f o r ' : o n r l : u s t - c 'r
t:u::l:ine
and t:aii PiPe secticns of
I
c
: o n t aj ' n
t
l
t
a
i
'
;
:
r
'
;
engittc :-nstaIIat
or: -cc,ttli:Q!!n-l-s ':-1:q::'f irig f Iarurnable
Iine:l
' :: - i s
fluj-ris or cases frrlilri<:n
j:l these
shovrn that a fire oriqi'rraL:Lng
I
e
c
]
'
sect:Lon:; ciLtl I-'corrt'rcl
- I'he f ire e:<tinguishing system ' thre
o:i the ext j'nguish ing age:nt'
c uanLity
t . h e r a t e o : i d : . s c l :a r g e d i s L r i b u t i c ) n
f j - r e s ;'
nrust be adr:<1uate to extinquislr
"or,c shot" syst{:n nlay
l,n individ':al
tre used fo r arrxil.iarl' pbwer unit:; t
l . u e I b u r n i r r g h e a t . e r s r, a n d o t l l r : r
c:ombust.ion eqr:ipnrent" For otlr'::r
f i : : e z ; o n e : s, L ' ' o ' 3i 3 c h ; r r g e r s
ilesignated
ntust be pr,:virled, each cf whiclr pI:ocluce adequate age:nt concentratiotls'
ea<:h
llt must be po:ssi't>le to direct
m
a
!
n
a
n
y
t
t
:
d
i
s
c
h
a
r
c
l
e
s
t
h
e
s
e
<>f
t:ngine instal lat:-on '
s'/stem fo::"a
- :;he fire-exti;rgu:Lshj-nq
l
o
sitrultan{:ou:;a
b
l
e
D
e
musL
nacelle
t-he naceLle
o
t
:
l
o
n
e
e
a
:
h
p
r
o
t
e
c
t
.[y
::or wirich protecLion is; provided'

F1r e l - xt ' l n g uI s hI n q l g e nl ' s


-

''

ilgertts leust
Irire ex.tinguishitlg
'
:
x
t
'
Lnotrisfring flames
o
f
c
a
.
p
a
b
l
e
, be
enana.ting from an'1 burni'ng of
f Luicis or othe r cr:mbitsti'ble materrlarls in the arr:a Irrotected by
and
t h r e f .i r e e x t i l r ' J l i : 3 h i r r q : ; y s t e m
. ha.ve t-hermai sEa-biIil:y over the
termprrature rartge Ii)<eli' Lc be
e::per-iencecl in th'-' c<>mp;rrtnent in
whricl'rtircY are st'f rc(l '
If ;iny to7 ic exting"rishinq aqent rs
' : s e c l, S r r o v i s i o n s m u s L l : c r n a d c t o
'!revent- ha rmf ul co:lcen Lral:iorrs c f
( llrora l'eakage
if ,.tla or f luicl vapors
,3uri.ng nortn.rl operaF-:o1 oI E]rc airplane ()r ats a rr':sul-t of 'lisclrarqinq
ttre i ir:e erxt) ngu i-shet :jrl ihc Arc'unil
frorn enterijlg ttny
cr j-n lliclht)
per!;onr)cl, contparLntenL' e''":ln t'-houtgh
'lxl' j nj
a c j r : fe < : t . n t a ' ' ' c x s t : i . r r t ' l r "
gu i :;lr i.l tg :;i' s l-ettl'

This rnusl: l)(t sholvrl bl tesL cxc:1)t for


ca::bort d:-oxicie fusela';e t:ombuiIt.-in
p a r t - m ' : n t - f i : : c r : x t : - n q r tirs l t i l ' - l s \ ' s c e r n s
for wirich
. f i - v , : p < t t r n < i s< > r l - e s : ; o f ' - a r l r c n
dio<icir: w.lII be dis;chargeci, tlnci':r
est,lbl i-sht:cl :lirt: cc)ntrol f_.ro:eiurrss, in1:o atty fu:;eIagt-' coti)pJr!r n e n L . ,( l r
l:reathing
. Ll.cre is protective
f
l
iglrL creue
a
c
h
ccltrip'ment for
d
e
c
i
' dt:LY'
f
l
i
g
h
L
m e , n b e , ro n
a
g
e
n
t r:onl'air'e'r
s
h
i
n
g
- fiacn er':tirrgui
.
't:
r
e
l
i':f
musl: h.tve a Pressure
.
- tri'
c'cntainelr
Ehe
of
'Oa.,ru,'t,t br.rrsi:incr
Pressures'
exc,:ss:!ve internal
dischargt:
- The di:;charge end of each
ccnr
e
l
i
c
f
Iin': f::oo a Pressure
di:;t
h
a
t
nec,.ion mrrst be loc:ated
i
n
g
u
i
s
i
:
r
in<;
e
x
t
f
:
'
r
e
of the
.iu.nu
t h e a i r p L a n t :'
'
r
o
u
.
L
d
d
a
n
t
a
g
e
t
r
o
L
.
.g.nL
Iocated or pl:cThe li:re tuus': a-Lso be
<
:
I
o
g
iging caused l:y
tected to pr':vent
n
l
atter'
ice or odrer fo:rei<;n
each f Lre
- The're must be a Ineans for
c
r
c
n
t
a
i
netr t'o agent
ext.inguishing
conLai-rrer has rJi's'inilica te that che
charrlinq pre 5su r:
.t u.gu,d or t'hat the
mi-trinttnt
is Uel.ow Lher established
f
:
n
"
t
i
t]nl1]?:
ne(:es:;ar)f for prop'er
conLalner
e
a
c
h
o
f
- Tht: t(:mPeraeure
uncler intelrderi
.",r" O"^ rnaintaineii '
to prevetlt t:'l-le
oot:rai-in(l cond:-Lic:ns '
fron
::;":,'"
in th<: conLainer

:- ;;iil;,r

b ' : r o r vt t r a t n e c e s = " : 1 , : :-

ra'Le of Ci s
provid'e an atleqtratt
charge, or
cau se pr:ehigh errorrgh to
. risinq
maLure discharg:
t<>
capsult: is; use<l
If a pyrotechnic
a
c
e
r
l
t
'
discharge the extingrishinq
s
<l
i
n
s
t
:
a
l
l
'
'
:
'
i
b
e
musL
each con tainer
wj-ll ;''':t'
c
o
n
d
i
t
i
o
n
:
;
thrat tenrperaEure'
ion of the:
c:rus:he'zardou's deteriorat
c a P s ul e
P " ' ro t : e c h ni c
sysLem' rrr
ceipacitl' of each
."rne o' L, a L : L o n t o t - h r v c ' l u m e o f t n e
used and tl-ie
cornPartmcnt wht:re
must be adr:rve:rLiLat:LOn rat:e/
IikclY to oc';ur
:
:
i
r
e
quate for arrY
lnd
irr that cotncar:mettL
- L t r s t : a Il c r f
l
l
e
must
,:aCh s
" rv' "s-t.e*m
at.ntisninr
a < ; r ' : n t :I i L o l v
.
t'l;at:
L,:,

arld
tite r : x L i . n g u i . s f r e r
cirscttar<1r-' of
fii
s
t
r
t
l
c
t
r
'
t r a l rlamago "
a,rr',,-o,r,tu

V,W?Nepal

Fire Protection

*Airlines

ExtlngulshlngSYstem:

Dis charge Cartrig e

equipment normalexl-inguishing
The fire
systems in the
L
h
r
e
e
lv incorporates
N,u-,r-=-4pA -'c-qrg o*c o rpa r-t
.]] g-:
;" ;
r.
"."
" "
has one or more
men!' raCn sitstem
wiLh
filled
reservoirs'
extinguisher
l
i
quid
i
s
f
r
e
o
n
'
freon. Under pressure
b
e
comes
i
t
a
i
r
'
but blown into ambient
with
p
r
o
v
i
d
e
d
is
u g-=. trach container
m
e
tal
port wiLh a frangible
an outlet
f
i
r
e
disc. By moving the respective
the discharge
ir,'rafe tfre squibs in
witir DC current'
s
u
p
p
l
i
e
d
a
r
e
caririge
the black
until
s
q
u
i
b
t
h
e
u
p
This heats
d
e
t
o
r
i
a
t
i
T
h
e
fo*aur exPlodes'
in the direcpressure moves the knife
and oPens
d
i
s
c
of the coPPer
iion
it
d
ischarges
a
n
d
outlet
the container
T
h
i
s
l
i
n
e
'
9ischarge
into the deployment
the YeIlow
p:essure also Pushes out
one eisaPPea=s
;ffi]ea

r o r { Tl f l c A T t O a l
TAP

o^r oF
MAHUFACIUNING

S T ^ U P OO N F L A T
OF HX NUT

PIN "A"

l-GROUNoED
TO CASING

bvt

35 mA

P I N' ' B ' '

, that the
and the fire

i
ffirged,

ELECTRICALSCHEMATIC

migirt be extinguished'

hrce csrY /,tnzt .

Extinguishing S Ystem

FFtl---{--rr'

A-,-..6'
Qt re c^ kq
e1 rl clt1

P R F s S UGRAEG EA N D5 \ ^ { I T C 1 1

\ryARNING
LIGHT
(COCKPIT}

II

OVERBRESSURE
INDICAT.9R
(RED)------.
/

ooo
l1

ooooooo
ooooooo

ooooooooo
ooooooooc

FRION

/,/.///./

V"<!t'^,-

\ 2 72.222. ' ( Z

&<$L r-L e
L '
C s'c-

E X T I N G U I S H ERRE S E R V O I R ,

F U S I B LP
ET U G

Lt<"

DETONATING

FUSETAGT
SPRING

DISCHARGE
TNDICATOR
( YELtov./)+

BLACK
POWER

CUfct". d^<

'hnlo..9rrnna+ Coctt(;t'

D E P L O Y M E NLTI N E

PaGE: O.]

FIre Protection
cti^P. 2(;-2o

Fi re Ext:lnguisltlng llYs;tem
Tn crF,nr?ra' L:lere

(\ '' l( 'r hl l Ji s

t.wo k:-nd.s OI

afe

, y = a . n , , =,
-

L,,^
,r.,ts:,r^ ti.-hor
Lwv,,=^t-:,lYrrrrrs!

fo-r one :ar,?a;


t y q - . r : x t - L n g ' . r , i s h e rb. c t ! ) e s - a r ' : . - a ' u a il . a b l e b9.!b b!.tt1.e;..g.an be
fo.r, Ewo'areds,
rg leot sn+ \ / fI r r v e r l

i r

hr^,ff les

n4g

a7-,'

s;ho'as the
T h e f o . Ll o ' , u i n ' ; d e s c r i p ' L i o n
la sL c;rse.
lixarnpl,-': Iirtgine Fire Ext.ingui:shitrg
Syrt"r l_
the: f:rs'L a,:ticn
To ext Lngrtis,r a fire
h
a
n
dle." llhi:s effects
LU
f
i
r
e
!5
d
lJUr_i

t s ^

tinorrisher

shutrlown

hrrrlr-:rr1-in

f rro I

blee<1 a:Lr,

n a-n" F- Y

-i

in

l- l-ro

r-n

l rI n
u 'rl i
v

nar

!1r\,

q'Jql-

5mq

i F

5 l

t-l-p rri 1r-rf hits

engine

js

bottlp

urtder not:nial

morre :he ;ii.re


Lo t>perrLht:
s;electr)r vill.ve
(or rirTht)
When the {l}:-

cmr'fv.

fhe

b<>t.t-.:

d.Lscharge pr)ssure sviitch (:lorses ilr,i


(or r:Lqht) bot.tlr:
i.Lluminates lhe left
d . Ls c i r a r q e I i c r h t .

,t',L-

. - r - l '

h
r l qaF -t /o
\ -o
l l1
J 1ns

is to
Tire seccnd action
handle lef t (or right )
rt:spective engine fire
and to ignite the lefL
discharrg,: squib.
bottle

,q.y3ilal-fg

two - dtld:5.

Or

onlv
v l r a ) ,

not shut dowrr tire


pr:oc:dure ) .

,\'

''"y-'
.{

: ;

,1,S_.,sv r)

lJ 11., lr ,* o
i7,-,
"
a

l_rfr

1., ,/ v-

Ll A

"t^

Fire ExtinguishinE Systern


FT,,,

I]OTTLE OISCHARGE
l (:H
t , R E S S U RE S ' / i T

0 v.o-tlnt.l-'
Y:+:::.fli

rr.::{

*::

i {31

I]OTTLE DISCHARCE
S O UI B
ritcl{T FliI
i i ] OT T L i
: XT II.lGlJISHER

_
R IG}]T
F IRE
EXT
BOTTL{:

FUEL
IIJHT5
F T Y O R A UI C
L ,\ Y A R ^ { , I NLG
GEHER,ATOR

d->--

---:---l--',

Ji

28 V D(l

DISH \
a-:: !<
.

::j:::ji:8

,t?.!r

LEFT
F IRE
EXT
8 OTT LI:

t{YDpAULtC

|' - -r*r

u')rc,

H ' i {,O
t.S

-\

';;BLEt:D

.:.:-:.:':j:;:l

ArR

l : : i ":' .l1

'd--i,i,l

rn,,,,*ilil
.:.:t

r
Il;

ENG I FIFIE

6b-

5ELEUtrJh

2I]V D:

V A I..VE
EN(i. N'f,. I
F I F i EH , \ N O L E

rt.E
iil-Elif"rR Bc,r

Fire Prctection
cH^P:26-20

Fire Control Panel


[Cont CabinJ
BtLL CUIOUI

-Y
tl
lt

OVHT OET

ilqt swrrcSt9
( Na\ trltorr)
tvlt 4ldlugFrr^rt0
r Patil
ov(t0rof
to(i
80IOH UiOt!
k^rotl

:
FI re ExtlnguI shlng SYstems

. O U T L EI N
T
E N G I N EC O w t t t ' t G

They are
fnmnr
ev.rryur

found in

engine,

APU, Cargo

rfmonfq

The example shows an Engine


SysLem
tinguishing

Pire

Ex-

Fire Extinguishing System Installation


EL E C T R I C A L
CONHCTOTT

DOUELE - AgTIOTI
CHECK VALVE

INBD

N4,*"
F I R EE X T I N G U I S H E R
BOTTLES

E N G I N EN O . 2
S E L E C T O RV A L V

BOTTLEP N E S S U N E
swtTcH

E N G T I J N O . I
SLECTOR VALVE

_--O I S C H A R G EP L U G

P A G t i :Q !

Nepat

\6/

lFire Protection

ilElVAIriines

CH,AP:2bJ2O

e lnats s1 f I c i l t I o n
C a r g oC o t n p ' e t r t n lC
r'-la-c
\.1d,)J

A,
t1.

cr bag'gaqe i)c$partmenl
A Class A,iargo
is otre i-It lhich
wor-lld be easiJ-y
- tirrr prtes3tlce cf a fire
di:;cc\/er 3d b-v a crer.rmernbe.r wiri le a t:
and
hi:: sl:atiori;
- c a , : h 1 - ' a r r Lo f t h e c o n t p . r : : t m ' : n t i s e a s i - ' y
flight--

in

ac,:es:iible
F 1,

tU I Ul lVaJ a

u.

A CIass B cargo or bacJga<7e:onparLmernt


is o:re .Ln wtrich
- th,:re is sufficient
acr:ess in fligtht
t o e n a b l e a c t e w n r e m t r e lrt o e f f e c l i l ' e I ' z
r e a c h a n y p a r t . o f t t r e r : o m P a r t m e n t -w i ' : h
tire conLents c,f e. haind f ire
ovf

i n,rrt i qlror

when Lhe accesls pro"tisions are be j-ng


useC, no hazardours cluantity of smclke,
agent ' wj-lI
f lame s , or ext:inguishing
enLer any comF)art:merlt,:ccupied by th=
c r e w ( l r p a s s e r t g e l : s'
- there is a serrareLte ap'croved smoke:
detecLor or fl.re detecLor sy56em 1:o

^ 1 . , ^ . , - - ^r i' /- d^ l - I r - L l l 9
9i-ve

-,|
clL

+.1-16 ^ilnFll.llc
yrrvL

n
v rr ' -

!Fr l. iLnVhr F
r L. .

enginecr' s stertion.
I ^^^

C1 d 5 5

r-:

l . n t"'i-tl-c h
iq

I J

:
q

qpr1,ar.1l-p
J s l . q ! c r s e

:nnr.oVprq r v A

Snroktl

detector or f;-re dej:ector syst'n':o


givr: ,var:ning ;tt t:fre pr-Iot-'s or fliqht
e n , ; j . n t : e r ' s s L a r tj . c > n ,
f lr'\rp

i q

r . J

ar
s ' i

ar)or()Ve(l
e l , l , !

bUiLC-in

:;vst.en: cc'ntroI LabIe


f ir:r--extinqui:;hing
e r l r gj - l t e , ] r ' s
Irr-:nr i:ire pi.J-ot-'s or f liqht
-

stat i3ns ,
there
are means l-o r:xcl.uc.ie liaz;trd,:us
or
rluarrt:itics
of smctkc, flanes
,rxtrnguislring
a
t
t
y c:oml:)ar1-f
r
:
o
r
n
agent
men t

ccc upi ed by

Passengcrs,

v<-'ntiare rneans Lo contrrll


there
cor'l;>ar':-'
t
h
e
v
r
i
t
l
.
r
j
'
n
c
l
r
a
f
t
s
a
n
d
lation
e
>
l
t
i
l
r
g
u
i
s
h
i
n
q
t
h
e
t
h
a
t
rnent so
1 : h aL
a g e n L u s ; e d c a n c : o r t t - r oL a n y f L r e
(
:
o
m
p
a
r
L
t
n

r
n
t
'
l
i
t
i
r
i
r
r
'
t
l
t
e
Inay s l-ar:t

Cl:c:q
Class;

D.
D cargo

ol: bilggage

ccm,patr3lne:nt

i s c'ne in which
- a fire occurrinc; ir-r iL rvilL be c'--nt, pJ.et.ely confineci wi-thout er'dangerl-nc
thre s;afetY of Lhe 'airPlane or tn:
o c : c u I ) a n : : 5t
- tirerel a:re mea.ns to exclude ha::aric>us
q u a n l : i L . i - e s o f s r n o k : , f l a m e s ;, o r c t : h e : :
froltr any conlpal:tn3rl t
noxi<>us gases
o c : c u 1 > i e r lb y L h e c r 3 w o r p a s ; s e l ' l 9 e r ! i '
- ve:nt-Ll-aLion etnd dr:afts are cont'i-c-:!erf
wj-Lh.Ln ,each coml>artment so th;rt' atry
Lo ()ccur in the corical:tf i-re likely
not: p:rogress trey()nd safet-v
ment will
l:-mi is ,
-- c()ns iderat.iorl
i r s g i v e n L o l - h e e rf f t : c t
of hr:at with:-n Lhe ccmpartnenL cn
parts of til'= ai:r-'
a<lja,:ent crit:iceI
p.Lan:. For compartments of 50'l cu '
fL. ,cr les;s, an airflow of 1510 cr:'
per hour is acceptable '
ft.

CIass[:

A CLass C cargo or bat;gage ccnpartm(lnt


one not mceLj.ng the: requiremer ts for
CI ther:
a Class A ol: B Conpartn,ent' bt:t
i! h
L tp
c ,' g- p

Lllr: crerl

or

ilrl
l\ C.Lass E c;rrgrl compart'merlL Ls clle
r
:
;
'
r
r
i
a
E
:
;rirplanes us;ed only for tire
()f ,:ar9o ancl ir-r which
- there is et sr=parateappr:ovr:il srlck':
o r f i r e d e i t e ' : t o r s Y S t - e mL o q ti v r :
or !i i;itt
warning aL t.re Pilot's
:
i
s
t
a
t
i
o
r
,
,
engineerr'
.- there e.re meens tcr situt off Lh': ven"-i ':]'re
to, or: w.LLhin
ai::flcw
lating
ccmpart.metrt, and t:ire cotrtrc:-s Fcii:
r - h e s e n l e a n s a r c a c : c e : ; si i : l e l - c L i r e
crew in the c::ew comi)art':en1--,
f light
- there aire means L() ej(cl:de haza::'lct:s
q u a n L i t i e : s o f s r m c l : e , f I a n r e s, o r
r r o x i . o u s ;g , l s e s , f r c > m : h e f I i < ; h t < : r e t r
comFr.trt:ment; at,rl
- the rerluire<i crew em(:rgency exil:s 'll'e
a c c e r s s : : b 1 , 3u n d : r a n y c a r g o L c r a dL n q
condit:Lon.

PnGE:C5

\6# Nepal

Fire Protection

WAiriines

cHAP: Z6-ZO

F /E Panel

""Nj"'
ff"@rq

AFT CARGO
COMPARTMENT

F O R W A R DC A R G O
COMPARTMEN.T_,.-

Cargo E xtingr:isher
Bottle s

C E N T E RC A R G O
COMPARTMENT

k-N
W

ad'*
^a--\J

FIRE
EXTII{CUISHER
c o H T A l l t E2R

OISCH^RCE
C ^ R TR I O C , E

FtRE EXTIHGUISFIER

I
coxT4tHER

O IS C H A R 6E
C A R TR I O CE
PRSSTJRE

swrTcH

lrA3::

f t't

Fire Protecticn
c-.lAP: zb-:-u

irttrodu:tlotl:

Lavatory

f hr.r autt-o di:;clr,r r gt: f Lt t'r r::ttinqu ishinqf


s y : ; f - e n i i : ; a f i - x i : ' I s 1 ' : ; t ' - " r t l t1 - l r o ' ; i d i n g
: a 1 : ' : t b it i t ' 1 t r : t h e
f i r . : c : : < t . L n < - 1 ' - t i : ; l r t t rt o
t
:
r
:
n
t
!
r
artrtenl:s' IL ccnw,l;t-c
la'.ratory
si:.cs o! ;r ite,:L ar-'tjvat-ed extinguisire:r
bot,.LIct alrd I tctttpc:rlt rt: e i'ntlicator''

Extlngulslter:
is cor:rpL':tely sel'fTlrr: rlritirguisl-.er
'dhen a f i're '
ccr-rta;;trel anrJ aut.orn;rti<: in tfte
cc,ndj.tic)n occurs
or ovr:rheat
inct the
r
a
i
s
r
L
r
n
e
n
t
c
c
)
m
p
;
l
la'rat<:r:y waste
the
l
7
4
o
F
a
b
<
>
r
6
e
tetnperaLttre
an.cient
c
a
u
s
i
n
cJ tre
w
i
'
l
r
n
e
l
t
,
t.i.ps
L , . . , , cf r r s i b l e
boi.LIr:

to

disc:har-qe,

it:alor:
rartureIt.td
Tenpe
I t i s a L i r i n 1 r in i , ' l p l a L e c o n t a i n i n g
f o u r n e a L s e n s j; - t : . v e P a t c h e s .
-frora
E.'rch catcir wil-l- <:hange in colottr
g r e y t o b l a c l < v " h r : r r' - ' x p o s e d L o t l e m l ? e ratures frcrro lB'0'-25'l'F'

tleltail$l
CUI:;}{EA
F I R EE X T I N
LAV^TOF.Y
3OTILEICISPSSAELE}
: X T I N G US I { A ! T , I ; E I S O I

ffiry \>
\3

IIE^T
FUSIEtE
I IPS

rt-tr.^ru,f

/-\

ti)r(.^rc'r

/-,
I
\_/ \_.,'
I tJ L/
I
2ro"
,Yra'r
,qor
|
/'"o"
I G tr^C< -',6"

r^\

r.'o:to

___J

{'r

PAGE:OR

\tg

Nepal

Fire Protection

EiryAirlines

cxnn: 26-29

Por iahleF1re Extlngulshers


the folFor hand i:il-e exti'nquisirers
j
'
'
:
:
l - o w j - l r g; t p 1 . l I
musL be
- Each irand f ire extilrguisher
aPPro"'trd ,
of each
- a^n. t-vpes and qrrantities
m
ust be
u
s
e
d
a
g
e
n
t
extingr'r.ishin9
appt-cl]riaLe Lo the kinds of fires
like IY Lc cicrtr v;lrere used '
for use in a
- each exlinquisher
tnust be de!rers,fllncI cornpart-ment
hazard of
l
h
e
sign"O Lo minimize
tcxic gas concentrations'
ex- a reaCily
accessible hand fire
f
,
o
r use
b
e
a
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e
mus!
tinguisirer
c
a
r
g
o
B
j-n each Class A or Class

l 0 P o u x 0 c A 8 G 0T Y t f
O R YC H H I C A' ILN T
x I r r { G U l s r E0f ix f t 0 0 i

0fiYcHtrilc^t ftR:
t x T r f { 6 u l s HRs
rfr ATTN0Ailr's
5ATS

C 0 l t X T I H G U I S Hr rt n
F ! I G H TC O M P A R T U I { T

H20rlRt
XTIRGUISHERS
tN AntfioAHT'S
S TA T S

c c - r n p a rt m e n L .

H20FtR
TXTIHGUISIIR

Fortab!e Fire Extinguishers

CARBON
D IOXIOE
FOR E LECTRICAL
SYSTEMS
\\

\l---J-

D RY CHEf\lICAL

.1

WATER
roR FtFl[S ON
C LOTHING.SEATS.
I ' A P ER

NO Z Z L E
D ISCHARGE

N O ZZ L E
EX T N S I O N

DRY CHEMICAL
FOR FIREON
FUEL. OIL. IN
E LECTRICAL
SYSTEMS

P U N C T UR E
LEVER

F:ire Protection
CHA1 2,.6-i?-A

fl

f
I

lI -

lI ' / n c r
t

F/!'

{_B_lcrnirt:'C
, h l.or.Lrre, F'Ittor Lttt:)

1 3 . C . F rF-i r e E > l t i n g u i s h e r

'lhese

i i r r : e K L j - r l g u i s l - r e r s ;a : : e
pc::abl"e
r:rerv and pasSerlgett;'tfre
loce.tei
c::_.i.1S C:: OLiter ar,l.rS ac-,tSSiLrle frclm
c i r e n r _ .T i ' : . . c ; t n r e p L a c e h ] a t e r , C a r : b o t r
ewt:inr:uiDior: icle -;-rci i)ry Ch':mical. fire

E,:

=-\.

^ ! - ^ - . -

'1'he

e:<t::rtluis;hirg 3genL l-s a hal<>genated


ri1'dr:cca.::::n :lesignateC as iial-<:n i211 or

hruucr

f i . - i l c > nl l : 1 .
i: int-entled fcr
ts.C.:. 'i:iiiilguislrer
'
:
l
:
:
t
:
:
.
:
c
:
l
an'i ir.i i.inmabLe Iiguid
Orr
or
cal-:1it,. giiIIr:y
ii rt:s i.:. :-ne concrcL
'JJS:;en:::: cai;ln ai:ea:, ;.itcl call aLso be

fire
'jqe

' - r s , . : r lc r

slla I l- ccl.rbonace(,!is f iiaes.

i ' l r ' . : e i : r - : : . r : ' - r i . : h e : : i s e a s i . l r . r 1 - 9 1 n 6 1 r ' r df r c ' r l


' :s i;r;i:,:::--'-'.;itn one harr,i. To op=raLe,
hoI<l the 13.C.F. ex:rr:gut.shr:r in either
hanrl , :;-' :ie
' . - . 'tri r t i r : : - : : ,
:he i:a:;e ,>f

dor,'rn
:he ( reC) s;if e :y :at:h
jlrec*.
t
o
w
a
r
d
s
thre rloz:zle

the f i-::e scr.rl:c': and scjuee::e


ca,-l;, >f the hand.
:lLc tr-.:::r.iii;i',::-r":
':']'rLS',;:-a -'i:i tOn '.',rLVe in the
:alSe
3:)erac-:::
heaC tc jrarcttrre a frangiblt:
ci.u,; si:..r on the tc;: of Lll'3 ccntainer,
r'cI:lrs.Lr:
L i t e c x l - j . t t t - l r L: ;j l t . t t t t 1 - i t r o u g t : L l t c
:iis:iri.:':=
n a z z l c ' " . i r i . t : l tL s , l e s i g n c d t o
l--he
civ:
a i . ' :j e ,
f lat pat-Le:--n. P.eleasirq

i::itrge:,
i::om
This

disc is e jecl:ed
iniic;Ltot:
t.ne op(l ra t ing heail .
of
Lndication
a visu;iI
c c n r 1l.c t . t r l i : , : h a r g e

a red

th= re ar
pr:'."des

tlr:i:.;rl

::

cf

Si, F E'I Y
Cl\TCl{

tNOlCl\TOrt

O U IC K
REI-E^I;E
LIOUNTING
S T N A P-

PAGE:br

n,.?ENepal

Fine Protection

ElPnirlines

cHAP: 26-10
T h e r m a lS W

S e i n iC c o n d u c t o rL o o P

,.55

r*r

Pneum.Press. S m o k eD e t e c t o r
SW

)gl

t_ _l

Thermo:
couple

C,e'rh n {r.}-r.."
t/
LLa) Cr

{_L

.:.

( V c L nL, / (e.-rn*r''
clac e-..,'4

(t |?e'tt"s

Gt:ttQst
"f ' s

fr,^Cnutl

Tf r;"
"

F I N ED E T C T I O N
C O N T i ] O LU N I T

''.,'@

POSSIBLE
\ r y A R NI N G
DIVICES

W a r n i n gH o r n

F i r e In d i c a t i o n s

il;@l

T e m p e r a t u r eI n d ic a t o r s

\wl Nepal

Fire lorotelction
cH^P:2i-10

j re deLectic'n
Continr-tou'; lr)op overheat-/f
a
r
e
z
ts rsuch es
i
n
ztre in:staIl-eC
Ioops
- engirte,

- tilsc catr be
changing Lhe temperat-ur{l
- Eotll e;rils
l
r
e
f
;
r
used. for rnoniLoring
c
(
f
n
n
e
r:t'ed t'O ar
of t.he condu,ctc>r ar(l
'I'his preve:1t-s i1 sy5;terl
cont.introu:s Lcop.
f ai j-urt: i;r tl're cas;e of a brr:!:en c:oncluc-

.. wi^ree.L wt: I L ,
ductsr '
- ai.r <:onrliLioning
- wi.ng an ii
ice ducts '

:
LooD
t I nucrus
Con

t.or.

in
I t . L s a s e r l s ' : - n ce ] . e m e l n tv a r y i n g
c
:
onsists
a
n
d
m
5
'
0
t
o
m
Ient;th from 0.5r
L
i
q
i
r
t
w
e
i
g
h
t
,
r
n
r
r
:
)
,cf ,a smal L 12.:l
ittconel l-uU':*$p with. one 'rr
flexible
two wire cer)ter: ct:nd'rcE5r= St'b
Tlte sp'ace, be:twt:en thr: ccnduct'or anf tne
is
(c,r l:he other conductor)
tubing
mai
n
s
u
l
a
t
,
i
n
(
J
wj-th a t:er'lmi:
f illeii
s
r
2
m
ie
L
s
vthir:h ,rIs'r ccntair
terial.,
conduc:Lirre tnat':rial lm ' Slomelti:nes
the

is

loop

wr<ln Ll:e t:'Ierapidll'


decrelrses
'Itre cont:rol
ci-::quit:
m3nt is heaLt:d'
aL e
a
n
l
i
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
r
e
s
t
h
e
mfnitors
;
r
lar:r s lgn'rI
:
r
e
f
p
c
i
n
t
,
a
'
predetermj-ne<1
sj-si'lar
A
p
r
o
d
u
<
:
e
d
'
i
s
in the cockpLt
by
c
i
l
p
a
:
:
L
t
y
t
h
e
changing
effect
t':riaI

Introcluctioil:

ContinuoueLrcop With Two


CernterConduc'tors [snielded]

shield"dY(p

Functlol:
Ther rt:si:;Lance

of

the

ther:mi:;tor

g!a:

cC , o n t i n u o u $ L . o c l pW ' i t l r O n e
Center ()onductor

&9'.''")\nr,
\ \Er'

\\

il

E l'l- I O lti li -A
E;'iL.ARGE:D)

t
( , r ' t l ' "t 1 "

E , q u i v a l e r t tC i r c u i t ! i l - ' t o - 2

Circuit l{o' i
Equrivial)nt
tra\,<

<"- i--

l'/ct

c1'' i'1 ?uo-t';^*-l


&t
O U T E RL O O P

A INTJER
LO(lP

T,:)
cllr.lr FO L.
UI\IT

\sl

Nepal

Fire Protection

WAirlines
l'lalnteltanCe
Fi re Detectlon SYstem
PractI ces

sensing eJ'enrents are IoFir:e clctect-or


areas around
many high-activity
:;;;o-in
toget-her
L' Their location'
iilo oit.taf
i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e
s Lhe
s
r
z
e
'
an.tr smalr
itin
eles
e
n
s
i
n
g
L
h
e
t
o
chances of damage
i
n
s
L
alT
h
e
'
curing mainLenance
;;;;t
i
n
s
ide
elements
Iation of Lhe sensing
some
p
r
o
v
i
d
e
s
cowl panels
the aircrait
eIe(
n
o
t
f
o
r
d
e
d
af
r"urr.,r" cf protection
e
n
g
i
n
e) '
Lo the
* . , - , t s a L t . a c l . r e d d ' i r e c'tul yh e
a
n
d
removal
O", ann otirer hand'
cowl paners can
o
f
re-insLalLaLion
cause abrasictr or structural
good
""=i:-V
to the elements' A
aufu.i=
for
and maintenance program
ir,=p..tlon
systems
uft' aypu= of continuous-Ioop
v
isual
include Lhe following
=i.tfi'
p
rovided
a
r
e
These procedures
.te.X=.
u
sed to
b
e
and should not
lt-u*.*pfes
mai-ntenance direplace approved }ocal
ntanufactuor Lhe applicable
r"taitr.t
'
rer's. instrucLions
a continuous-Ioop
S.n=ir'tg elements of
tor:
s),stem should be insPected
cr broi"en sections caused
4fh Cracllecl
ol: squeezi'ng between
ftF irv crushing
covrl PaneIs' or
Plates'
insp.clicn
e n g i r r e c o n ) P o n e nt s '

rubbing of eleAbrasion caused bY


' or
m e n t o n ' c o w J - i n g' a c c e s s o r i e s
members-'
Etructural
safctY r+:-re or other
/ r 2 - hP i e c e s o f
wttich may short
Q# t"taI
Particles
the sPoL cieLector Lerni'inals
gromntets rn
Conditiorl of rr'rbL'er
naY be softew
h
i
c
h
mounLing cIaPs,
or hardened
oils'
nc-d f r o m e x P o s t l r e L o
j-ve heaL '
f r c'tn c x c e s s

cause Lubingfairure
wire
, 1 G .L o o s e n u L s o r b r o k ' e n s a f e t y
e
l
e
ments '
s
e
n
s
i
n
g
t
h
e
[P at Lhe end of
t
o
the
r
e
t
o
r
q
u
e
d
Loose nuts should be
m
a
n
u
f
a
c
L
u
r
e
r
'
s
value specified in the
s
e
n
s
i
n
g
o
f
Some types
insLrucLionsthe use of
c
o
n
n
e
c
tions require
element
'fhese gaskets
copper crush gaskets'
time a connecsi-,L"fO be replaced any
tion is seParated'
routing
Proper sensinq element
u
n
s
u
P
Ported
L
o
n
g
'
and clamPing
vibration
e
x
c
e
s
s
i
v
e
s e c t i o n s m a 1 'p e r m i t
distance
T
h
e
'
rvhich can cause breakaqe
r
u
n
s
. rs
s
t
r
a
i
g
h
t
between clarcps on
rs
a
n
d
i
n
'
'
1
0
usuallY abouL 8 to
At end
by each manufacturer'
specified
c
l
a
mp is
support
c-onnectors, the first
from
'
i
n
5
located about 4 to
m
o
st
I
n
'
" = " " i t ye n - d c o n n e c t o r f i t t i n g s
tfre
i
s
i
n
'
1
a straighL run of
.-t"t,
c
o
n
n
e
c
tors before
a
l
l
maintained irom
and an optimum bend
a bend is started'
is normallY adhered to'
of 3'in'
;";t;;
a cowl brace and
rq Rubbing between
.Ihis in-Lert?:6
\# a sensrnq e lement .
loose
in cJmbination with
ference,
BdY
skin'
t
o
rj-vets hoi-crng the clamps
s
e
n
s
i
n
g
the
cause wear and short
element.
The
Correct gronunet installation'
g r o r n m e t . sa r e i n s t a l l e d . : "
:?:-^-r
prevent the element
s"nsirtg element to
end
clamp' The slit
from chafing on the
o
u
t
s
i
d
e
t
h
e
face
of ..he gronmec sirould
g
r
o
m
meLs
a
n
d
Clamps
.rf an. iearest ben'i'
snuglY'
sirould fit the element
The maintenance PracLice
Ioop sYstens is similar'

for

pneumatic

\#

Ne,oal

F:in,aPnOliectircn

EiEt/Airiines

cunp:26-10

---...=---

f:l i,-t.

ClamP screw

clanp-

1-

'fr\a'-4
//d
/,"/)--

i//

//,tL

+,u\
/tF \*\r'/

*v

a',/ ,/*-

'//

L-n"o *'-:'
-47/-1 / / \
?i ,/
-'..-*l.-----J / //

\^t
L-

1o.r" .r"r,,,

\'W Nepal

Fine Protection

EgAirlines
C o n ti n u o u sL o o PF1r e D e t e c tl o n
Sysier,t
: E n g l n ' - : F j - : : e D e t -'
Ev.a:;''lrle

In case of a short, tlie


wiII
decrease under 100
seconds. This activates
gt
before the delayed

S y s t - e m'

\f
can

It is pror.'iclei b)' tr''o sens:119.g1qryql-tt-s:


pottcm of
Cne :an ne at:ach'-:$-to ih-eana tl.re oLher one is
_ i i i ; - . i q i t t o -'tti'-S-';.r-q!---ars'n
@
- f] r.ed tn
@
on the
d
elector
Ti're r,'ir:e elenent o-f th9
e19-in9. is connected to
! - o ^ i - - c r no f t h e
in the
Jh. utit. element' cf t.he detector
c
l
o
sed
sirut,, to form an electrically
l o c p ' - e + ] - ] - , e - ql ! " . f i r e l o o p '
continuous
(i'he overl.re.rt detect-oii in the iiea of
v"heeI
air ccncliticrrin<; ducts, itr the
when
s
i
m
i
l
a
r
ly
c
o
n
n
e
c
t
e
d
a
r
e
e
t
c
.
,
well'
s
Y
s
t
e
m
s
)
l
o
c
P
r.:sing continuous

Iight

react.

to

Due

will

the

off

stay

loop resistance
Q within<O.2
the fault
light
fire circuit

lockout

the

(Curve

t.
@
The system is tested by opening the
test. switch
continuous
loop by the fire
A
4w < I a n d c o n n e c t i n o a r e s i s t a n c e t o o n e
end of l-hp l..n
Sr/Stem. The reSiStanCe
value is the ,r-fu" of Lhe looP under
alarm condition.

:i

At a resj-stailce value of the looP'


alarm tempecorresPotlding to Lhe fire
in
circuit
d
e
t
e
c
l
i
o
n
f
i
r
e
t
h
e
rature,
w
i
l
l
u
n
i
t
c
o
n
t
r
o
l
d
e
t
e
c
t
i
o
n
the fi-re
send a siglral to the warnj-ng control
to turn orr the individual
uni-t. First

f i r e l i g h t @ a ; r d s e c o n g t Y . t , r ym a s t e r
f i : : e I i g h c a i - C: n e f i r e O : l l , @ p

or system Iigh will


The individual
as }ong as tire fire
stay'illunrlna.:ed
' f h e r n a st - e : : f l r e l i g h t
can be
e>rists.
s*-ir-,chedof f c;' pushing tire lighL= @
vrhen
The belL is also svritched off
the
a
d
d
i
t
i
o
n
I
n
'
:
u
s
h
e
d
i
s
the light
s
w
i
t
c
h
c
u
l
o
u
t
s
e
p
a
r
a
t
e
e
.
bell has
S

agram
'

between
Sonre systerns 3an oetect a short
w
h
i
c
h
Lhe inner locP and grcu'nd,
Gire warning ' The f ire
pr:ei'ents a f aise
is ac:i'.'aLeC r+i-th atr input-recircuit
arrd t-he silorL
sis:ance of al'c'-rL'550 Q
an inputv
"
j
t
'
h
is acLivaLeci
crrcuit
'
' (See
1
0
0
Q
j
s
i
a
n
c
e
a
b
c
u
t
of
res
'
I
'
o
'
i
i
s
L
i
i
r
q
u
i
b
e
l
ween a
s
h
c l : - a g r a m ).
i
re detecf
L
h
e
Lrue fire atttj ;r shcrt,
f
o
r O'2
L o r s i g n a l * ' j - l l. b e d e l a l ' s 6
the
f
i
r
e,
seconds. ln case of a t:eaI
r
e
l
a
tively
1 o c l r : e s l s t a l l c ( : v , ' i . l - Id e c r : e a s e
r
r
e
d
e
tect
h
e
f
sIo'*'. I L f ils-- reacires
I
i
g
h
t
tion area and- loci:s t-lre faul-t
annunciaticln bcfore it: reaclles a reThe fau-lL Iigltt
sistartce of ' 100 Q
)stays dark. (Curve

fire

F I F I EA L A R M
R E S I S T AN C E
TEST RESISTOR

- -;;{ ru)(

rooQ

S H O R TD E T

,x
>t -' ,/

F I R E W A R N I N G t S T R I G G ER ED .
SHORT CKT tS LOCKED.
S H O R TC K T I ST N I G G E R E D .
FIREWARNING IS LOCKED.

Fire lProtecliicn
cHAP; 26-11)

iiillti:;"'",/

---;""i' /

//

6?*'-+t'*q.).<it

,,_,.
*,
)'i+r,**,,,
..,...,-*9X6
, / ,<r'f,(
-fer?=-=t'
g)
:''r
r""'o'

Fire Dete'ction SYsrienr


'l-J

'

r_-_]

l----

L_l
TCST iri:SlSTOIl

c c r {r t r J U o u : ;
FIIIE OET. LCOPS

Il7--T1r
il t-l

t-tt,

lllll@
l:zl
(:7ll
c/
ll

ll

l l n("^r!,
n u'e'ilf
n.*Fli
llu

O\'!Bl{r\D PAtJIL
IYHEEIITE LL
OET

-1
111
L-J--J
[:'ll.$

PAGE:O?

S:4 Nepal

Fire Prctection

|ffi'Airlines

cHAP: Z6-lO

Example: Wlreel Well Overheat Detection Loop


CONIINUOUS LOOP

Example: APU Fire Detection l-oop Installation


-t

f : : c .t

Vl t,)

,''a-

-.,'i
ll

(frc-r'
'^t t^

r i^,
\\oi'
/

TAILPIPE
F I R EO E T E C T O R

E X H A U SO
TU C T
OVERHEAT
OETECTOB
APU
FINE
OETECTOR

,l

dl'3

l\\

. i.

Fire iPr,ctection
cr..rAPZ6_1O

re lletectl0n Systelm
0ver-lreat/F:l
I SwI tchesI
r,iI tlt Thr:ruta
1 1c o l t t ; : , a r a L i r " ' e l y s i r t r p L e f i r e i e t e c t i - o n
systerx cc)ns.Lsts of -one or more [herma'I
switcires cortne':t-ed in ;:'ar;rIIt:l chrrugh
an altrrm ci.rcui!, which inc:Iudes a red"
( f ire)r or: arnber:,(overhe:bt')-"warning .light:
and an al-artn belL. A schenlatic 'Jiagram
of a <:irc:ui i f cr this t.ypel o E system is
shown in th,: lcwer fj.gure.,
The thernral swiLches are -[oc;rted at the
point:; wirer,e temperatur:es are Iikely

Thr=y are dersicJne'f to


t:o lte hiqhest.
'
a
h
e
n
t.he Letnperaturet rr:aches il
c:lose
l-evr:I substa.nt:i-alIy abcve normal opr:-'
r:aLing tempe:ral:ur=.

Exampl e: Wing Overherad Detection


\

'dIRING
.TEFMINAL

:;cRE'/vS.

T W O O l / E R H E A T O E T E C T O R SF E R
E N G I N ES T N U T
TYPICAL

THERTTI\L

: D EI-E':1O 3S
F I!'E T .3 T EN
TYPICA,L

swrTcH

<stx9/q)
'-

l-l

-\-"1

P'i

\.Y

P'l LO i!
SI]UTI]FF

a\

.\ |
/ Lv..

COVTFOL

,.*-

-S/
t
,i .yt

U@eNepat

Fire Protection

EWAirlines
tem
I e SYs
TherntocouP
warning sysLem
Tire Llternrocotrple fire
different
e
n
t
i
r
e
l
y
a
n
c;'reraLes on
swj'tch system'
t
h
e
r
m
a
l
a
Lhan
principte
u
p
o
n l-he rate
I Lilntrno.oupIe depends
not give
w
i
I
I
of Lemperature rise and
s
l
o
w
l
y overa r * ' a r n i n g r 1 ' h e na n e n g i n e
develops'
ireats or a short circuj-t

Th ermocouple s
t o o "c

HOT
JUNCTION

+
r.

t 2 o oc

nErEntrr\uc

loooc

+
J UNCTION

LrPeratlon;
of two
The thermocouple is constructed
c
h
r
o
m
e
l and
nletals such as
oissimilar
these meconstantan. The point where
be exposed to
--aLs are ioined and wiII
is called a hot
l--heheat of a fire
'
a
lso a reference
i
s
T
h
e
r
e
junction.
a dead air space
i
n
enclosed
junction
A metal
blocks'
ietr,'een two insulation
to
t
h
e
r
m
o
c
o
u
p
l
e
cage surrounds the
w
i
t
h
o
u
t
.;ive mechanical protection
a
i
r to
o
f
the free movement
nindering
the hot junction
the
rf the temPerature rises rapidly '
b
e
c
ause
iherrnocouple produces a voltage
b
e
t
w
e
e
n
of' the temperature difference
h
o
t
the
the reference 3unction and
are heated
j
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
s
b
o
L
i
i
I
f
.
j utrction
rewill
at. the same rate, no voltage
g
i
v
e
n
'
i
s
s
i
g
n
a
l
w
a
r
n
i
n
g
sulL and no
h
o
t
t
h
e
h
o
w
e
v
e
r
'
f
i
r
e
,
If Lhere is a
t
h
a
n
r
a
p
i
d
l
y
m
o
r
e
w-ill heat
juncticn
ensuing
: h e r e f e r e n c e j u n c t - i o r - r' T h e
t
o
flow
voltage causes a current
Any Lime
r'riti'tin the detecLor circuit'
mi IIiam4
r-he current is great-er than
sensitive
s e r e s ( 0 . 0 C 4 a m P e r e )/ t h e
F
ire l{arninq
t
h
e
j
a
n
d
c
l
o
s
e
I
,
i'ef uy wi
Li.oht i lluminat-es '

Test
thermoTo iest Lhe s,vstem one separate
L
he Test
coupJ-e j s heated uP bY pushing
Swi l-clt .

ABCUT
1 Om V

0mV

Thermocouple System
E N G IN E
I-AJtr

E N GI N E
HOT
SECTION

'UL

SENSITIVE
NELAY
E N ER GI Z E D
>4 mA

TH E RI.4O
C O U P L ES

r Int
\T/A RN
Ltun

T
+ n.

l----A
I EJ

swrrcH

P A G E :1 g

[:ire Proteation

te,m
:
t l r: Fl rr: I)etecil on Sys;
Pneuma
A preumati,c l:irt: o r overhea,t ctete:ctibn
sezrle'l
system utj-Ij-::es a r;as-fillerd,
Lhe signal t o :rctriate
Luber provi.ding
enablin.g ;tn :rIa:rm- The tuber i:; c<lnnocted
t o . r e s p o n d e : r , w h i c h i s e s ;s e n t i a l l T
a n e . s s e m b J . y< : o n t a i l l e r o n e o r t a o r t : d i a phra.gm-t-i,;re s;wi:ch,:s -

Pneumatic System
R EP C l . l O a ; -

I t FL()..1
S H T AH
I
\

The sensor: cc>nsists of two Lubes, Qo


ins j.de t.he: ot:he.r, r:onLainirrg l:wo sePar a L e r g a s e s ; , 1 > l u , sg ' r s a b s o r g r t i o n t n a t e r i a l . w hi - c t r i s i n s i , l e t . h e i n n e r t t r b e .
In c:ase of' allno:maI high te:mpt:ra1:ure,

F
L nl -e\ ^ InJr! p q q5 r5rLr.e!

'L
Lr l':

o !f
u

vdSs

^
5

-': 1 "
v/tr!-L

itrcf

/.

(,..vt

t'

,i

'-

gasg.

STAII!LEI;S S:'EEI.

One eni, of the tub,: is cqnrrecl:ed to a


met:il i.iaphragm switch and wi.LI snap
ct:ntactover: ard c:lo:;e L.he elect.ric
This; ac:Li',ratr=s the alarnr in the <:ockpi.t.

H E *! Urr,l(1.:.S

To t:est. the :;ysLem the sta::nlrlss'-steel.tubel is; tc> br: hr:ated up with ,ilC best
polvrr Cnn I i nr' 'irrrr tlrp

F.eSt. -

afJ-er-

l.lre

Fi re

w a r n i n c ' h ; t s < : o m eo n - w i l l d e : ; t r r r y t h e r
:.s <>verheated and looses gas)
Ioop ILt
f

y{

,c"-v.

3 A S- A B S O F P ' I C N
;V1ATE
Rli\ L
'^llTH lf\,1
:FiT CAS;

] N E F I TM E T A . L L I I ]
|\TATERI,AL

q..,:a-,t),)

t"f r rt yf lo,1 l -

l4n An," t'


/

Si tt r; \EV

2BVDC

jr;

---t

l'C'a"nl

-l

I
i
I

i
IEFLON

DIAPHRAGM
5\vtTcH

DISCREII:
ELE/'{ENT

I
I
I

RES'ON DER,

I
I

FIRE:
D ET ECI-lO r\
C O N T R { L]
L NI-i

A v E R A , 3 l N1 3
5ECTIC,N

E I . I GC } E T E C T O R
^ t 4

uonL.ac{

(4.

,/k I / !

l) ': t'

LA-l

,1,:
4

&r-,'c'.

i;{"".
Tl:ST POVVER
T I ] A N S F OB M E R

i.,l i?

[-]

I
, I1 5 V T . C
TI

a\---l

F I R ED t : T
E N ( ;N O . 2

TEST
SWI-TCH

I
I

ei.--J
f

r rnc
H.ANDLE

rrnc
OI:LL

{,,
PAGE1
: 1

W.# Nepat

Fire Frotection

ffitrAirlines

cxne: 2S-1O

i i t t : : ! r -I t V i \ i c tItt o t ' i t . r ' ' ; / l . t r s t

rnonit'orinq of tlte
To 1'::ovide l-ntegrity
swit'clt
' an acdic: o'lu I <liaphr:asnr
t;t;;t,
r
e
s
P
o
n
d
e
t
:
the
i= ,n.orPorated in
is' trorln'rlIy held
s
w
i
t
c
h
T
h
e
irousing.
pressur:e in !--hetube'
clcsed by the gas
rvilJ f ulrc:l-ion as lot'tg
ii,o C.tt- 1-'irsuil
t"cntains cl-ostlrl'
as tlre j-lltegrity stviic'il
sensor
' I n c a s e o f i r i j u r y / d a m a r S eI - o t i r e
c
l
csr::cl
t
h
e
.
' ; u i - r ea t r d I ' o s s o l : p r e s s u l : e '
t
i
t
e firtr
:roL 'rcLivaLc
. ;";a sw.ltch v;il'L

l--est
the integritY
1'he test- onIY checks
'
I
o
o
P
t
h
e
h
e
a
E
conl-acLor and cloes not

a I arnt

?BVOC

t--.o

-^*
fusH-ro-rEsr

I c -,
(a--=
:
lo

sErJson
IIJTE6RITY TEST

cor'rTAcTs

c l R C Ut - S
'=

'nEsPOAlO

HOUSING

E x a m p l e F r r e u m a t i c FI r e D e t e c t i o n l n s t a l l a t i o n

-+-'A
/-\ \
CONNECTOR'
S I D (5 T R U I

'*oft

R I 5 P ON D ER

l':l:;:^-1y7t.tr.ttt

I ,',JL

cor'JNtcIoR

F t/'\
-/*
J
STRUD
I EITCTOR
t , L I M T NI

e . o , G E1::

WF'htepat'

Fire Protection

EiEAtntnes

cH^?: 26-10

I n t r c l d u : tI o t l :

l o f '( o- UrU- t LnUrI

.JU

t on Systcms moniLor
Tl-,e Smoke l:'et:|cL
cabi n , c'at:q'o c:ont1;artnent, or el,ect-rotric
e q u i p m e r r t c : o m 6 r a r i : m e t r L , a i rf c , r t } t e
presence of. sntokt:, or equiva.lent {:on'tam inanL, -:.+d-provirles,..-a visual- arLd
a u r a l w r t rr t i n q , i f s r n o k e i s i i e t + r L e d .

'l-oct.
rUw

L.

Te:;t-ing bhe sntokt: detecLor s;wi':c:he:; the


bettcotr and bhe tr:st lamp in se:ri'es'
lec:, Th<: tr:st lamp sirnulates l-ight rerf
ti<>n, because ib is oppos;ittl tre thr-'
Th,: system tht:n ':grer;lt:es
bettcorr Ii9ht.
w
e
re detecLecl and rl!)er'lt:es
as if smoke,
tlit: w,arninc' dovi'les.

Detector :
Srnoke
Pliotoresistcr-Tyle
IL consist-s; ol- a be,lcon lighrt, a t:es't
Iamp (both sp<:ci;rI buIbs, ir.ter:chrng'3able) , a pl-rotc>re:;is'tor, asscrciartecl
anci a smrlke chamirer wiLh ,an
circuitry,
'fhe
air: inl.et- pcrt: and ,an exhaust porL.
c o m p cn e n L s a r e . a . r r a . r q e d i n ! t . h e c h i l r n b , 3 r
in suctr 3 rrrdv Lh,rt Ehe beacon --ight
nr-nir:r'i-

Iine
cmnkp

of
iq

l-:e:1m rler'1Pndi

siclht

of

nrosont

crll

;'r

t-O

l:hg

th,: photoresir;tor.
in

the

Smoke Deiteictor

chantlfet:-

'riiren
i ort

f::om Lhe be:acon is reflectecl f::om the


sn;oke parti.cj.e:s int,r the photor:es:-st,3r.
I t.s resisL,.rncr.:dr:creases anci enouqh _
c u r :r ' c n t i s p a s ; s e r i t , c L h e s m o k e d e l - e c t . o r
the smoke wtrrning
ampli f ier t-r: ,rctivate
in the r:o<:i.:i-'i-t-.

P H O T OR E S I S C } R

^)v,

SMCIKE

ourLlT--

ri
'(

T,q
w

SPACE Ll\MP

xoLoeF:-

,A&!C"^{1::ir'i.
I l*\-t*,o*,

rN-Er

\S?

SM'f,KE]]ETECIOF

lPhotocell-Ty'pe

I eACOr..l
' ,rt l - - :

-tt

,'

tc)l

ttNS
':,;:.'l
] H O T O RE S I S T OF

AMPLIFIER

AtR & S;MOI(E


TOSMOKE
DETEC'IOR
EJt:CTOR

WARNIIIG LT.

*&E/ Nepat

Fire Protection

Airlines

cHAP:26-1O

Q
n : 1 ! , 6 Uhvo fLoV Ur l nL p
.
\'ll'.Jl\V
V

iOnISatlOn_l-VOe

Delection j s carr:j ed out by anrbient


snrcke dete:ct:ors wiri.clr are of tlre ionisaL: olt type
- a nreasuremerrt clranrber i-n which the air
inters to bc arralvzed,
- a hrgh impedance resistor.
Tiris chamber is ionized b1' a source of
extremely l-ow radioact.rvit.y.
When smoke
gases enter the delector,
it modifies
Lhe balance between the ionisation
chamber and the resistor
vrhi_chcauses a
variati-on from the normal detector
voltage- From a reference. set!ing.Lhreshold,
the deLector inner electronic
circuiC
sencjs a signal t.o Lhe smoke dete'chion'
ccntrol
unit which in t-urn friqq;;i
an
. , . f , - . {

;\
/

.J

-/-'F

"Why didn't you call someone


as soon as
i l s t a r t dt o o v e r h e a l . "

Smoke Detector

. - -

aIarm.

Fln+nn+nr

UULtrLLUI

Taa+

IC}LI

Pr:shing t-he Test Si.l viill


1>rovide a
gr:ound l-o the snrok'e detector
cj_rcuit.
'fhe Syitem
then olrerates as if smoke
were detected and operates the warning
L:IVICCS.

Smoke Detector, lonisation-Type

28VDC

'tts

MEASURE
MENT
CHAMBRE

TEST SW

LEVEL SWITCH
R E F ER E N C E
R E S I S T OR
4OOGQ

FIRE BELL

WARTJING
LIGHT

S M O K ED E T E C T O R

AIR
IIJLET

PFGE: 01

-\.ro',f --

Nep,al
II
BEltr
-at=re
,

Firu Protection
.

E/g.fu,ryrr,el 1
]l

--FGE

Q r r r o o l ' a r r l < P r C r t e C t v ' ni S


\ m( S ; T P )
v rVvSr t- e
: z u r y \ - r ' u rr r \ i - ' v ' u v v L It O
It is att auLcmaLic explo,sion-p'revent-ion'
syst:rn. lL sensers Lhe...fIashback of flame
at.. the 'rent duct-.wfrich precedes an
e1p.!1c.si9q il"tttS: strrgr: tank and. s-uPpresse.s.l-ire explcsic>n try ::eleasipg a f ir:e
e x t i n q u i s l t i n g . a c l e i l t : , ( s u p 5 . ' r e r s s i r n Li :)r t o .
tL-rl !r=o

qrrr,ro
ru!
jE

tea* nl rkr \

:crr nr ^r u
l rv: L
o -t rt rl -L

re-q: ut tr qr ri inYa r

t' "h-e' 1r l

t o b e - .i n e r L . B y p r e : v e nL i n g L h e d e v e l - o p ment o f explc sir,'e [tre:;sure in the strrgr:


tank , tne sys tenl p]:evr:nts the pfcpagation ,cf flame fr<>m Lhe surge ta.nk
into tfre spanwis;e rrent ducts r.rhen,evt:r
val)or:s are igrriterd trt
the cornbustible
r
r
enl:st
a
r
.
k
s
u
r
E
e
the
c
c
)
n
s
:
st!i of
The svsten
1G\
ffE
:
rlo|, aaletr
sgb3""I.'vq.l9,
\!52
,.dt\
-

l- eqf

ci

r-ctli

supF)relisattt reservoirs'

&B four
bt
-

anrf

equipp ed y1tlh . trn , initia


( s q g r L) ,

.ea(lh

tor: as;sernb.Iy

,
corrtaj.ni|g
,.F\ an ini.ice:tor:
4:;serplly,
B<e .-'-:
E _g" 9* gb i. ..9.f,.1I
S,1--f--!ti9 5 e s c e rtt nta.ttl" Of the
-i -r
F^ ^^rts
tshr. inside
sr.rf;rce

IJ-<J.J-7.

LU.

9VqL..

Llls

.LltJlUs,

-U.rf!cr!_

-..

Iens lndicator;rnd
&
w

a F"st. unit' fl
menL.

f)nnr^+'^rUPUIOL.I \-/I
a
c
M

c .U '=^I r

overflow

l:cn i n
fL 9^d' .q,t:u r , l

!h.3 f light- conpar!-

^.rj
C IU TgSt
tho

st.roer tetnk

v'ent: i:; ir;niteC

tl-.e flantes

vOPU!

rrortnd

Ar-vurru

t - ( r r , r ov rr.'/ )u a: , r1 . r ;Lr\p
flu-l hl tcr .

thrnrtnh
:i:i-"--y:...

r r 1 1 1 : fu.,;r 1l r6r )),i, ..


JcLr i ! v ( : . .

Tr rhl se

f hr'
".,..-.

ve:nt

duCt

yOr rh\ C
r Ll t O e l I e , : t f

iC

celi
in tl:.e cletr:ctor assemfrly senses
i h r : f l a m e i n t i r r : d u c t a n d 5 : , r o ' u i d e : s, a
signa.L to ther f .Lrirrg ciruci t. Thet
f rrrng circuj.t .rppLies 2B v'oIt-s tlc Eo
Lhe series. com,b.Lna:ionof f our: initiathe
firinq
tors ancl the inrlic,ftor,
q \ / Jq ru eL " rr n

J t

Tl-e

cha:-ne r

II

r-.
ICHAF': 2''6;'io

----lL----

*---

i n

f ho

Fnrrr

:-nitj-a-

expl.ode s:-multaand t.he indic,rtor


r , , ,W.ar. UFl l Li . lrl - rl l nt I IiLlI L- s iusU lel Uc: !o n d s ; a
q l -i \: t e : : t h e
IIEUU:,!y
tors

pircto,:Iect.ric: cr:Il senses I'larne. Each


ilit,iat-or
r u F ) t . u , . . e s b - h e d j . a p r h. .r.t :r ,g:m* g J .
.."-..."..
i t_g" s.upp r e:s soi.. .re srw o i!,'e>:p eiJ. i1] g-* t F e
s-*,:"'
u L r c,"*r e- s s a r r t i . n t o t . r e s u r q e t a n k ; r n d t l l e
*,ve&b*duct.
Tfre :;ys Lem in caich wittg is
capable of supl:ressing one ex1>Io:;ion.
rFhan
l-ha
c'vncrrrr
Jr:d suppressors an indicaLor must: b) repl,rced to r:ea<ly l:he
system for otr>erilti,rn.

t n e s r r s t ' m p e r : f o : : mas n o p e r a ' t i < : r a 1

s e l _ f- i : e s t w h e n t h e I E S T p u s h j c u ' : t . o n c : n
the tr:st unit is pressed anci hr:1.d. i.he
cher:ks the prhotoeLerct:r:-c
te:;t <:ircuit
tle i. j-ti;:tors;
cirucit,
ceil , the f iring
ared the inter:co:rrtect:-:rg
the i'dicat.or,,
s.ystem is operaLi-ve.
t
h
e
I
f
wi::inr7.
the T:;ST indi<:atcr light cones c)n ir: 3 "
to

sgconcts.

\[[ifi ruepal

Fire Protection

ffgAirlines

CHAP: 2(-76
_v

Jv

S T PS Y S T E AI E
4ST
z2.r

Ltrl

R I GH I

r-"-----

(6;) I rsr I
L--_J
\r/

l;;-l

A C I U AI ( t W t I C H - U C H t o r J r
+1

lA

t\y

<r.^.,^.

Surge Jank Protection


ISTP]
FL'(IING VENI
uNt

frYflC^()

ucrcLrvn/
TtrCT
'T'

I T . J I T I A T O RA N O
S U P P FE S S A N T
RESEFIVOIRS
(F REONL-__

ovtrf tow
VTNI

I
PHOTO
ELECTN

Electrica! Schematic

r-t

Ftnr{G
ClnCUl

t_:]
-:-I

6D
\:/ ,",r,oroo,

l_:
l--"1
I NITIATON

tu.tt t* @