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(PUNE, December 2015)


Problem Statement- Your parent company wishes to

adopt a New Technology for an Existing Engine which
will Give Improve Power and Better Acceleration.
Keeping the Engine Specifications the Same, a New
Engine Should be Developed in all weather applications
and all altitude application.

Base Engine Specs:

Maximum Power
Maximum Torque
Emission Norms

Engineering Target
4-stroke,SOHC, 4V, Liquid
Cooled, Single Cylinder

Target Engine Specs:

Maximum Power
Emission Norms

Engineering Target
4-stroke, SOHC, single
8% more than the base

Target engine considerations

Air intake systems

Fuel injection system
Spark plug
Cooling systems
Exhaust systems
All the considerations for the target engine are aimed at
improving the power and acceleration of a 199cc base
It consists of parameters which are to be taken as
constant for the target engine such as the engine
specification and the bore diameter.
A system has to be designed in order to produce 8% more
power than the original engine with respect to customer
satisfaction, fuel efficiency and emission norms.
Various devices were considered for improving the power
of engine but as the required power improvement was low
we considered the following devices-

1. Air Intake Systems-

An intake system is a air delivery system to the

combustion chamber of the engine. Because in a
modern internal combustion engine the intake must

be carefully engineered and tuned to provide the

greatest efficiency and power. An ideal intake system
should increase the velocity of air until it travels into
the combustion chamber, while minimizing
turbulence and restriction of flow.
A modern automobile air intake system has 4 main
parts, an air filter, mass flow sensor, a throttle body
and a intake manifold.
I. air filter a particulate air filter is a device
composed of fibrous materials which removes
solid particulates such as dust, bacteria from
the air. Air filters are used in application where
air quality is important such as in engines. The
air intakes of an internal combustion engine
tend to use either paper, foam or cotton filters.
The combustion air filter prevents abrasive
particulate matter from entering the engine
cylinders where it would cause mechanical wear
and oil contamination.
In our
design we have used a K&N air filter which is
washable and reusable. This high flow
replacement K&N air filter is designed as a air
filter to be used again and again without
requirement of a all together new filter.

mass(air) flow sensor (MAF)is used to find out

the mass flow rate of air entering a fuel injected
internal combustion engine. The air mass
information is neccessary for the electronic
control unit (ECU) to balance and deliver the
correct fuel mass to the engine. Air changes its
density as it expands and contracts with
temperature and pressure. In automotive
applications, air density varies with the
ambient temperature, altitude and the use
of forced induction, which means that mass flow
sensors are more appropriate than volumetric

flow sensors for determining the quantity of

intake air in each cylinder.


Throttle body- A throttle is the mechanism by

which fluid flow is managed
by constriction or obstruction. An engines
power can be increased or decreased by the
restriction of inlet gases (i.e., by the use of a


Intake manifold- In automotive engineering,

an inlet manifold or intake manifold (in
American English) is the part of an engine that
supplies the fuel/air mixture to the cylinders.
The primary function of the intake manifold is to
evenly distribute the combustion mixture (or
just air in a direct injection engine) to each
intake port in the cylinder head(s). Even
distribution is important to optimize the
efficiency and performance of the engine. It may
also serve as a mount for the carburetor,
throttle body, fuel injectors and other
components of the engine.

Due to the application of above devices the

volumetric efficiency and power of the engine is
observed to provide greater quality air.

2. Fuel Injection System-

Fuel injection is a system for

introducing fuel into internal combustion engines,
and into automotive engines, in particular. On diesel
engines, fuel injection is a necessity, whilst on petrol
engines fuel injection is an alternative to
the carburetor. The primary difference between
carburetors and fuel injection is that fuel
injection atomizes the fuel through a small nozzle
under high pressure, while a carburetor relies
on suction created by intake air accelerated through
a Venturi tube to draw the fuel into the airstream.
The fuel injector used in the engine is a solenoid
operated Port Fuel Injector(PFI) placed in the intake
manifolds for injection of fuel in the air stream.
In gasoline port fuel injection, the air-fuel mixture is
created outside the combustion chamber, in the
intake manifold. The injector injects the fuel in front
of the intake valve. During the induction stroke, the
mix flows through the open intake valve into the
combustion chamber. The injectors are selected in
such a way that the engines fuel requirements are
covered at all times even at full load and high
The fuel supply module with integrated electric fuel
pump, tank level sensor, and fuel filter conveys the
required amount of fuel from the tank to the injectors
at a defined pressure.
Intake air adjustment ensures that the correct air
mass is available for the engine at every operating

In port fuel injection, the air-fuel mixture is prepared

in the intake manifold and fed to the cylinder for
combustion. The injectors mounted on the fuel rail
constantly meter the required fuel volume into the air
flow with great precision according to the spray
3. ECU(Electronic Control Unit)-

In automotive electronics, electronic control

unit (ECU) is a generic term for any embedded
system that controls one or more of the electrical
system or subsystems in a motor vehicle.
The ECU uses various sensors located on the engine
components. It receives input in the form of voltage
signals which is analysed and adjusts the air-fuel
ratio and injection
The various sensors are:
I. Throttle position sensor- Located om the throttle
plate to sense its movements.
II. Engine coolant temperature sensor- It senses
the temperature of coolant during and after
working on the engine.
III. Air-flow sensor- It is located at intake manifold
to moniter the air-flow rate.
IV. Engine exhaust temperature sensor- It is
mounted in the exhaust manifolds to measure
the temperature of outgoing exhaust gases.
V. Lamda sensor- It is placed in the exhaust
manifolds to measure the O2 content in



Manifold pressure sensor- It is molunted on

intake manifolds and it measures the pressure
of manifold pressures.
Air inlet temperature sensor- It is mounted on
intake manifolds to sence the temperature of
inlet gases and to adjust air-fuel the ratio.

Functions of an ECU:
I. Air/fuel mixture control-it determines the
amount of air and fuel entering into the engine
and accordingly plans the combustion process
by varing the amount of fuel delivered through
the fuel injectors.
II. Ignition timing control- There is a certain crank
angle in the compression stroke which gives
maximum torque output if the air/fuel mix is
ignited at that point. ECU decides this and
accordingly fires the spark plugs.
III. Idle speed control- It controls the idle speed of
the engine depending on the ambient air
temperature, engine oil temperatures and
coolant temperature of an engine. This is the
reason that when starting the engine for the
first in the morning, the RPM is more compared
to cormal idle RPM. This is controlled by ECU.

4. Spark plug-

Iridium is an extremely hard metallic element,

related to platinum, which is thought to occur on
earth primarily due to an enormous meteor impact
millions of years ago. Other than it's hardness, the
main property which makes Iridium attractive as an
electrode material for spark plugs is its extremely
high melting point (almost 2,500 deg C).
Pure Iridium is difficult to work with, very brittle
and does not have great electrical conductivity
hence alloys are used to give the best combination
of these properties. An Iridium alloy electrode is
able to deliver good conductivity and extreme
hardness. The result is that an Iridium electrode can
be manufactured with an extremely small diameter,
when compared to a traditional copper or even a
platinum tipped electrode, without compromising
the useful life of the electrode or spark plug. The
narrow diameter concentrates the electrical charge
and therefore a much lower voltage is required to
jump the spark gap. This is beneficial in several
I. A lower voltage is required, this reduces load
on a vehicle's ignition system (less strain =
less chance of failure)
II. A larger gap can be supported without
increasing load on the ignition system (Larger


gap = larger spark = more efficient

A more precise spark every time, delivered in
the correct position and with the correct timing
(More efficient combustion)

By using two spark plugs at appropriate angle you can

greately increase the flame propagation in the combustion

5. Cooling system-

Internal combustion engine cooling uses either air or

a liquid to remove the waste heat from an internal
combustion engine. For small or special purpose engines,
air cooling makes for a lightweight and relatively simple
system. The more complex circulating liquid-cooled

engines also ultimately reject waste heat to the air, but

circulating liquid improves heat transfer from internal
parts of the engine. Engines for watercraft may use openloop cooling, but air and surface vehicles must re-circulate
a fixed volume of liquid. Most internal combustion engines
are fluid cooled using either air (a gaseous fluid) or a liquid
coolant run through a heat exchanger (radiator) cooled by
Only the fixed parts of the engine, such as the block and
head, are cooled directly by the main coolant system.
Moving parts such as the pistons, and to a lesser extent
the crank and rods, must rely on the lubrication oil as a
coolant, or to a very limited amount of conduction into the
block and thence the main coolant.
There is the presence of thermostat valve near the engine
block. This valve measures the temperature of the cylinder
and blocks the flow of coolant until the block has reached
the optimum temperature for cooling.
This is particularly useful in cold starting processes as the
engine can heat on its own and the coolant wont
decreases its temperature during cold starting.
It is also useful for NVH dampening(Noise, Vibration,
Harshness) by the engine.
The coolant used in our engine has water glycol of 1:1
ratio ie (ethylene glycol:water)

6. Exhaust system-

An exhaust system is usually piping used to guide

reaction exhaust gases away from a
controlled combustion inside an engine. The entire system
conveys burnt gases from the engine and includes one or
more pipes.
Motorcycle exhausts come in many varieties depending on
the type of engine and its intended use.
The various components considers in the exhaust system
I. Exhaust manifold- Exhaust manifolds are generally
simple cast iron or stainless steel units which collect
engine exhaust gas from multiple cylinders and
deliver it to the exhaust pipe. They may be coated
with a ceramic-type finish (sometimes both inside
and outside), or painted with a heat-resistant finish,
or bare. They are responsible for transferring the
exhaust gases to the surroundings through the
remaining systems.
II. ExhaustTEC(Torque Expansion Chamber)-

Exhaust Torque Expansion Chamber is a device fitted

in the exhaust system of Bajaj Pulsar. It is a tuned
box or resonator fitted onto the header pipe of the
exhaust. This technology improves scavenging; the
process of pushing of exhaust gases out of the
cylinder. In the lower rpm zones of the engine, the
ExhausTEC helps to build negative pressure or
vacuum at the exhaust valve. This results in sucking
of more air-fuel mixture into the cylinder during the
opening of the intake valve, improving low and mid
range torque of the engine. This technology is
developed by Bajaj Auto and implemented in its
Pulsar models.


A muffler (silencer in British English) is a device for

decreasing the amount of noise emitted by
the exhaust of an internal combustion engine.
Mufflers are installed within the exhaust system of
most internal combustion engines, although the
muffler is not designed to serve any primary exhaust
function. The muffler is engineered as
an acoustic soundproofing device designed to reduce
the loudness of the sound pressure created by the
engine by way of acoustic quieting. The majority of

the sound pressure produced by the engine is

emanated out of the vehicle using the same piping
used by the silent exhaust gases absorbed by a
series of passages and chambers lined with
roving fiber glass insulation and/or resonating
chambers harmonically tuned to cause destructive
interference wherein opposite sound waves cancel
each other out. An unavoidable side effect of muffler
use is an increase of back pressure which
decreases engine efficiency.

SummaryThe additions of various technologies as mentioned above

result in the net increase of power and acceleration of the 4stroke single cylinder IC engine by minimum 8%.

References Techmax publications

Technical publications
Mathur sharma