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Absorption Refrigeration System

Refrigeration and Air Condition Lab


Lab Report # 1

Submitted by:
Sajjadullah Baig
- 130501010
Saad Anees
- 130501007
Saim Khan
- 130501003
M. Taimur Sajjad - 130501029

Submitted to:

Ms. Samia Fida

Contents
1.0-ABSTRACT............................................................................................................. 3
2.0-INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................... 4
3.0-THEORY................................................................................................................. 5
1) Condenser:........................................................................................................ 5
2) Evaporator........................................................................................................ 5
3) Absorber:.......................................................................................................... 5
4) Generator.......................................................................................................... 5
4.0-OBSERVATIONS..................................................................................................... 6
5.0-CONCLUSION........................................................................................................ 7
6.0-REFERENCES........................................................................................................ 8

1.0-ABSTRACT
An ammonia based refrigeration system is studied which works on the
principles of absorption and how vapor absorption occurs when ammonia is
used as a refrigerant in such a system. The basic objectives of this
experiment are to understand and familiarize with the various components of
the working system and realize the roles of individual parts in the
refrigeration process. The consequent heat losses from an evaporator are
analyzed and the resulting temperature losses and gains across the
respective parts of the system are noted.

2.0-INTRODUCTION
The vapor absorption refrigeration system comprises of all the processes in
the vapor compression refrigeration system like compression, condensation,
expansion and evaporation. In the vapor absorption system, the refrigerant
used is ammonia, water or lithium bromide. The refrigerant gets condensed
in the condenser and it gets evaporated in the evaporator. The refrigerant
produces cooling effect in the evaporator and releases the heat to the
atmosphere via the condenser.
In the vapor compression system, the compressor pulls the refrigerant from
evaporator and compresses it to the high pressure. The compressor also
enables the flow of the refrigerant through the whole refrigeration cycle. In
the vapor absorption cycle, the process of suction and compression are
carried out by two different devices called as the absorber and the generator.
Thus the absorber and the generator replace the compressor in the vapor
absorption cycle. The absorbent enables the flow of the refrigerant from the
absorber to the generator by absorbing it.
Another major difference between the vapor compression and vapor
absorption cycle is the method in which the energy input is given to the
system. In the vapor compression system the energy input is given in the
form of the mechanical work from the electric motor run by the electricity. In
the vapor absorption system the energy input is given in the form of the
heat. This heat can be from the excess steam from the process or the hot
water. The heat can also be created by other sources like natural gas,
kerosene, and heater etc. though these sources are used only in the small
systems.

3.0-THEORY
Water is a solid retentive of NH3. In the event that NH3 is kept in a vessel that is
presented to an alternate vessel containing water, the solid assimilation capability
of water will result in dissipation of NH3 obliging no compressor to drive the vapors.
Here, heat is transferred from the refrigerated space to an evaporator, vaporizing
the refrigerant (ammonia). The ammonia gas is absorbed into a water-ammonia
solution and heat is lost to water. The solution is pumped through a heat exchanger
to a generator. A heater boils off ammonia; the weakened ammonia-water solution
returns to the absorber. In the condenser, the ammonia gas loses heat to water and
returns to the evaporator as a liquid.
The working of a vapor absorption system is based on the following main
components:
1) Condenser: Just like in the traditional condenser of the vapor compression
cycle, the refrigerant enters the condenser at high pressure and temperature
and gets condensed. The condenser is of water cooled type.
2) Evaporator: The refrigerant at very low pressure and temperature enters
the evaporator and produces the cooling effect. In the vapor compression
cycle this refrigerant is sucked by the compressor, but in the vapor
absorption cycle, this refrigerant flows to the absorber that acts as the
suction part of the refrigeration cycle.
3) Absorber: The absorber is a sort of vessel consisting of water that acts as
the absorbent, and the previous absorbed refrigerant. Thus the absorber

consists of the weak solution of the refrigerant (ammonia in this case) and
absorbent (water in this case). When ammonia from the evaporator enters
the absorber, it is absorbed by the absorbent due to which the pressure
inside the absorber reduces further leading to more flow of the refrigerant
from the evaporator to the absorber. At high temperature water absorbs
lesser ammonia, hence it is cooled by the external coolant to increase it
ammonia absorption capacity.
4) Generator: The refrigerant-ammonia solution in the generator is heated by
the external source of heat. This is can be steam, hot water or any other
suitable source. Due to heating the temperature of the solution increases.
The refrigerant in the solution gets vaporized and it leaves the solution at
high pressure. The high pressure and the high temperature refrigerant then
enters the condenser, where it is cooled by the coolant, and it then enters the
expansion valve and then finally into the evaporator where it produces the
cooling effect. This refrigerant is then again absorbed by the weak solution in
the absorber.

4.0-OBSERVATIONS

Temperature 1: Generator/Boiler outlet temp. = 131.7

Temperature 2: Condenser temp. = 24


Temperature 3: Evaporator inlet temp. = -23.1
Temperature 4: Evaporator outlet temp. = 4.6
Temperature 5: Room temp. = 19.5
Temperature 6: Absorber temp. = 20.7
Temperature 7: Generator/Boiler inlet temp. = 186.7

5.0-CONCLUSION
The ammonia-water absorption cycle works well enough to be effective in
cooling processes, especially where there are limited power generation
options, such as a viable electricity source. Thus the heating process can be
employed with burning fuels and utilizing the heat produced to heat the
generator in the cycle. Furthermore, the ammonia-water solution is relatively
stable and thus works well with other materials without reacting and thus
damaging them. Ammonia is, however, not a popular refrigerant in the wider
markets due to its toxicity. Therefore it is not commonly seen in normal
refrigeration and air conditioning applications.

6.0-REFERENCES
1) http://www.brighthubengineering.com/hvac/65923-simple-vapor-absorptionrefrigeration-system/

2) Book: Principles of Refrigeration by Roy J. Dossat, fourth edition,


Prentice Hall
3) http://media.web.britannica.com/eb-media/71/62871-004-2FC91A5F.gif

4) https://www.clear.rice.edu/elec201/Book/basic_mech.html