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Week 02: The Airplane

The Airplane

The Airplane

The Airplane

http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/k-12/airplane/airplane.html

The Airplane

The wing

Depending on the type of wing, the airplane will have different


flying perfomance
Rectangular Wing:
Cheap and easy to build.
Used by airplanes that do shorts flights.

PC-6

Trapezoidal Wing:
Taper from root to tip
More efficient than the rectangular wing.
Used in supersonic planes.

F-22
RAPTOR

Elliptical Wing:
Minimizes the induce drag.
Very complicated to build
Used in Worl War II fighter planes

SPITFIRE

The Airplane

Tapered Wing

Airplanes that fly at high subsonic airspeed


Also used by supersonic jet fighters

Tapered

Inverse
Tapered

Variable
Tapered

Doble
Tapered

B-52

X-29

F-14

F-14

The Airplane

Delta Wing

Used by supersonic planes

Delta

Delta with
Canard

Delta with
tail

QF-106

JAS-39

F-16

Doble Delta

SAAB DRAKEN

The Airplane

Ogival Delta

The Forces on an Airplane

The Forces on an Airplane

Thrust - Engine

Turbo Fan Engine

Electric Brushless Motor

Commercial, Militar and Unmmaned Airplanes

Small size UAV and Multirotors

The Forces on an Airplane

Lift Mainly by Wing

Wing

Propeller

The Forces on an Airplane

Drag Mainly by Body

The Forces on an Airplane

Gravity

The Airfoil

The shape of the wing or propeller

Wing

Propeller

The Airfoil

The difference in velocity and pressure that produces


aerodynamic forces on an airfoil and also its boundary
layer profile, transition and separation characteristics are
caused by the airfloils shape and orientation

The Airfoil

The CHORD LINE is defined as a straight line drawn from the airfoils
leading edge to its trailing edge.
A curved line drawn from the leading edge to the trailing edge so as to be
midway or equivalent between the upper and the lower surfaces of the
airfoil is called the MEAN CAMBER LINE.
The maximum distance between the airfoils chord line and the mean
camber line is called the airfoils MAXIMUM CAMBER or just camber.

The Airfoil

The Continuity equation and Bernoullis equation also can be used to


explain how airfoils generate lift
2a

2b

At station 1, the flow is one dimensional.


As the flow moves downstream, the orientation of the airfoil causes more of an obstruction to
the flow above it than it does to the flow below it.
The stream tube above the airfoil will be constricted, the stream tube below the airfoil, keeps a
nearly constant cross-sectional area all along its length.
The continuity equation requires that the flow in the upper stream tube must accelerate to
get past the airfoil while the flow in the lower stream tube does not and can even decelerate.
Total pressure will be the same everywhere in the flow field, the air will be moving faster at 2a
than at 2b, the static pressure will be lower at 2a than at 2b. This pressure difference produces
lift.

The Airfoil

Two ways the fluid can impart forces to a body

Presure perpendicular to the body


Shear stress exrted parallel to the body caused by the viscosity of the fluid.

Lift is the component of the total


aerodynamic force that is
perpendicular to the freestream
velocity direction
Drag as the component that is
parallel to the freestream

Lift and Drag are components


of a Total Aerodynamic Force

The Airfoil

If the continuity equation is applied at many points along the


stream tubes, a plot can be generated

The variation of velocity with chordwise distance in each tube

The Airfoil

Applying Bernoullis equation to these velocity plots yields plots of


surface pressure distribution

The area between the upper and the lower surface-pressure curves
is the net force caused by pressure perpendicular to the airfoil
chord line, the normal force.

The Airfoil

The angle between the chord line and the freestream direction
is called Angle of Attack and is given the symbol ()

The Airfoil

Viscosity

It is the tendency for a fluid to resist having velocity


discontinuities in it.
Viscous effects are most important when fluid is in contact
with and moving relative to a solid body such as an aircraft.
The molecules strike these barriers and impart their excess
momentum to the body.

The Airfoil

Boundary Layer

The region next to the body in which the flow velocities are less
than the free stream velocity is known as the boundary layer

Virtually all important viscous


effects occur in the boundary
layer. As a result, the rest of
the flow field can be treated
as inviscid.

Velocity reaches 99%


of the free stream
velocity

The Airfoil

Skin Friction Drag

Several viscous effects in the boundary layer. The first is the


production of viscous drag, which is also called skin
friction drag.
Methods for reducing viscous drag.

Reduce the surface area in contact with the air.


Controlling the shape of the boundary layer profile

The Airfoil

Controlling the shape of the boundary layer profile

The initial boundary that forms at the front or leading edge


of the surface is very orderly, it is known as a Laminar
Boundary layer.
As the flow moves further down the body, the orderly flow
breaks down and transitions into a swirling, mixing flow
known as a turbulent boundary layer.

The Airfoil

The turbulent boundary layer is thicker than the laminar


boudary layer.

Velocities in the boundary layer are higher closer to the


surface.

Because the swirling flow in the turbulent boundary layer allows


large quantities of faster-moving air to travel down close to the
surface.
Transfers more momentum to the body, hence creating more
skin-friction drag.

The Airfoil

Controlling the shape of the boundary layer profile

The third boundary layer profile.

The velocity in the boundary layer close to the surface at


this point are zero. And so, there is no skin friction drag.
This condition signals the beginning of separation.

The Airfoil

Pressure Drag

The difference in pressure at the front and rear of the body


produces a net force in the drag direction.

The turbulent boundary layer has higher velocities close to


the wall and a more effective mechanism for replacing low
momentum fluid with faster-moving molecules from outside
the boundary layer.

The Airfoil

Pressure Drag

The difference in pressure at the front and rear of the body


produces a net force in the drag direction.

A turbulent boundary layer is therefore more resistant to


separation an more able to maintain forward velocity for a
longer distance.

The Airfoil

Pressure Drag

The difference in pressure at the front and rear of the body


produces a net force in the drag direction.

The higher-energy turbulent boundary layer that results,


although it has greater skin-friction drag, will separate
further aft on the body, reducing pressure drag.

The Airfoil

Pressure Drag

The difference in pressure at the front and rear of the body


produces a net force in the drag direction.

The figure shows how the bumpy surfaces of golf balls cause
earlier transition to delay separation, reducing pressure drag,
and allowing the balls to fly farther.

The Airfoil

Reynolds Number

A nondimensional parameter called the Reynolds Number is


used as a measure of these relative magnitudes of
momentum and viscous forces

Two bodies with the same shape and orientation to the flow,
but with different sizes and in different flow conditions, will
have the same type and shape of boundary-layer profile and
the same transition and separation characteristics if they
have the same Reynolds Number.

The Airfoil

Angle of Attack
The airfoil is at zero angle of attack,
because the airfoil is symmetrical.
As the angle of attack increases, the
stream tubes above the airfoil
become more constricted, so that
the velocities above the airfoil must
increase. This will produce lower
static pressure and more lift.
The point of separation has moved
upstream as a result of the stronger
adverse pressure gradient

The Airfoil

Lift and Drag Coefficient Curves


Clmax

Cl = Lift Curve Slope =


Cl

l=0
STALL

Cl = 0.11/deg or 2/rad

The Airfoil

Lift and Drag Coefficient Curves

Pressure Drag
Friction Drag

Cd min

The Airfoil

Cambered Airfoil

Figure shows a flowfield around a cambered airfoil for an


angle of attack of zero

Its shape causes the stream tubes above the airfoil to be


more constricted than those below. As a result, a cambered
airfoil produces lift at zero angle of attack.

The Airfoil
Cl
Cl

l=0

stall

stall

The Airfoil

Moment Coefficient and Aerodynamic Center

Lift and Drag forces produce a net torque or moment, it is


referred as pitching moment and is given the symbol m
A nose-up pitching moment is normally define as positive.
Pitching moment coefficient

=
1 2

2
In most cases, it is possible to choose a moment reference
center for which the moment is zero. Such a point is called
the Center of Pressure.
The Aerodynamic Center is a fixed moment reference center
on the airfoil for which the moment does not vary with
changes in angle of attack.

The Airfoil

Moment Coefficient and Aerodynamic Center


L
Cm

m=+

A.C P.R.
.
L
P.R. = A.C.

Cm0

L
m=-

A.C
P.R. .

The Airfoil

Reynold Number Effects


Total drag decrease
because there is a
delay in separation

The stall angle of


attack increases
because there is a
delay in flow
separation

stall

stall