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UIN SGD

Nanang Ismail

Transmission medium and physical layer

Classes of transmission media

Guided transmission media


Kabel tembaga
Open Wires
Coaxial
Twisted Pair

Kabel serat optik

Unguided transmission media


infra merah
gelombang radio
microwave: terrestrial maupun satellite

Provides a means for


transmitting electro-magnetic
signals through the air but do
not guide them (wireless
transmission)

Figure Electromagnetic spectrum for wireless communication

Figure Propagation methods

Sinyal berjalan melalui tiga rute


Gelombang tanah (Ground wave)
Mengikuti contour bumi
Sd 2MHz
Radio AM

Gelombang langit (Sky wave)

Amateur radio, BBC world service, Voice of America


Sinyal dipantulkan dari lapisan ionosphere dari bagian
atas atmosphere
(Persisnya refracted)

Line of sight

Di atas 30Mhz
Mungkin lebih dari optical line of sight krn refraction

Kecepatan glb elektromagnetik adalah fungsi dari densitas


material
~3 x 108 m/s dlm vakum, lebih kecil dlm materi lainnya

Glb yg bergerak dari satu medium ke medium lainnya,


kecepatannya berubah

Menyebabkan pembelokan arah gelombang pd perbatasan


Mengarah ke medium yg densitasnya lebih tinggi

Index of refraction (refractive index) adalah


Sin(sdt kedatangan)/sin(sdt refraction)
Berubah dg panjang gelombang

Menyebabkan perubahan arah mendadak pd transisi antar


media
Menyebabkan pembelokan gradual jika densitas medium
berubah bervariasi
Densitas atmosphere berkurang dg ketinggian
Menghasilkan pembelokan ke arah bumi dari glb radio

Redaman ruang bebas (free space loss)

Penyerapan atmosphere (atmospheric absorption)

Signal menghambur dg jarak


Lebih besar utk frek. lebih rendah

Uap air dan oksigen menyerap sinyal radio


Lebih besar utk air pd 22GHz, kurang di bawah 15GHz
Lebih besar utk oksigen pd 60GHz, kurang di bawah 30GHz
Hujan dan kabut menyebarkan glb radio

Multipath

Refraction

Lebih baik utk mendpkan line of sight jika mungkin


Sinyal dp dipantulkan menyebabkan sejumlah copy (duplikasi)
pd penerima
Mungkin tdk ada sinyal langsung sama sekali
Mungkin memperkuat atau menghilangkan sinyal langsung
Mungkin menghasilkan partial atau total loss dari sinyal pd
penerima

Table 7.4 Bands


Band

Range

Propagation

Application

VLF

330 KHz

Ground

Long-range radio navigation

LF

30300 KHz

Ground

Radio beacons and


navigational locators

MF

300 KHz3 MHz

Sky

AM radio

HF

330 MHz

Sky

Citizens band (CB),


ship/aircraft communication

VHF

30300 MHz

Sky and
line-of-sight

VHF TV,
FM radio

UHF

300 MHz3 GHz

Line-of-sight

UHF TV, cellular phones,


paging, satellite

SHF

330 GHz

Line-of-sight

Satellite communication

EHF

30300 GHz

Line-of-sight

Long-range radio navigation

Figure 7.19

Wireless transmission waves

Konduktor elektrik digunakan utk meradiasikan


energi elektromagnetik atau mengumpulkan energi
elektromagnetik
Transmission and reception are achieved by means
of antennas
For transmission, an antenna radiates
electromagnetic radiation in the air
For reception, the antenna picks up
electromagnetic waves from the surrounding
medium
Antena yg sama biasa digunakan utk kedua sisi
The antenna plays a key role
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the transmitting
antenna puts out
a focused
electromagnetic
beam
the transmitting
and receiving
antennas must be
aligned

Dr. Yagi and his Yagi antenna


(example of directional antenna)

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the transmitted
signal spreads out
in all directions
and can be
received by many
antennas
In general, the
higher the
frequency of a
signal, the more it
is possible to
focus it into a
directional beam

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Figure Unidirectional antennas

Daya diradiasikan pada semua arah


Performansi tdk sama pada semua arah
Isotropic antenna adalah (secara teoritis) titik
dalam ruang
Radiasi ke semua arah secara merata
Memberikan pola radiasi spherical

Digunakan utk microwave terrestrial dan satelit


Sumber yg ditempatkan pd focus akan
menghasilkan gelombang-gelombang pantuk
paralel sumbu axis
Menghasilkan (secara teoritis) beam paralel dari
cahaya/suara/radio

Pd penerimaan, sinyal dikonsentrasikan pada


focus, dimana detektor ditempatkan

Mengukur directionality dari antena


Daya output pada arah tertentu dibandingkan
dengan yg dihasilkan oleh isotropic antenna
Diukur dalam decibels (dB)
Kehilangan (loss) daya pada arah lain
Effective area berhubungan dengan ukuran
dan bentuk
Kaitan dengan gain

Frequencies in the range of about 30 MHz to


40 GHz are referred to as microwave
frequencies
2 GHz to 40 GHz
wavelength in air is 0.75cm to 15cm
wavelength = velocity / frequency

highly directional beams are possible


suitable for point-to-point transmission

30 MHz to 1 GHz

suitable for omnidirectional applications

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Note:
Microwaves are used for unicast
communication such as cellular
telephones, satellite networks, and
wireless LANs.

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Parabolic dish
Focused beam
Line of sight
Telekomunikasi jarak jauh
Frekuensi lebih tinggi laju data lebih tinggi

Limited to line-of-sight
(LOS) transmission

This means that microwaves


must be transmitted in a
straight line and that no
obstructions can exists, such
as buildings or mountains,
between microwave stations.

To avoid possible
obstructions, microwave
antennas often are
positioned on the tops of
buildings, towers, or
mountains

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With no intervening obstacles, the maximum


distance between antennas is
d = 7.14 kh
d is the distance between antennas in kilometers,
h is the antenna height in meters
k is an adjustment factor to account for the fact that
microwaves are bent or refracted with the curvature of
the earth
k ~ 4/3

Example

Two antennas at a height of 100m may be as far as


82km apart
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Long-distance telecommunication service


requires fewer amplifiers or repeaters than
coaxial cable
requires line-of-sight transmission
Example
telephone system
TV distribution

Short point-to-point links

Data link between local area network


closed-circuit TV

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Another apps: cellular communication, and LANs

Freq. Band
824 - 894 MHz
902-928 MHz
1.7 - 2.3 GHz
1.8 GHz
2.400-2.484 GHz
2.4 GHz
2.45 GHz
4 - 6 GHz
Infrared

Use
Analog cell phones (AMPS)
License free in North America
PCS digital cell phones
GSM digital cell phones
global license free band
802.11, Lucent WaveLAN
Bluetooth
commercial (telecomm.)
short distance line of sight

Range
Data Rate
20 km per cell 13 kbps/channel
< 1 km per cell
16 kbps/channel
100 m - 25 km
about 10 m
40 - 80 km
5 - 100 m

2 - 11 Mbps
1 Mbps
100 Mbps
1 Mbps

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The higher the frequency used, the higher the


potential bandwidth and therefore the higher
the potential data rate

Band (GHz) | Bandwidth (MHz) | Data rate


(Mbps)
2
7
12
6
30
90
11
40
90
18
220
274
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4d
L = 10 log

d is the distance
is the wavelength

repeaters or amplifiers may be placed farther apart for


microwave systems - 10 to 100 km is typical
Attenuation increases with rainfall, especially above 10
GHz
The assignment of frequency bands is strictly regulated
(http://www.postel.go.id/utama.aspx?MenuID=3&MenuIt
em=3)

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Satelit adalah suatu station relay


Satelit menerima pada satu frekuensi,
memperkuat atau mengulang sinyal dan
transmit pd frekuensi lain
Memerlukan orbit geo-stationary
Tinggi 35,784km

Aplikasi

Televisi
Telepon jarak jauh
Private business networks

a satellite is a microwave
relay station

link two or more groundbased microwave


transmitter/receivers (known
as earth stations or ground
stations)

The satellite receives


transmissions on one
frequency band (uplink),
amplifies or repeats the
signal, and transmits it on
another frequency
(downlink)

An orbiting satellite operate


on a number of frequency
bands, called transponder
channels

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It is launched into an orbit above


the equator at 35786 km

This orbit distance means that the


satellite is orbiting the earth as fast
as the earth is rotating.
It appears to earth stations that the
satellite is stationary, thus making
communications more reliable and
predictable
Earth stations is less expensive
because they can use fixed antennas

Delay is 250 -500ms for


geostationary satellites
Apps: television broadcasting and
weather forecasting, and have a
number of important defense and
intelligence applications, VSAT

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A Very Small Aperture


Terminal (VSAT), is a twoway satellite ground station with
a dish antenna that is smaller than
3 meters.
Most VSAT antennas range from
75 cm to 1.2 m.
Data rates typically range from 56
Kbit/s up to 4 Mbit/s
VSATs access satellites
in geosynchronous (geostationary)
orbit (to relay data from small
remote earth stations (terminals)
to other terminals (in mesh
configurations) or master earth
station "hubs" (in star
configurations).

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For small mobile personal communications


terminals, a network with significantly
reduced transmission and processing delay is
required
Such a service could be provided by low earth
orbit (LEO) and medium earth orbit (MEO)
satellite systems
These systems can provide direct personalterminal-to-personal-terminal connectivity
(satellite phone services)
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A Low Earth Orbit (LEO)


typically is a circular
orbit about 400
kilometers above the
earths surface and,
correspondingly, a
period (time to revolve
around the earth) of
about 90 minutes
One of apps: to
provide satellite
phone services, primarily
to remote areas
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Medium Earth orbit (MEO),


sometimes called intermediate
circular orbit (ICO), is the
region of space around the
Earth above low Earth orbit
(altitude of 2,000 kilometers
(1,243 mi)) and below
geostationary orbit (altitude of
35,786 kilometers (22,236 mi))
The most common use
for satellites in this region is for
navigation, such as the GPS

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Optimum frequency range for satellite


transmission is 1 - 10GHz
Below 1 GHz, there is significant noise from
nature sources
About 10 GHz, the signal is severely
attenuated by atmosphere

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Typical frequency bands for


uplink/downlink
6/4 GHz
8/7 GHz
14/12 GHz
30/20 GHz

usual terminology
C band
X band
Ku band
Ka band

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Typical frequency bands for


uplink/downlink
1.6/1.5 GHz
30/20 GHz

usual terminology
L band
Ka band

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Typical frequency bands for


uplink/downlink
12 GHz

usual terminology
Ku band

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Note:
Radio waves are used for multicast
communications, such as radio and
television, and paging systems.

Omnidirectional
Line of sight
Rentan thd interferensi multipath
Refleksi

Aplikasi

Radio FM
Televisi UHF dan VHF

Physical description
omnidirectional

Applications

AM broadcasting

Operating frequencies

MF (medium frequency): 300 kHz - 3 MHz


HF (high frequency): 3 MHz - 30 MHz

HF is the most economic means of low information rate


transmission over long distances (e.g. > 300km)

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A HF wave emitted from an antenna is characterized by


a groundwave and a skywave components.
The groundwave follows the surface of the earth and
can provide useful communication over salt water up to
1000km and over land for some 40km to 160km
The skywave transmission depends on ionospheric
refraction.
Transmitted radio waves hitting the ionosphere are bent or
refracted.
When they are bent sufficiently, the waves are
returned to earth at a distant location.
Skywave links can be from 160km to 12800km.

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FM broadcasting
operating frequencies

VHF (very high frequency): 30 MHz - 300 MHz

TV broadcasting

operating frequencies:

VHF
UHF (ultra high frequency): 300 MHz - 3000MHz

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Memodulasi cahaya infrared noncoherent


Line of sight (atau refleksi)
Blocked oleh dinding
mis. TV remote control, IRD port

Does not penetrate walls

no security or interference problems

no frequency allocation issue


no licensing is required

Apps: Infrared Wireless LAN

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Note:
Infrared signals can be used for shortrange communication in a closed area
using line-of-sight propagation.

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Power loss : penurunan daya


sinyal
Power gain : penguatan daya
sinyal
Decibel : satuan untuk
menyatakan power loss/gain

Decibel merupakan satuan


ukuran daya yang logaritmis
Pertama kali digunakan oleh
Alexander Graham Bell (satuan
decibel digunakan untuk
menghormati jasanya)
Decibel : dB

Alexander Graham Bell


Born 1847 - Died 1922

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Gain
g = Pout/Pin
Gain in dB
gdB = 10 log (Pout/Pin)
Loss
L = Pin/Pout
Loss in dB
LdB = 10 log (Pin/Pout)

Overall Gain
g = g1*g2
Overall Gain in dB
gdB = g1(dB) + g2(dB)
Contoh:
- Bila daya output 10 Watt dan daya input 1 Watt,
maka Gain = 10 dB
- Bila daya input 10 Watt dan daya output 1 Watt,
maka Loss = 10 dB (atau Gain = -10 dB)
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Rumus dB menyatakan ukuran daya


Jika kita lebih tertarik akan perubahan pada
tegangan maka faktor impedansi harus
dimasukkan pada perhitungan dB
g dB

Pout
= 10 log
Pin

Vout

= 20 log
Vin

Zin

+ 10 log

Zout

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Sampai titik ini kita masih melihat penerapan


dB untuk menyatakan perbandingan daya
Bagaimana cara menyatakan level daya
absolut menggunakan dB?

Gunakan suatu daya referensi

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Daya referensi yang


banyak digunakan adalah
1 mW
Satuan dB yang
dihasilkan adalah dBm
Contoh: suatu level daya
10 mW bila dinyatakan di
dalam dB adalah 10 dBm
Daya referensi lain yang
dapat digunakan: 1 Watt
(satuan dB yang
digunakan dBW)

P
PdBm = 10 log

1 mW
P
PdBW = 10 log

1W

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Contoh penggunaan dB

Daya pancar P1 = 1W atau +30 dBm


Gain antena = 30 dB
Redaman link = 110 dB
Daya diterima terima P2,dBm = +30 dBm + 30 dB 110 dB +30 dB = 20 dBm
Bila dinyatakan di dalam Watt P2 = 10 W.

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Redaman
serat optik 0,5 dB/km

Daya pancar P1,dBm = 0 dBm


Redaman serat optik = 0,5 dB/km, maka redaman total serat optik = 0,5*40 =20 dB
Daya terima P2,dBm = 0 dBm 20 dB = 20 dBm

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Satuan lain yang biasa


digunakan untuk menyatakan
suatu perbadingan adalah
Neper
1 Neper (Np) = 8,685889638
dB
1 dB = 0,115129254 Np

John Napier or Neper


nicknamed Marvellous Merchiston
(1550, 1617)
Penemu Logaritma

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