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www.emeraldinsight.com/researchregister

The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at

www.emeraldinsight.com/0264-4401.htm

simulations of sheet metal

forming processes

Jaroslav Mackerle

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Linkoping Institute of Technology,

Linkoping, Sweden

Finite element

analyses

891

Received March 2004

Accepted April 2003

Abstract Sheet metal forming is a process of shaping thin sheets of metal by applying pressure

through male or female dies or both. In most of used sheet-formating processes the metal is

subjected to primarily tensile or compressive stresses or both. During the last three decades

considerable advances have been made in the applications of numerical techniques, especially the

finite element methods, to analyze physical phenomena in the field of structural, solid and fluid

mechanics as well as to simulate various processes in engineering. These methods are useful

because one can use them to find out facts or study the processes in a way that no other tool can

accomplish. Finite element methods applied to sheet metal forming are the subjects of this paper.

The reason for writing this bibliography is to save time for readers looking for information dealing

with sheet metal forming, not having an access to large databases or willingness to spend own time

with uncertain information retrieval. This paper is organized into two parts. In the first one, each

topic is handled and current trends in the application of finite element techniques are briefly

mentioned. The second part, an Appendix, lists papers published in the open literature. More than

900 references to papers, conference proceedings and theses/dissertations dealing with subjects

that were published in 1995-2003 are listed.

Introduction

The output of scientific papers in general is fast growing and professionals are no

longer able to be fully up-to-date with all the relevant information. The increasing

specialization in various engineering fields has resulted in the proliferation of

subject-oriented journals and conference proceedings directed to specialist audiences.

The researchers have more channels for communicating the results of their research

at their disposal, but on the other hand finding the necessary information may be

a time-consuming and uneasy process. Another question is whether researchers/

scientists are willing to spend time looking for information. It has been pointed out that

in engineering, informal knowledge channels are the most frequently used means of

obtaining information.

During the last three decades considerable advances have been made in the

applications of numerical techniques to analyze physical phenomena in the field of

structural, solid and fluid mechanics as well as to simulate various processes in

engineering. Among these numerical procedures, the finite element methods are the

The bibliography presented in the Appendix is by no means complete but it gives a

comprehensive representation of different finite element applications on the subjects. The author

wishes to apologize for the unintentional exclusions of missing references and would appreciate

receiving comments and pointers to other relevant literature for a future update.

Engineering Computations

Vol. 21 No. 8, 2004

pp. 891-940

q Emerald Group Publishing Limited

0264-4401

DOI 10.1108/02644400410554371

EC

21,8

892

most frequently used today. These methods are useful because one can use them to

find out facts or study the processes in a way that no other tool can accomplish.

Sheet metal forming is a process of shaping thin sheets of metal by applying

pressure through male or female dies or both. In most of used sheet-forming processes

the metal is subjected to primarily tensile or compressive stresses or both.

The bibliography is divided into following parts and concerns.

1. Sheet metal forming in general:

.

material properties (texture, anisotropy, formability, etc.);

.

springback;

.

fracture mechanics problems; and

.

computational strategies, modelling and other phenomena.

2. Specific sheet metal/sheet metal components forming processes:

.

bending sheet metal forming;

.

stretch forming;

.

deep drawing;

.

pressing and stamping;

.

hydroforming; and

.

other processes.

This paper is organized into two parts. In the first one each topic is handled and

current trends in application of finite element techniques are briefly mentioned. The

second part, an Appendix, lists papers published in the open literature for the period

1995-2003 on the subjects presented above. References have been retrieved from the

authors database, MAKEBASE (Mackerle, 1993). Also the COMPENDEX database

has been checked. Readers interested in the finite element literature in general are

referred to the authors Internet Finite Element Book Bibliography (http://solid.ikp.liu.

se/fe/index.html). Basic information about the sheet metal forming techniques as well

as basic considerations that are common to all sheet forming processes can be found in

Schwartz (2002). Books dealing with numerical and finite element methods in material

processing are, for example, Champion (1992), Kobayashi (1989), Rowe et al. (1991),

Wagoner and Chenot (1995, 2001) and Yu and Zhang (1996). References to papers on

finite element applications in metal forming processes published before 1995 can be

found in Mackerle and Brannberg (1994). Two important conferences should also be

mentioned: NUMIFORM and NUMISHEET (NUMIFORM95; NUMIFORM98;

NUMIFORM 2001; NUMISHEET96; NUMISHEET99; NUMISHEET 2002).

Sheet metal forming is process where the pressure is applied through male/female

dies or both. The metal is subjected to tensile/compressive stresses or both.

Some phenomena are common to all sheet forming processes and are handled in

this section. They are divided into following subcategories: material properties

computational strategies, modelling and other phenomena.

Material properties. Texture/grain size of the metal is important for the forming

process too large grains produce a rough appearance when formed. Anisotropy of

sheet metal is in two directions in the direction of the sheet plane, and in the

thickness direction. The behavior of the material depends on the direction of

deformation.

The models for metal plasticity at low temperatures consist either of

phenomenological yield criteria applied to standard materials and with the

assumption of isotropic hardening, or of polycrystalline models where, at least,

crystallographic texture is taken into account. Another approach combines some of the

advantages of both methods and involves fitting the constants of a simple analytical

function to data produced by plasticity calculations, rather than by experiments.

The plastic anisotropy of sheet metals is usually caused by preferred orientation of

grains, developed by mechanical deformation and heat treatment. The influence of this

mechanical deformation on the development of preferred orientation and resulting

anisotropy has been simulated by both the finite elements and experiments.

The polycrystalline materials exhibit significant plastic anisotropy attributed to the

presence of crystallographic texture. This plastic anisotropy affects the subsequent

forming process. Many papers have been published where constitutive relations

describing the initial and induced anisotropy of the material are presented.

The definition of formability is not easy because a large number of variables are

involved. The effect of process parameters such as tool type and size, friction at the

interface tool/sheet, plane anisotropy, feed rate, etc. on the formability can be studied

by tests and finite element analyses.

The effect of crystallographic textures on the formability of metal sheets was, for

example, studied by using the crystalline plastic theory, based on the hardening and

softening evolution equations defined on the slip systems of a crystal lattice cell.

Topics included: constitutive modelling; microstructure-based constitutive

modelling; microstructure; crystallographic texture; texture-related properties;

grain-oriented modelling; texture evolution; evolution of through-thickness texture

gradient; sheet metal formability; drawability; bendability; press formability; forming

limit; yielding descriptions; orthotropic plasticity; crystalline plasticity; polycrystal

plasticity; anisotropy in sheet forming; large deformation anisotropy; plastic

anisotropy; anisotropic elastoplastic behavior; modified anisotropic Gurson yield

criterion; generalized mixed kinematic-isotropic hardening; exponential hardening;

workhardening; Bauschinger effect; influences of geometrical parameters; three-point

bending test; sheet forming test; tensile test; plane strain test; dome test; and OSU

formability test.

Materials: steel; high-strength steel; silicon steel; ferritic stainless steel; austenitic

stainless steel; BCC steel; aluminum; aluminum alloys; magnesium alloys; brass;

zirconium; and polycrystalline alloys.

Springback. Springback in sheet metal forming is due to the elastic recovery of the

metal after it is deformed. Compensation for it in practice is usually accomplished by

the part overbending.

In sheet metal forming, tool and process parameters have to be appropriately

chosen. The dimension precision is a major concern in sheet metal bending where

Finite element

analyses

893

EC

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the considerable elastic recovery during unloading leads to springback and sidewall

curl. Therefore, the tool design should be based on the accurate prediction of elastic

recovery amount. This prediction is possible by using finite element methods even if it

is not easy.

The out-of-plane forming is characterized by small strains, large deformations,

frictional contact boundary changes, and that the elastoplastic deformation is coupled

with thermal field problems.

Springback is also sensitive to many physical parameters such as material

properties, hardening laws, coefficient of friction, elastic and plastic anisotropy or the

presence of a Bauschinger effect. Even numerical factors such as integration scheme,

element type and unloading scheme are of main interest in the finite element modelling.

The springback is more severe for materials with higher strength-to-modulus ratios,

i.e. high strength steels or aluminum.

An effective approach for springback determination is to couple the implicit and

explicit finite element techniques. Here, the robustness of the explicit code for handling

the sheet forming process is combined with the CPU efficiency of the implicit code for

handling springback.

Topics in this subsection: springback simulation in 2D and 3D; plastic anisotropy

and springback; finite elements for springback simulations; compensating springback

error; springback prediction for: bending; side bending; V-free bending; L-shaped

bending; U-shaped bending; hat-bending; pipe bending; sheet metal stamping;

flanging; stretch/draw sheet forming; draw/bend forming; and multiple

bending-unbending process.

Fracture mechanics problems. Fracture mechanics problems usually deal with

localized necking or buckling or both (wrinkling, folding). Microdefects are the

principal source of strain localization and final failure. What we need for the finite

element analysis is to develop the damage-coupled plasticity material model and to

establish the damage criteria.

Necking in sheet metal forming arises due to loading and boundary conditions, and

material nonhomogeneities that develop when plastic deformation increases. The

localized necking is considered as an instability problem of the local mechanical

equilibrium. It means that the mechanical properties of the sheet where necking occurs

are suddenly modified and in an irreversible manner.

Wrinkling is undesired for functional or aesthetic reasons. Its prediction and

prevention are important in the design of tools and process parameters. Wrinkling

limits the depth and complexity of sheet metal components.

Predicting the buckling behavior (wrinkling) for the sheet metal processes is

possible by applying an implicit or explicit finite element method. Using an implicit

method is an eigenvalue approach but it is not easy to initiate wrinkles without initial

imperfections. The explicit finite element method can generate deformed shapes with

wrinkles due to the accumulation of numerical error but the onset/growth of the

buckling is sensitive to the input data (element type, mesh quality, etc.).

Fracture mechanics problems of this subsection: prediction of necking; localized

necking; post-necking behavior; prediction of wrinkling; wrinkling initiation and

growth; plastic wrinkling; side-wall wrinkling; earing prediction; tearing failure;

ductile damage modelling; damage-based formability; damage and fracture prediction;

void damage; crack growth modelling; fatigue crack propagation; determination of

buckling limit; tracing local buckling; texture effect on sheet failure; and development

of special finite elements.

Computational strategies, modelling and other phenomena. To avoid trial and error

tryout procedures, the use of finite element sheet metal forming simulations is in rapid

progress. Many research groups and professionals are developing or improving existing

finite element codes. These currently available codes are based on: rigid/visco/plastic or

elasto/visco/plastic approaches. The last named group can be classified into

static-implicit, static-explicit or dynamic-explicit codes. There are also other

formulations developed such as: quasistatic rigid-plastic/viscoplastic flow formulation,

quasistatic elasto-plastic solid modelling, etc. What is desirable is to seek a trade-off

between severe accuracy and economy. The problems that concern designers are whether

the different finite element codes produce the same results and, if not, which one accords

with the facts. Papers describing specific finite element software for sheet forming are

included in this subsection as well as papers dealing with benchmark problems.

The validity of finite element simulations of sheet metal forming processes depends

on the accuracy of various parts involved in the calculation, i.e. the constitutive

equations, element-type used, computational methods and algorithms utilized.

Topics under consideration: 2D and 3D finite element simulations of sheet metal

forming problems in general; formulations used for sheet metal forming; development

of finite elements; friction modelling; plasticity model for interface friction; contact

searching algorithms; mesh generation; adaptive meshing; solvers for forming

simulations; thermal effect in sheet metal forming; mathematical aspects of different

analysis strategies; inverse approach; incremental sheet metal forming; optimum

process design for sheet metal forming; reliability assessment; parallel processing in

sheet metal forming; and concurrent engineering.

Some finite element codes developed, commercial and in-house, which are used for

the simulation of sheet metal forming are represented with papers in Appendix:

LS-DYNA; FAST-3D; OPTRIS; LAGAMINE; ITA3D; AUTOFORM; DYNAFORM;

MSC/DYTRAN, STAMPAR, STAMPACK, FAST_FORM3D. There are, of course, also

other well-known codes which have been used in sheet metal forming simulations, i.e.

ABAQUS (implicit and explicit version), PAM-STAMP, DEFORM, HYDROFORM,

MARC, LS-NIKE, RADIOSS, ANSYS, ADINA, etc.

Specific sheet metal/sheet metal components forming processes

Sheet metal forming processes are accomplished by other processes such as bending,

stretching, deep drawing, roll forming, spinning, etc. In most of these operations there

are no major changes in the thickness of the sheet metal but in the shape. In this

section, specific forming processes are presented for manufacturing various metal

components. These processes are classified into: bending sheet metal forming, stretch

forming, deep drawing, pressing and stamping, hydroforming, and other processes.

References are listed in the Appendix into the same categories.

Bending sheet metal forming. Sheet metal bending is a standard operation in many

manufacturing processes. Bending can be provided along a straight line or a curved

path. In addition to male and female dies, the female die can be replaced by a rubber pad.

Finite element method makes possible that the deformed geometrical and punch

load distribution of sheets are computed through the whole process until to the

unloading state after forming. The effects of various parameters can be studied.

Finite element

analyses

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necessary to determine the overbending angle required to compensate for the

springback effect. It is important to mention that even if the responses of various

materials are known, bending still can be a nonreproducible process due to the

batch-to-batch variability of mechanical properties of nominally identical material.

Topics of this subsection: 2D and 3D simulation of sheet bending process;

U-bending; UO-bending; V-bending; bending/reverse bending of sheet metals; effect of

modelling parameters; contact problems for sheet metal bending; strain gradient

effects in bending; residual stresses in sheet metal bending; springback effect;

springback in side bending; and design of sheet metal punches.

Materials: metals; steel; stainless steel; aluminum; aluminum alloys; and

aluminum-rubber.

Some final products: irregular shapes; multiple parts; profiles; automobile parts; and

bumpers.

Stretch forming. In stretch forming the sheet is clamped between jaws and stretched

over a form block. The advantage is low cost, small residual stresses, and elimination

of wrinkles.

A common feature for all stretching-bending operations is that most of the

cross-section is in tension. This means that the local buckling phenomena, often

causing problems in bending of thin-walled structures, are avoided. The tensile force

also provides a rather homogeneous stress state in the cross-section leading to

decreased springback after unloading.

Topics include: stretch bending simulation; axisymmetric sheet stretching; biaxial

stretching; influences of geometrical parameters; evaluation of various material

models; tribological influence on strain path; CNC-controlled stretch forming; and

stretch flange forming.

Materials: metals; steel; aluminum; and aluminum alloys.

Some final products: automotive components; and bumpers.

Deep drawing. Deep drawing of sheet metal requires a control of many factors such

as blank-holder pressure, material properties, die geometry, lubrication, etc. Without a

knowledge of the deep drawing process and material characteristics of sheet metals, it

would be difficult to optimize the process and prevent the defects.

In drawing, metal sheet is either formed in a single operation, or progressive

drawing steps are applied to reach the final form. Deep drawing of anisotropic sheets is

a complicated process including strong nonlinear characteristics, complicated

loading/unloading history and even strain localization phenomenon.

There are many parameters influencing the deep drawing process: the punch and

disc radii, the punch velocity, clamping force, friction and draw depth. It is not easy to

show which of these variables is the most influential in a specific situation.

In the deep drawing, flange earing is an unwanted forming defect, which is due to

the anisotropy produced by the plasticity deformation of the sheet metal making its

plastic flowing change in the deep-drawing.

Topics of this subsection: 2D and 3D finite element simulations of deep drawing;

micro-macro analysis; axisymmetric deep drawing; multi-step deep drawing; warm

deep drawing; deep drawing with elastomer membranes; redrawing process; friction

contact problem studies; prediction of forming limit; prediction of necking; prediction

of wrinkling; prediction of springback; texture evolution during deep drawing; residual

stresses in deep drawing; earing problems; influence of punch shape; design of dies;

optimum blank shape determination; control of blank holder force; pliable blank

holder; modelling of drawbeads; forming load in deep drawing; influence of blank

holder pressure; tool wear in deep drawing; monitoring of deep drawing process;

prediction of process conditions; sensitivity and stability evaluation.

Materials: metals; steel; stainless steel; austenitic stainless steel; high strength steel;

coated steel; aluminum; aluminum alloys; aluminum-stainless steel laminates;

titanium; magnesium alloys; copper.

Some final products: square cups, cylindrical cups, elliptical cups; nonsymmetric

cups, concave components; square boxes; rectangular parts; automotive components;

can forming.

Pressing and stamping. The steps common for pressing and stamping are the

preparation of a flat blank and shearing or stretching the metal into a die to form

the desired shape. In stamping the flat stock is placed into a die and then formed

with movable die or punch. The die can also perform perforating, blanking,

shearing, etc.

The real stamping process of metal sheets consists of four modes of deformation in

a mixed form, namely: bending, stretching, stretch flanging, and deep drawing. To

obtain the desired final product, forming failures such as local necking and shape

inaccuracy (wrinkling and springback) have to be avoided.

Simulating sheet stamping processes with finite elements is a complicated

procedure due to material and geometrical nonlinearities, time changing boundary

conditions, and contact problems with friction.

Flanging is a forming process in autobody panel stamping, that can affect the

assembly quality of autobody. This process can be classified into the stretch-type or

shrink-type flanging.

Topics include: 2D and 3D finite element analysis of pressing and stamping;

multi-stage stamping; application of viscous pressure forming to low volume

stamping; laser-aided stamping; magnetic pulsed stamping; inverse approach for

stamping process; tailored blanks stamping process; effect of material and process

variables; contact problems; die design; blank design; drawbead modelling; drawbead

restraining force; reliability assessment; design and optimization of stamping process.

Materials: metals; steel; coated steel; aluminum; aluminum alloys; and galvanized

sheets.

Some final products: autobody parts; automobile fuel tank; car roof; automobile rear

floor panel; motorcycle oil tank; and bathtub.

Hydroforming. The hydroforming process produces first of all hollow, lightweight

components with complex shapes and variable cross sections by means of hydraulic

pressure, in most cases using circular tubes as a source material. This process is

achieving increasing acceptance in the automotive and aircraft industry.

Hydroforming offers a better structural integrity of the product, lower production

cost, material saving, fine thickness distribution, fewer secondary operations, and

reliability improvement. The main failure modes are buckling, wrinkling, and

bursting.

The principle of the hydroforming is that the starting tube is aligned to the internal

surface of a tool that encloses the tube, and through the combined action of mechanical

loading and hydrostatic internal pressure then formed. The implementation leads

Finite element

analyses

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to complex process sequences with a large number of parameters of tube, the tool and

the process acting together to produce the final result.

Topics include: 2D and 3D finite element analysis of hydroforming; dieless

hydroforming; tube hydroforming; sheet metal hydroforming; dual hydroforming

process; hydro-bulge forming; preform design in hydroforming; contact problems with

friction; formability analysis; development of necking and bursting; prediction of

wrinkling; design of tubular blank; influence of material and process parameters; effect

of loading path; coupled buckling and plastic instability; design sensitivity and

optimization of hydroforming.

Materials: metals; steel; aluminum; and aluminum alloys.

Some final products: thin sheets; rectangular boxes; tubes; flanges; automotive

parts; automobile lower arms; automobile fuel tanks; automobile rear axle housing;

toroidal shells; ellipsoidal shells; and spherical vessels.

Other processes. In this last subcategory other processes, references are listed in

Appendix for sheet metal processes not mentioned earlier.

Blanking is a constrained shearing that involves elastic deflection, plastic

deformation and the fracture of the sheet material. The aim of this process is not only

to make the metal deform to specified shape/dimension but also to brake the material.

The important parameters are: the punch-die clearance, the punch velocity, the tool

geometry and the mechanical properties of sheet metal. In the finite element modelling

it is necessary to simulate the contact at all interfaces, material properties, crack

propagation and other parameters.

The roll forming process replaces the vertical motion of the dies by the rotary

motion of rolls with various profiles, where each successive roll bends the material a

little further than the preceding roll.

Superplasticity as a material property means that some materials, under the correct

conditions of temperature and strain rate, exhibit high ductility resulting in large strain

deformations. In superplastic forming thin sheets are blown into die cavities to produce

complex parts. This process is very sensitive to strain rate. At locations where the

shape of the die is complicated unpredictably thin regions are formed. The thinning

control is necessary and this can include, for example, material treatment, lubrication,

profiled gas pressure, thermoforming, etc.

In laser bending process, based on the phenomenon of heat expansion and cooling

shrinkage, the repetitive irradiations of a defocused laser beam are applied over the

surface of a metal sheet. A temperature gradient through the sheet thickness is

developed and the thermal stress is induced. As a result, the permanent deformation is

produced. Laser processing parameters can control accurately the temperature

distribution so that the proper magnitude and distribution of thermal stresses will be

obtained. The desired deformation is completed without rigid tools or external sources.

By this process, it is possible to bend also relatively brittle materials into large angles.

The electromagnetic forming process is based on the use of electromagnetic forces

to deform metallic workpiece at high speeds. A transient electric current is induced in a

coil and this current induces a magnetic field that penetrates the conductive workpiece

and generates eddy current. The Lorentz forces are induced and these drive the

deformation of the workpiece. This method is expected to help some formability

barriers. The finite element method can be used to study coupling between

electromagnetic and thermal response, and deformation of the workpiece.

The spinning process forms parts with rotational symmetry over a mandrel with

the use of a tool or roller.

Topics of this subsection: roll forming; flat rolling; shape rolling; sheet metal

extrusion; backward extrusion; sheet warm forming; sheet metal spinning; sheet metal

blanking; net-shape blanking; hemming; hot gas-pressure forming; electromagnetic

forming; sheet metal camber process; superplastic forming; superplastic blow forming;

laser bending; laser sheet forming; shot peening; analysis of ridging; binder forming;

die-less forming; tailored sheet forming; multi-point forming; multi-stage forming; and

virtual manufacturing.

References

Champion, E.R. (1992), Finite Element Analysis in Manufacturing Engineering: A PC-based

Approach, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.

Kobayashi, S. (1989), Metal Forming and the Finite Element Method, Oxford University Press,

New York, NY.

Mackerle, J. (1993), An information retrieval system for finite element and boundary element

literature and software, Eng. Anal. With Boundary Elem., Vol. 11, pp. 177-87.

Mackerle, J. and Brannberg, N. (1994), Finite element methods and material processing

technology, Eng. Comput., Vol. 11 No. 5, pp. 413-55.

NUMIFORM95, paper presented at the 5th Int. Conf. Num. Meth. Industr. Forming Processes,

Ithaca, NY, June 1995.

NUMIFORM98, paper presented at the 6th Int. Conf. Num. Meth. Industr. Forming Processes,

Enschede, June 1998.

NUMIFORM 2001, paper presented at the 7th Int. Conf. Num. Meth. Industr. Forming Processes,

Toyohashi, Japan, June 2001.

NUMISHEET96, paper presented at the 3rd Int. Conf. Num. Simul. 3-D Sheet Metal Forming

Processes, Dearborn, MI, September 1996.

NUMISHEET99, paper presented at the 4th Int. Conf. Worksh. Num. Simul. 3-D Sheet Forming

processes, Besancon, September 1999.

NUMISHEET 2002, paper presented at the 5th Int. Conf. Worksh. Num. Simul. 3-D Sheet

Forming processes, Jeju Island, November 2002.

Rowe, G.W. et al. (1991), Finite Element Plasticity and Metalforming Analysis, Cambridge

University Press, New York, NY.

Schwartz, M. (Ed.) (2002), Encyclopedia of Materials, Parts and Finishes, CRC Press,

Boca Raton, FL.

Wagoner, R.H. and Chenot, J.L. (1995), Fundamentals of Metal Forming, Wiley & Sons,

New York, NY.

Wagoner, R.H. and Chenot, J.L. (2001), Metal Forming Analysis, Cambridge University Press,

Cambridge.

Yu, T.X. and Zhang, L.C. (1996), Plastic Bending: Theory and Applications, World Scientific

Publication, Singapore.

Appendix. A bibliography (1995-2003)

This bibliography provides a list of literature references on finite element analyses and

simulations of sheet metal forming processes, theory and applications. The listing presented

contains papers published in scientific journals, conference proceedings, and theses/dissertations

Finite element

analyses

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retrospectively to 1995. References have been retrieved from the authors database,

MAKEBASE. Entries are grouped into the same sections described in the first part of this

paper, and sorted alphabetically according to the first authors name. In some cases, if a specific

paper is relevant to several subject categories, the same reference can be listed under the

respective section headings, but the interested reader is expected to consider also areas adjacent

to his/her central area of research interest.

900

Sheet metal forming in general

Material properties (texture, anisotropy, formability, etc.)

Ahmetoglu, M. et al. (2000), Evaluation of sheet metal formability, viscous pressure forming

(VPF) dome test, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 98 No. 1, pp. 1-6.

Bammann, D.J. et al. (1995), Modeling large deformation anisotropy in sheet metal forming, in

Shen, S.F. and Dawson, P. (Eds), NUMIFORM 95, Balkema, Amsterdam, pp. 657-60.

Barlat, F. et al. (1997), Yielding description for solution strengthened aluminum alloys, Int.

J. Plast., Vol. 13 No. 4, pp. 385-401.

Barlat, F. et al. (2003), Plane stress yield function for aluminum alloy sheets. Part 1: theory, Int.

J. Plast., Vol. 19 No. 9, pp. 1297-319.

Barlat, F. et al. (2003), Texture, microstructure and forming of aluminum alloy sheets, Mater.

Sci. Forum, Vols 426-432, pp. 99-106.

Bate, P.S. et al. (1998), Increasing the drawability of AA2014 Al-Cu by differential heat

treatment, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, Vol. 29 No. 5, pp. 1405-14.

Beaudoin, A.J. (1998), Anisotropy in sheet forming studies from the macroscale and

microscale viewpoints, 4th World Cong. Comput. Mech., Buenos Aires, p. 1161.

Beaudoin, A.J. et al. (1995), Analysis and anisotropy in sheet forming using polycrystal

plasticity, paper presented at the 10th Conf. Eng. Mech., Boulder, pp. 1018-21.

Beaudoin, A.J. et al. (1996), Incorporating crystallographic texture in finite element simulations

of sheet forming, in Lee, J.K. et al. (Eds), Numisheet96, Dearborn, pp. 17-24.

Bouaifi, B. and Sommer, D. (1996), Influence of joining techniques on the microstructure and

formability of steel sheet, Weld. Res. Abroad, Vol. 42 No. 3, pp. 37-40.

Boubakar, M.L. et al. (1995), Anisotropic elastoplastic behaviour in 3D sheet metal forming

simulations, in Owen, D.R.J. (Ed.), 4th Int. Conf. Comput. Plast., Pineridge Press, Swansea,

pp. 1471-82.

Boubakar, M.L. et al. (1997), Numerical implementation of orthotropic plasticity for sheet-metal

forming analysis, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 65 Nos 1/3, pp. 143-52.

Brunet, M. and Morestin, F. (2001), Experimental and analytical necking studies of anisotropic

sheet metals, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 112 Nos 2/3, pp. 214-26.

Bryant, J.D. et al. (1996), Effect of crystallographic texture on formability in AA6111 autobody

sheet, Alumin. Magnes. Automot. Appl., Cleveland, pp. 85-95.

Buvat, C. and Ossart, F. (2000), Grain oriented silicon steel modeling: finite element

implementation of the coenergy model, paper presented at the 2000 IEEE INTERMAG

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