Anda di halaman 1dari 50

The Emerald Research Register for this journal is available at

www.emeraldinsight.com/researchregister

The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at
www.emeraldinsight.com/0264-4401.htm

Finite element analyses and


simulations of sheet metal
forming processes
Jaroslav Mackerle
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Linkoping Institute of Technology,
Linkoping, Sweden

Finite element
analyses

891
Received March 2004
Accepted April 2003

Keywords Finite element analysis, Metallurgy, Bibliographies


Abstract Sheet metal forming is a process of shaping thin sheets of metal by applying pressure
through male or female dies or both. In most of used sheet-formating processes the metal is
subjected to primarily tensile or compressive stresses or both. During the last three decades
considerable advances have been made in the applications of numerical techniques, especially the
finite element methods, to analyze physical phenomena in the field of structural, solid and fluid
mechanics as well as to simulate various processes in engineering. These methods are useful
because one can use them to find out facts or study the processes in a way that no other tool can
accomplish. Finite element methods applied to sheet metal forming are the subjects of this paper.
The reason for writing this bibliography is to save time for readers looking for information dealing
with sheet metal forming, not having an access to large databases or willingness to spend own time
with uncertain information retrieval. This paper is organized into two parts. In the first one, each
topic is handled and current trends in the application of finite element techniques are briefly
mentioned. The second part, an Appendix, lists papers published in the open literature. More than
900 references to papers, conference proceedings and theses/dissertations dealing with subjects
that were published in 1995-2003 are listed.

Introduction
The output of scientific papers in general is fast growing and professionals are no
longer able to be fully up-to-date with all the relevant information. The increasing
specialization in various engineering fields has resulted in the proliferation of
subject-oriented journals and conference proceedings directed to specialist audiences.
The researchers have more channels for communicating the results of their research
at their disposal, but on the other hand finding the necessary information may be
a time-consuming and uneasy process. Another question is whether researchers/
scientists are willing to spend time looking for information. It has been pointed out that
in engineering, informal knowledge channels are the most frequently used means of
obtaining information.
During the last three decades considerable advances have been made in the
applications of numerical techniques to analyze physical phenomena in the field of
structural, solid and fluid mechanics as well as to simulate various processes in
engineering. Among these numerical procedures, the finite element methods are the
The bibliography presented in the Appendix is by no means complete but it gives a
comprehensive representation of different finite element applications on the subjects. The author
wishes to apologize for the unintentional exclusions of missing references and would appreciate
receiving comments and pointers to other relevant literature for a future update.

Engineering Computations
Vol. 21 No. 8, 2004
pp. 891-940
q Emerald Group Publishing Limited
0264-4401
DOI 10.1108/02644400410554371

EC
21,8

892

most frequently used today. These methods are useful because one can use them to
find out facts or study the processes in a way that no other tool can accomplish.
Sheet metal forming is a process of shaping thin sheets of metal by applying
pressure through male or female dies or both. In most of used sheet-forming processes
the metal is subjected to primarily tensile or compressive stresses or both.
The bibliography is divided into following parts and concerns.
1. Sheet metal forming in general:
.
material properties (texture, anisotropy, formability, etc.);
.
springback;
.
fracture mechanics problems; and
.
computational strategies, modelling and other phenomena.
2. Specific sheet metal/sheet metal components forming processes:
.
bending sheet metal forming;
.
stretch forming;
.
deep drawing;
.
pressing and stamping;
.
hydroforming; and
.
other processes.
This paper is organized into two parts. In the first one each topic is handled and
current trends in application of finite element techniques are briefly mentioned. The
second part, an Appendix, lists papers published in the open literature for the period
1995-2003 on the subjects presented above. References have been retrieved from the
authors database, MAKEBASE (Mackerle, 1993). Also the COMPENDEX database
has been checked. Readers interested in the finite element literature in general are
referred to the authors Internet Finite Element Book Bibliography (http://solid.ikp.liu.
se/fe/index.html). Basic information about the sheet metal forming techniques as well
as basic considerations that are common to all sheet forming processes can be found in
Schwartz (2002). Books dealing with numerical and finite element methods in material
processing are, for example, Champion (1992), Kobayashi (1989), Rowe et al. (1991),
Wagoner and Chenot (1995, 2001) and Yu and Zhang (1996). References to papers on
finite element applications in metal forming processes published before 1995 can be
found in Mackerle and Brannberg (1994). Two important conferences should also be
mentioned: NUMIFORM and NUMISHEET (NUMIFORM95; NUMIFORM98;
NUMIFORM 2001; NUMISHEET96; NUMISHEET99; NUMISHEET 2002).

Sheet metal forming in general


Sheet metal forming is process where the pressure is applied through male/female
dies or both. The metal is subjected to tensile/compressive stresses or both.
Some phenomena are common to all sheet forming processes and are handled in
this section. They are divided into following subcategories: material properties

(texture, anisotropy, formability, etc.), springback, fracture mechanics problems, and


computational strategies, modelling and other phenomena.
Material properties. Texture/grain size of the metal is important for the forming
process too large grains produce a rough appearance when formed. Anisotropy of
sheet metal is in two directions in the direction of the sheet plane, and in the
thickness direction. The behavior of the material depends on the direction of
deformation.
The models for metal plasticity at low temperatures consist either of
phenomenological yield criteria applied to standard materials and with the
assumption of isotropic hardening, or of polycrystalline models where, at least,
crystallographic texture is taken into account. Another approach combines some of the
advantages of both methods and involves fitting the constants of a simple analytical
function to data produced by plasticity calculations, rather than by experiments.
The plastic anisotropy of sheet metals is usually caused by preferred orientation of
grains, developed by mechanical deformation and heat treatment. The influence of this
mechanical deformation on the development of preferred orientation and resulting
anisotropy has been simulated by both the finite elements and experiments.
The polycrystalline materials exhibit significant plastic anisotropy attributed to the
presence of crystallographic texture. This plastic anisotropy affects the subsequent
forming process. Many papers have been published where constitutive relations
describing the initial and induced anisotropy of the material are presented.
The definition of formability is not easy because a large number of variables are
involved. The effect of process parameters such as tool type and size, friction at the
interface tool/sheet, plane anisotropy, feed rate, etc. on the formability can be studied
by tests and finite element analyses.
The effect of crystallographic textures on the formability of metal sheets was, for
example, studied by using the crystalline plastic theory, based on the hardening and
softening evolution equations defined on the slip systems of a crystal lattice cell.
Topics included: constitutive modelling; microstructure-based constitutive
modelling; microstructure; crystallographic texture; texture-related properties;
grain-oriented modelling; texture evolution; evolution of through-thickness texture
gradient; sheet metal formability; drawability; bendability; press formability; forming
limit; yielding descriptions; orthotropic plasticity; crystalline plasticity; polycrystal
plasticity; anisotropy in sheet forming; large deformation anisotropy; plastic
anisotropy; anisotropic elastoplastic behavior; modified anisotropic Gurson yield
criterion; generalized mixed kinematic-isotropic hardening; exponential hardening;
workhardening; Bauschinger effect; influences of geometrical parameters; three-point
bending test; sheet forming test; tensile test; plane strain test; dome test; and OSU
formability test.
Materials: steel; high-strength steel; silicon steel; ferritic stainless steel; austenitic
stainless steel; BCC steel; aluminum; aluminum alloys; magnesium alloys; brass;
zirconium; and polycrystalline alloys.
Springback. Springback in sheet metal forming is due to the elastic recovery of the
metal after it is deformed. Compensation for it in practice is usually accomplished by
the part overbending.
In sheet metal forming, tool and process parameters have to be appropriately
chosen. The dimension precision is a major concern in sheet metal bending where

Finite element
analyses

893

EC
21,8

894

the considerable elastic recovery during unloading leads to springback and sidewall
curl. Therefore, the tool design should be based on the accurate prediction of elastic
recovery amount. This prediction is possible by using finite element methods even if it
is not easy.
The out-of-plane forming is characterized by small strains, large deformations,
frictional contact boundary changes, and that the elastoplastic deformation is coupled
with thermal field problems.
Springback is also sensitive to many physical parameters such as material
properties, hardening laws, coefficient of friction, elastic and plastic anisotropy or the
presence of a Bauschinger effect. Even numerical factors such as integration scheme,
element type and unloading scheme are of main interest in the finite element modelling.
The springback is more severe for materials with higher strength-to-modulus ratios,
i.e. high strength steels or aluminum.
An effective approach for springback determination is to couple the implicit and
explicit finite element techniques. Here, the robustness of the explicit code for handling
the sheet forming process is combined with the CPU efficiency of the implicit code for
handling springback.
Topics in this subsection: springback simulation in 2D and 3D; plastic anisotropy
and springback; finite elements for springback simulations; compensating springback
error; springback prediction for: bending; side bending; V-free bending; L-shaped
bending; U-shaped bending; hat-bending; pipe bending; sheet metal stamping;
flanging; stretch/draw sheet forming; draw/bend forming; and multiple
bending-unbending process.
Fracture mechanics problems. Fracture mechanics problems usually deal with
localized necking or buckling or both (wrinkling, folding). Microdefects are the
principal source of strain localization and final failure. What we need for the finite
element analysis is to develop the damage-coupled plasticity material model and to
establish the damage criteria.
Necking in sheet metal forming arises due to loading and boundary conditions, and
material nonhomogeneities that develop when plastic deformation increases. The
localized necking is considered as an instability problem of the local mechanical
equilibrium. It means that the mechanical properties of the sheet where necking occurs
are suddenly modified and in an irreversible manner.
Wrinkling is undesired for functional or aesthetic reasons. Its prediction and
prevention are important in the design of tools and process parameters. Wrinkling
limits the depth and complexity of sheet metal components.
Predicting the buckling behavior (wrinkling) for the sheet metal processes is
possible by applying an implicit or explicit finite element method. Using an implicit
method is an eigenvalue approach but it is not easy to initiate wrinkles without initial
imperfections. The explicit finite element method can generate deformed shapes with
wrinkles due to the accumulation of numerical error but the onset/growth of the
buckling is sensitive to the input data (element type, mesh quality, etc.).
Fracture mechanics problems of this subsection: prediction of necking; localized
necking; post-necking behavior; prediction of wrinkling; wrinkling initiation and
growth; plastic wrinkling; side-wall wrinkling; earing prediction; tearing failure;
ductile damage modelling; damage-based formability; damage and fracture prediction;
void damage; crack growth modelling; fatigue crack propagation; determination of

buckling limit; tracing local buckling; texture effect on sheet failure; and development
of special finite elements.
Computational strategies, modelling and other phenomena. To avoid trial and error
tryout procedures, the use of finite element sheet metal forming simulations is in rapid
progress. Many research groups and professionals are developing or improving existing
finite element codes. These currently available codes are based on: rigid/visco/plastic or
elasto/visco/plastic approaches. The last named group can be classified into
static-implicit, static-explicit or dynamic-explicit codes. There are also other
formulations developed such as: quasistatic rigid-plastic/viscoplastic flow formulation,
quasistatic elasto-plastic solid modelling, etc. What is desirable is to seek a trade-off
between severe accuracy and economy. The problems that concern designers are whether
the different finite element codes produce the same results and, if not, which one accords
with the facts. Papers describing specific finite element software for sheet forming are
included in this subsection as well as papers dealing with benchmark problems.
The validity of finite element simulations of sheet metal forming processes depends
on the accuracy of various parts involved in the calculation, i.e. the constitutive
equations, element-type used, computational methods and algorithms utilized.
Topics under consideration: 2D and 3D finite element simulations of sheet metal
forming problems in general; formulations used for sheet metal forming; development
of finite elements; friction modelling; plasticity model for interface friction; contact
searching algorithms; mesh generation; adaptive meshing; solvers for forming
simulations; thermal effect in sheet metal forming; mathematical aspects of different
analysis strategies; inverse approach; incremental sheet metal forming; optimum
process design for sheet metal forming; reliability assessment; parallel processing in
sheet metal forming; and concurrent engineering.
Some finite element codes developed, commercial and in-house, which are used for
the simulation of sheet metal forming are represented with papers in Appendix:
LS-DYNA; FAST-3D; OPTRIS; LAGAMINE; ITA3D; AUTOFORM; DYNAFORM;
MSC/DYTRAN, STAMPAR, STAMPACK, FAST_FORM3D. There are, of course, also
other well-known codes which have been used in sheet metal forming simulations, i.e.
ABAQUS (implicit and explicit version), PAM-STAMP, DEFORM, HYDROFORM,
MARC, LS-NIKE, RADIOSS, ANSYS, ADINA, etc.
Specific sheet metal/sheet metal components forming processes
Sheet metal forming processes are accomplished by other processes such as bending,
stretching, deep drawing, roll forming, spinning, etc. In most of these operations there
are no major changes in the thickness of the sheet metal but in the shape. In this
section, specific forming processes are presented for manufacturing various metal
components. These processes are classified into: bending sheet metal forming, stretch
forming, deep drawing, pressing and stamping, hydroforming, and other processes.
References are listed in the Appendix into the same categories.
Bending sheet metal forming. Sheet metal bending is a standard operation in many
manufacturing processes. Bending can be provided along a straight line or a curved
path. In addition to male and female dies, the female die can be replaced by a rubber pad.
Finite element method makes possible that the deformed geometrical and punch
load distribution of sheets are computed through the whole process until to the
unloading state after forming. The effects of various parameters can be studied.

Finite element
analyses

895

EC
21,8

896

An accurate finite element analysis of the elastic phenomena in bending is


necessary to determine the overbending angle required to compensate for the
springback effect. It is important to mention that even if the responses of various
materials are known, bending still can be a nonreproducible process due to the
batch-to-batch variability of mechanical properties of nominally identical material.
Topics of this subsection: 2D and 3D simulation of sheet bending process;
U-bending; UO-bending; V-bending; bending/reverse bending of sheet metals; effect of
modelling parameters; contact problems for sheet metal bending; strain gradient
effects in bending; residual stresses in sheet metal bending; springback effect;
springback in side bending; and design of sheet metal punches.
Materials: metals; steel; stainless steel; aluminum; aluminum alloys; and
aluminum-rubber.
Some final products: irregular shapes; multiple parts; profiles; automobile parts; and
bumpers.
Stretch forming. In stretch forming the sheet is clamped between jaws and stretched
over a form block. The advantage is low cost, small residual stresses, and elimination
of wrinkles.
A common feature for all stretching-bending operations is that most of the
cross-section is in tension. This means that the local buckling phenomena, often
causing problems in bending of thin-walled structures, are avoided. The tensile force
also provides a rather homogeneous stress state in the cross-section leading to
decreased springback after unloading.
Topics include: stretch bending simulation; axisymmetric sheet stretching; biaxial
stretching; influences of geometrical parameters; evaluation of various material
models; tribological influence on strain path; CNC-controlled stretch forming; and
stretch flange forming.
Materials: metals; steel; aluminum; and aluminum alloys.
Some final products: automotive components; and bumpers.
Deep drawing. Deep drawing of sheet metal requires a control of many factors such
as blank-holder pressure, material properties, die geometry, lubrication, etc. Without a
knowledge of the deep drawing process and material characteristics of sheet metals, it
would be difficult to optimize the process and prevent the defects.
In drawing, metal sheet is either formed in a single operation, or progressive
drawing steps are applied to reach the final form. Deep drawing of anisotropic sheets is
a complicated process including strong nonlinear characteristics, complicated
loading/unloading history and even strain localization phenomenon.
There are many parameters influencing the deep drawing process: the punch and
disc radii, the punch velocity, clamping force, friction and draw depth. It is not easy to
show which of these variables is the most influential in a specific situation.
In the deep drawing, flange earing is an unwanted forming defect, which is due to
the anisotropy produced by the plasticity deformation of the sheet metal making its
plastic flowing change in the deep-drawing.
Topics of this subsection: 2D and 3D finite element simulations of deep drawing;
micro-macro analysis; axisymmetric deep drawing; multi-step deep drawing; warm
deep drawing; deep drawing with elastomer membranes; redrawing process; friction
contact problem studies; prediction of forming limit; prediction of necking; prediction
of wrinkling; prediction of springback; texture evolution during deep drawing; residual

stresses in deep drawing; earing problems; influence of punch shape; design of dies;
optimum blank shape determination; control of blank holder force; pliable blank
holder; modelling of drawbeads; forming load in deep drawing; influence of blank
holder pressure; tool wear in deep drawing; monitoring of deep drawing process;
prediction of process conditions; sensitivity and stability evaluation.
Materials: metals; steel; stainless steel; austenitic stainless steel; high strength steel;
coated steel; aluminum; aluminum alloys; aluminum-stainless steel laminates;
titanium; magnesium alloys; copper.
Some final products: square cups, cylindrical cups, elliptical cups; nonsymmetric
cups, concave components; square boxes; rectangular parts; automotive components;
can forming.
Pressing and stamping. The steps common for pressing and stamping are the
preparation of a flat blank and shearing or stretching the metal into a die to form
the desired shape. In stamping the flat stock is placed into a die and then formed
with movable die or punch. The die can also perform perforating, blanking,
shearing, etc.
The real stamping process of metal sheets consists of four modes of deformation in
a mixed form, namely: bending, stretching, stretch flanging, and deep drawing. To
obtain the desired final product, forming failures such as local necking and shape
inaccuracy (wrinkling and springback) have to be avoided.
Simulating sheet stamping processes with finite elements is a complicated
procedure due to material and geometrical nonlinearities, time changing boundary
conditions, and contact problems with friction.
Flanging is a forming process in autobody panel stamping, that can affect the
assembly quality of autobody. This process can be classified into the stretch-type or
shrink-type flanging.
Topics include: 2D and 3D finite element analysis of pressing and stamping;
multi-stage stamping; application of viscous pressure forming to low volume
stamping; laser-aided stamping; magnetic pulsed stamping; inverse approach for
stamping process; tailored blanks stamping process; effect of material and process
variables; contact problems; die design; blank design; drawbead modelling; drawbead
restraining force; reliability assessment; design and optimization of stamping process.
Materials: metals; steel; coated steel; aluminum; aluminum alloys; and galvanized
sheets.
Some final products: autobody parts; automobile fuel tank; car roof; automobile rear
floor panel; motorcycle oil tank; and bathtub.
Hydroforming. The hydroforming process produces first of all hollow, lightweight
components with complex shapes and variable cross sections by means of hydraulic
pressure, in most cases using circular tubes as a source material. This process is
achieving increasing acceptance in the automotive and aircraft industry.
Hydroforming offers a better structural integrity of the product, lower production
cost, material saving, fine thickness distribution, fewer secondary operations, and
reliability improvement. The main failure modes are buckling, wrinkling, and
bursting.
The principle of the hydroforming is that the starting tube is aligned to the internal
surface of a tool that encloses the tube, and through the combined action of mechanical
loading and hydrostatic internal pressure then formed. The implementation leads

Finite element
analyses

897

EC
21,8

898

to complex process sequences with a large number of parameters of tube, the tool and
the process acting together to produce the final result.
Topics include: 2D and 3D finite element analysis of hydroforming; dieless
hydroforming; tube hydroforming; sheet metal hydroforming; dual hydroforming
process; hydro-bulge forming; preform design in hydroforming; contact problems with
friction; formability analysis; development of necking and bursting; prediction of
wrinkling; design of tubular blank; influence of material and process parameters; effect
of loading path; coupled buckling and plastic instability; design sensitivity and
optimization of hydroforming.
Materials: metals; steel; aluminum; and aluminum alloys.
Some final products: thin sheets; rectangular boxes; tubes; flanges; automotive
parts; automobile lower arms; automobile fuel tanks; automobile rear axle housing;
toroidal shells; ellipsoidal shells; and spherical vessels.
Other processes. In this last subcategory other processes, references are listed in
Appendix for sheet metal processes not mentioned earlier.
Blanking is a constrained shearing that involves elastic deflection, plastic
deformation and the fracture of the sheet material. The aim of this process is not only
to make the metal deform to specified shape/dimension but also to brake the material.
The important parameters are: the punch-die clearance, the punch velocity, the tool
geometry and the mechanical properties of sheet metal. In the finite element modelling
it is necessary to simulate the contact at all interfaces, material properties, crack
propagation and other parameters.
The roll forming process replaces the vertical motion of the dies by the rotary
motion of rolls with various profiles, where each successive roll bends the material a
little further than the preceding roll.
Superplasticity as a material property means that some materials, under the correct
conditions of temperature and strain rate, exhibit high ductility resulting in large strain
deformations. In superplastic forming thin sheets are blown into die cavities to produce
complex parts. This process is very sensitive to strain rate. At locations where the
shape of the die is complicated unpredictably thin regions are formed. The thinning
control is necessary and this can include, for example, material treatment, lubrication,
profiled gas pressure, thermoforming, etc.
In laser bending process, based on the phenomenon of heat expansion and cooling
shrinkage, the repetitive irradiations of a defocused laser beam are applied over the
surface of a metal sheet. A temperature gradient through the sheet thickness is
developed and the thermal stress is induced. As a result, the permanent deformation is
produced. Laser processing parameters can control accurately the temperature
distribution so that the proper magnitude and distribution of thermal stresses will be
obtained. The desired deformation is completed without rigid tools or external sources.
By this process, it is possible to bend also relatively brittle materials into large angles.
The electromagnetic forming process is based on the use of electromagnetic forces
to deform metallic workpiece at high speeds. A transient electric current is induced in a
coil and this current induces a magnetic field that penetrates the conductive workpiece
and generates eddy current. The Lorentz forces are induced and these drive the
deformation of the workpiece. This method is expected to help some formability
barriers. The finite element method can be used to study coupling between
electromagnetic and thermal response, and deformation of the workpiece.

The spinning process forms parts with rotational symmetry over a mandrel with
the use of a tool or roller.
Topics of this subsection: roll forming; flat rolling; shape rolling; sheet metal
extrusion; backward extrusion; sheet warm forming; sheet metal spinning; sheet metal
blanking; net-shape blanking; hemming; hot gas-pressure forming; electromagnetic
forming; sheet metal camber process; superplastic forming; superplastic blow forming;
laser bending; laser sheet forming; shot peening; analysis of ridging; binder forming;
die-less forming; tailored sheet forming; multi-point forming; multi-stage forming; and
virtual manufacturing.
References
Champion, E.R. (1992), Finite Element Analysis in Manufacturing Engineering: A PC-based
Approach, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
Kobayashi, S. (1989), Metal Forming and the Finite Element Method, Oxford University Press,
New York, NY.
Mackerle, J. (1993), An information retrieval system for finite element and boundary element
literature and software, Eng. Anal. With Boundary Elem., Vol. 11, pp. 177-87.
Mackerle, J. and Brannberg, N. (1994), Finite element methods and material processing
technology, Eng. Comput., Vol. 11 No. 5, pp. 413-55.
NUMIFORM95, paper presented at the 5th Int. Conf. Num. Meth. Industr. Forming Processes,
Ithaca, NY, June 1995.
NUMIFORM98, paper presented at the 6th Int. Conf. Num. Meth. Industr. Forming Processes,
Enschede, June 1998.
NUMIFORM 2001, paper presented at the 7th Int. Conf. Num. Meth. Industr. Forming Processes,
Toyohashi, Japan, June 2001.
NUMISHEET96, paper presented at the 3rd Int. Conf. Num. Simul. 3-D Sheet Metal Forming
Processes, Dearborn, MI, September 1996.
NUMISHEET99, paper presented at the 4th Int. Conf. Worksh. Num. Simul. 3-D Sheet Forming
processes, Besancon, September 1999.
NUMISHEET 2002, paper presented at the 5th Int. Conf. Worksh. Num. Simul. 3-D Sheet
Forming processes, Jeju Island, November 2002.
Rowe, G.W. et al. (1991), Finite Element Plasticity and Metalforming Analysis, Cambridge
University Press, New York, NY.
Schwartz, M. (Ed.) (2002), Encyclopedia of Materials, Parts and Finishes, CRC Press,
Boca Raton, FL.
Wagoner, R.H. and Chenot, J.L. (1995), Fundamentals of Metal Forming, Wiley & Sons,
New York, NY.
Wagoner, R.H. and Chenot, J.L. (2001), Metal Forming Analysis, Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge.
Yu, T.X. and Zhang, L.C. (1996), Plastic Bending: Theory and Applications, World Scientific
Publication, Singapore.
Appendix. A bibliography (1995-2003)
This bibliography provides a list of literature references on finite element analyses and
simulations of sheet metal forming processes, theory and applications. The listing presented
contains papers published in scientific journals, conference proceedings, and theses/dissertations

Finite element
analyses

899

EC
21,8

retrospectively to 1995. References have been retrieved from the authors database,
MAKEBASE. Entries are grouped into the same sections described in the first part of this
paper, and sorted alphabetically according to the first authors name. In some cases, if a specific
paper is relevant to several subject categories, the same reference can be listed under the
respective section headings, but the interested reader is expected to consider also areas adjacent
to his/her central area of research interest.

900
Sheet metal forming in general
Material properties (texture, anisotropy, formability, etc.)
Ahmetoglu, M. et al. (2000), Evaluation of sheet metal formability, viscous pressure forming
(VPF) dome test, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 98 No. 1, pp. 1-6.
Bammann, D.J. et al. (1995), Modeling large deformation anisotropy in sheet metal forming, in
Shen, S.F. and Dawson, P. (Eds), NUMIFORM 95, Balkema, Amsterdam, pp. 657-60.
Barlat, F. et al. (1997), Yielding description for solution strengthened aluminum alloys, Int.
J. Plast., Vol. 13 No. 4, pp. 385-401.
Barlat, F. et al. (2003), Plane stress yield function for aluminum alloy sheets. Part 1: theory, Int.
J. Plast., Vol. 19 No. 9, pp. 1297-319.
Barlat, F. et al. (2003), Texture, microstructure and forming of aluminum alloy sheets, Mater.
Sci. Forum, Vols 426-432, pp. 99-106.
Bate, P.S. et al. (1998), Increasing the drawability of AA2014 Al-Cu by differential heat
treatment, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, Vol. 29 No. 5, pp. 1405-14.
Beaudoin, A.J. (1998), Anisotropy in sheet forming studies from the macroscale and
microscale viewpoints, 4th World Cong. Comput. Mech., Buenos Aires, p. 1161.
Beaudoin, A.J. et al. (1995), Analysis and anisotropy in sheet forming using polycrystal
plasticity, paper presented at the 10th Conf. Eng. Mech., Boulder, pp. 1018-21.
Beaudoin, A.J. et al. (1996), Incorporating crystallographic texture in finite element simulations
of sheet forming, in Lee, J.K. et al. (Eds), Numisheet96, Dearborn, pp. 17-24.
Bouaifi, B. and Sommer, D. (1996), Influence of joining techniques on the microstructure and
formability of steel sheet, Weld. Res. Abroad, Vol. 42 No. 3, pp. 37-40.
Boubakar, M.L. et al. (1995), Anisotropic elastoplastic behaviour in 3D sheet metal forming
simulations, in Owen, D.R.J. (Ed.), 4th Int. Conf. Comput. Plast., Pineridge Press, Swansea,
pp. 1471-82.
Boubakar, M.L. et al. (1997), Numerical implementation of orthotropic plasticity for sheet-metal
forming analysis, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 65 Nos 1/3, pp. 143-52.
Brunet, M. and Morestin, F. (2001), Experimental and analytical necking studies of anisotropic
sheet metals, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 112 Nos 2/3, pp. 214-26.
Bryant, J.D. et al. (1996), Effect of crystallographic texture on formability in AA6111 autobody
sheet, Alumin. Magnes. Automot. Appl., Cleveland, pp. 85-95.
Buvat, C. and Ossart, F. (2000), Grain oriented silicon steel modeling: finite element
implementation of the coenergy model, paper presented at the 2000 IEEE INTERMAG
Conf., Toronto, p. FD11.
Carleer, B.D. et al. (1996), The analysis of planar anisotropic sheet metal, in Kals, H.J.J. et al.
(Eds), Shemet 96, Vol. 2, pp. 193-204.
Chien, W.Y. et al. (2001), Modified anisotropic Gurson yield criterion for porous ductile
sheet metals, J. Eng. Mater. Technol., ASME, Vol. 123 No. 4, pp. 409-16.
Cho, J.H. et al. (1999), Effect of texture on uniaxial tension in AA3003 sheet with
inhomogeneous texture, ICOTOM-12, Canada, pp. 587-92.
Choi, T.H. and Huh, H. (1999), Sheet metal forming analysis of planar anisotropic materials by a
modified membrane finite element method with bending effect, J. Mater. Process.
Technol., Vols 89-90, pp. 58-64.

Choi, S.H. et al. (2000), Texture evolution of FCC sheet metals during deep drawing process, Int.
J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 42 No. 8, pp. 1571-92.
Chou, C.H. et al. (1996), An anisotropic stress resultant constitutive law for sheet metal
forming, Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng., Vol. 39 No. 3, pp. 435-49.
Chow, C.L. and Yang, X.J. (2002), A generalized mixed kinematic-isotropic hardening plastic
model coupled with anisotropic damage for sheet metal forming, ASME Int. Mech. Eng.
Cong. Expo., AMD Vol. 252, ASME, pp. 37-44.
Chun, B.K. et al. (2002), Modeling the Bauschinger effect for sheet metals. Part I: theory, Int.
J. Plast., Vol. 18 Nos 5/6, pp. 571-95.
Chun, B.K. et al. (2002), Modeling the Bauschinger effect for sheet metals. Part II:
applications, Int. J. Plast., Vol. 18 Nos 5/6, pp. 597-616.
Chung, K. et al. (1996), Finite element simulation of sheet forming based on a planar
anisotropic strain-rate potential, Int. J. Plast., Vol. 12 No. 1, pp. 93-115.
Chung, K. et al. (2000), Ideal sheet forming with frictional constraints, Int. J. Plast., Vol. 16 No. 6,
pp. 595-610.
Chung, Y.H. et al. (2002), Evolution of texture and microstructure in AA 3004 sheets during
continuous confined strip shearing deformation and subsequent annealing, Mater. Sci.
Forum, Vols 396-402, pp. 475-80.
Chung, Y.H. et al. (2002), Effect of strain paths on the evolution of texture and work hardening in
AA 5052 sheets during continuous confined strip shearing deformation, Mater. Sci.
Forum, Vols 408-412, pp. 1495-500.
Comstock, R.J. et al. (2001), Simulation of axisymmetric sheet forming tests, J. Mater. Process.
Technol., Vol. 117 Nos 1/2, pp. 153-68.
Dawson, P.R. and Beaudoin, A. (1997), Incorporating crystallographic texture in
deformation process simulations, JOM, Vol. 49 No. 9, pp. 34-41.
Dawson, P.R. et al. (2003), Advances in sheet metal forming analyses: dealing with mechanical
anisotropy from crystallographic texture, Int. Mater. Rev., Vol. 48 No. 2, pp. 86-122.
Doege, E. et al. (1997), Application of an anisotropic extension of Gurson model to practical
engineering problems, in Owen, D.R.J. (Ed.), 5th Int. Conf. Comput. Plast., CIMNE,
pp. 1453-8.
Dong, X. (1997), Computer simulation of sheet metal forming processes using crystalline
plasticity, China Mech. Eng., Vol. 8 No. 4, pp. 27-30.
Duarte, J.F. et al. (2002), Finite element simulation and experimental validation of a plasticity
model of texture and strain induced anisotropy, Key Eng. Mater., Vols 230-232, pp. 501-04.
Duchene, L. et al. (1999), Texture effects on steel sheet behaviour under large strain
simulations, ICOTOM-12, Canada, pp. 286-91.
Duchene, L. et al. (1999), Metal plastic behaviour linked to texture analysis and FEM method,
paper presented at the 4th Int. Conf. NUMISHEET 99, pp. 97-102.
Engler, O. (2003), Modeling of texture and texture-related properties during the
thermomechanical processing of aluminum sheets, Mater. Sci. Forum, Vols 426-432,
pp. 3655-60.
Engler, O. et al. (2000), A study of through-thickness texture gradients in rolled sheets, Metall.
Mater. Trans. A, Vol. 31 No. 9, pp. 2299-315.
Feng, X. et al. (2004), Study on the influences of geometrical parameters on the formability of
stretch curved flanging by numerical simulation, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 145
No. 1, pp. 93-8.
Fromentin, S. et al. (2001), Finite element simulations of sheet-metal forming process for
planar anisotropic materials, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 43 No. 8, pp. 1833-52.
Geng, L. and Wagoner, R.H. (2002), Role of plastic anisotropy and its evolution on
springback, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 44 No. 1, pp. 123-48.
Ghouati, O. and Gelin, J.C. (2001), A finite element-based identification method for metallic
material behaviors, Comput. Mater. Sci., Vol. 21 No. 1, pp. 57-68.

Finite element
analyses

901

EC
21,8

902

Haddad, A. et al. (1999), Numerical determination of forming limit diagrams of orthotropic


sheets using the 3G theory of plasticity, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vols 92-93,
pp. 419-23.
Hansel, A.H.C. et al. (1998), Model for the kinetics of strain-induced martensitic phase
transformation at non-isothermal conditions for the simulation of sheet metal forming,
paper presented at the 6th Int. Conf. Num. Meth. Indust. Form., Balkema, Amsterdam,
pp. 373-8.
Harpell, E.T. et al. (2000), Numerical prediction of the limiting draw ratio for aluminum alloy
sheet, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 100 No. 1, pp. 131-41.
Hirt, G. et al. (2003), Process limits and material behaviour in incremental sheet forming with
CNC-tools, Mater. Sci. Forum, Vols 426-432 No. 5, pp. 3825-30.
Hoferlin, E. et al. (2000), The design of a biaxial tensile test and its use for the validation of
crystallographic yield loci, Model. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng., Vol. 8 No. 4, pp. 423-33.
Horstemeyer, M.F. (2000), A numerical parametric investigation of localization and forming
limits, Int. J. Damage Mech., Vol. 9 No. 3, pp. 255-85.
Hsu, T.C. and Yang, T.S. (2001), The computer simulation of tribological influence on strain
path and forming limit in punch stretching of sheet metal, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Tech.,
Vol. 17 No. 6, pp. 393-9.
Hu, W. (2000), An exponential hardening model for anisotropic sheet metals, Steel Res., Vol. 71
Nos 6/7, pp. 261-3.
Hu, J.G. et al. (1998), FEM simulation of the forming of textured aluminum sheets, Mater. Sci.
Eng. A, Vol. 256 Nos 1/2, pp. 51-9.
Huang, Y.M. and Chien, K.H. (2001), Influence of the punch profile on the limitation of
formability in the hole-flanging process, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 113 Nos 1/3,
pp. 720-4.
Huang, Y.M. and Chien, K.H. (2002), Influence of cone semi-angle on the formability limitation of
the hole flanging process, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Tech., Vol. 19 No. 8, pp. 597-606.
Huh, H. and Choi, T.H. (2000), Modified membrane finite element formulation for sheet metal
forming analysis of planar anisotropic materials, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 42 No. 8,
pp. 1623-43.
Huh, M.Y. et al. (1999), Evolution of through-thickness texture gradients in various steel sheets,
Metals Mater., Vol. 5 No. 5, pp. 437-43.
Huh, M.Y. et al. (2002), Evolution of texture and microstructure during repeated shear
deformation in aluminium 1100 alloy sheets, Mater. Sci. Forum, Vols 396-402, pp. 447-52.
Hwang, Y.M. and Chen, D.C. (2002), Finite element simulations on void closure behaviour inside
the sheet during sheet rolling processes, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part B, Vol. 216 No. 9,
pp. 1227-37.
Hwang, Y.M. and Chen, D.C. (2003), Analysis of the deformation mechanism of void generation
and development around inclusions inside the sheet during sheet rolling processes, Proc.
Inst. Mech. Eng. Part B, Vol. 217 No. 10, pp. 1373-81.
Inal, K. et al. (2000), Simulation of earing in textured aluminum sheets, Int. J. Plast., Vol. 16
No. 6, pp. 635-48.
Inal, K. et al. (2002), Large strain behaviour of aluminium sheets subjected to in-plane simple
shear, Model. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng., Vol. 10 No. 2, pp. 237-52.
Inal, K. et al. (2002), Instability and localized deformation in polycrystalline solids under
plane-strain tension, Int. J. Solids Struct., Vol. 39 No. 4, pp. 983-1002.
Kawka, M. and Makinouchi, A. (1996), Plastic anisotropy in FEM analysis using
degenerated solid element, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 60 Nos 1/4, pp. 239-43.
Kim, Y.H. and Park, J.J. (2002), Effect of process parameters on formability in incremental
forming of sheet metal, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vols 130-131, pp. 42-6.
Kim, T.J. and Yang, D.Y. (2000), Improvement of formability for the incremental sheet
metal forming process, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 42 No. 7, pp. 1271-86.

Kim, J.B. et al. (2000), The effect of plastic anisotropy on compressive instability in sheet
metal forming, Int. J. Plast., Vol. 16 No. 6, pp. 649-76.
Kokaly, M.T. et al. (2000), Modeling of grain pull-out forces in polycrystalline alumina, Mater.
Sci. Eng. A, Vol. 285 No. 1, pp. 151-7.
Kuwabara, T. and Ikeda, S. (2002), Measurement and analysis of work hardening of sheet
steels subjected to plane-strain tension, J. Iron Steel Inst. Jpn., Vol. 88 No. 6, pp. 334-9.
Las Casas, E.B. et al. (1996), Application of the mapped stress tensor concept for anisotropy
in sheet metal forming, in Lee, J.K. et al. (Eds), Numisheet 96, Dearborn, pp. 87-93.
Lee, S.H. and Lee, D.N. (2001), Analysis of deformation textures of asymmetrically rolled steel
sheets, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 43 No. 9, pp. 2997-3015.
Li, R. et al. (1999), Formability in non-symmetric aluminium panel drawing using active
drawbeads, CIRP Annals, Vol. 48 No. 1, pp. 209-12.
Li, S. et al. (2003), Finite element modeling of plastic anisotropy induced by texture and strain
path change, Int. J. Plast., Vol. 19 No. 5, pp. 647-74.
Lievers, W.B. et al. (2003), The influence of iron content on the bendability of AA6111 sheet,
Mater. Sci. Eng. A, Vol. 361 Nos 1/2, pp. 312-20.
Liu, J. et al. (2000), Evaluation of sheet metal formability, viscous pressure forming (VPF) dome
test, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 98 No. 1, pp. 1-6.
Maeda, Y. et al. (1998), Experimental analysis of aluminum yield surface for binary Al-Mg alloy
sheet samples, Int. J. Plast., Vol. 14 Nos 4/5, pp. 301-18.
Maudlin, P.J. and Schiferl, S.K. (1996), Computational anisotropic plasticity for high-rate
forming applications, Comp. Meth. Appl. Mech. Eng., Vol. 131 Nos 1/2, pp. 1-30.
Menezes, L.F. et al. (1999), Numerical simulation of tensile tests of prestrained sheets, Mater.
Sci. Eng. A, Vol. 264 Nos 1/2, pp. 130-8.
Michel, J.F. and Picart, P. (2003), Size effects on the constitutive behaviour for brass in sheet
metal forming, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 141 No. 3, pp. 439-46.
Morikawa, Y. et al. (2003), Effect of change of surface morphology on press-formability of steel
sheets, J. Iron Steel Inst. Jpn., Vol. 89 No. 1, pp. 204-9.
Munhoven, S. et al. (1996), Anisotropic finite element analysis based on texture, in Lee, J.K. et al.
(Eds), Numisheet 96, Dearborn, pp. 112-19.
Naka, T. et al. (2003), Effects of temperature on yield locus for 5083 aluminum alloy sheet,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 140 Nos 1/3, pp. 494-9.
Nakamachi, E. et al. (2001), Drawability assessment of BCC steel sheet by using
elastic/crystalline viscoplastic finite element analyses, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 43 No. 3,
pp. 631-52.
Nakamachi, E. et al. (2002), Formability assessment of FCC aluminum alloy sheet by using
elastic/crystalline viscoplastic finite element analysis, Int. J. Plast., Vol. 18 Nos 5/6,
pp. 617-32.
Nakayama, Y. (2002), FEM analysis of elasto-plastic deformation and anisotropy in two
neighbouring holes in sheet metal, Key Eng. Mater., Vols 233-236, pp. 797-802.
Narasimhan, K. and Nandedkar, V.M. (1996), Finite element modeling of in-plane forming limit
strains under constant and changing strain paths, in Lee, J.K. et al. (Eds), Numisheet 96,
Dearborn, pp. 280-5.
Narasimhan, K. et al. (1995), Better sheet-formability test, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 50
Nos 1/4, pp. 385-94.
Neale, K.W. et al. (2002), Numerical modeling of large-strain phenomena in polycrystalline
solids, Key Eng. Mater., Vols 233-236, pp. 35-46.
Park, J.J. (1999), Predictions of texture and plastic anisotropy developed by mechanical
deformation in aluminum sheet, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 87 Nos 1/3, pp. 146-53.
Park, J.Y. et al. (2002), Analysis of deformation and recrystallization textures of shear deformed
1050 aluminum alloy, Mater. Sci. Forum, Vols 408-412, pp. 1431-36.

Finite element
analyses

903

EC
21,8

904

Sadagopan, S. and Wagoner, R.H. (1996), Simulating the LDH test, in Lee, J.K. et al. (Eds),
Numisheet 96, Dearborn, pp. 128-35.
Schmoeckel, D. et al. (1997), Topography deformation of sheet metal during the forming process
and its influence on friction, CIRP Annals, Vol. 46 No. 1, pp. 175-8.
Schoenfeld, S.E. and Asaro, R.J. (1996), Through thickness texture gradients in rolled
polycrystalline alloys, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 38 No. 6, pp. 661-83.
Shin, H.J. et al. (2003), The effect of texture on ridging of ferritic stainless steel, Acta Mater.,
Vol. 51 No. 16, pp. 4693-706.
Stoughton, T.B. (2002), A non-associated flow rule for sheet metal forming, Int. J. Plast., Vol. 18
Nos 5/6, pp. 687-714.
Suh, Y.S. and Wagoner, R.H. (1996), Application of the finite element method to a design of
optimized tool geometry for the OSU formability test, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., Vol. 5 No. 4,
pp. 489-99.
Suh, Y.S. et al. (1996), Anisotropic yield functions with plastic-strain-induced anisotropy, Int.
J. Plast., Vol. 12 No. 3, pp. 417-38.
Suh, J.Y. et al. (2003), Effect of deformation histories on texture evolution during equal- and
dissimilar-channel angular pressing, Scrip. Mater., Vol. 49 No. 2, pp. 185-90.
Takahashi, H. et al. (1995), Prediction of plastic anisotropy in aluminium sheet using
finite-element polycrystal model, JSME Int. J. Ser A, Vol. 38 No. 3, pp. 327-32.
Takahashi, H. et al. (1996), Development of plastic anisotropy in rolled aluminium sheets, Int.
J. Plast., Vol. 12 No. 7, pp. 935-49.
Takuda, H. (2003), Prediction of forming limit of high-strength steel sheets by means of criterion
for ductile fracture, Key Eng. Mater., Vols 251-252, pp. 1-6.
Takuda, H. and Hatta, N. (1998), Numerical analysis of formability of a commercially pure
zirconium sheet in some sheet forming processes, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, Vol. 242 Nos 1/2,
pp. 15-21.
Takuda, H. and Hatta, N. (1998), Numerical analysis of the formability of an aluminum 2024
alloy sheet and its laminates with steel sheets, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, Vol. 29 No. 11,
pp. 2829-34.
Takuda, H. et al. (1997), Finite element analysis of formability of a few kinds of special steel
sheets, Steel Res., Vol. 68 No. 9, pp. 398-402.
Takuda, H. et al. (1998), Finite element analysis of forming limit in bore expanding of aluminium
alloy sheets, Arch. Appl. Mech., Vol. 68 Nos 7/8, pp. 566-76.
Takuda, H. et al. (1999), Finite element analysis of the formability of a magnesium-based alloy
AZ31 sheet, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vols 89-90, pp. 135-40.
Takuda, H. et al. (2003), Finite element analysis of the formability of an austenitic stainless steel
sheet in warm deep drawing, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vols 143-144, pp. 242-8.
Thomas, S. et al. (2001), Prediction of local strain and hardness in sheet forming, Z. Metallkd.,
Vol. 92 No. 7, pp. 830-3.
Thuillier, S. et al. (2002), Experimental and numerical study of reverse re-drawing of anisotropic
sheet metals, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vols 125-126, pp. 764-71.
Tome, C.N. et al. (2001), Mechanical response of zirconium I: derivation of a polycrystal
constitutive law and finite element analysis, Acta Mater., Vol. 49 No. 15, pp. 3085-96.
Tourki, Z. et al. (1996), Sheet metal forming simulations using a new model for orthotropic
plasticity, Comput. Mater. Sci., Vol. 5 Nos 1/3, pp. 255-62.
Tugcu, P. and Neale, K.W. (1999), On the implementation of anisotropic yield functions into
finite strain problems of sheet metal forming, Int. J. Plast., Vol. 15 No. 10, pp. 1021-40.
Van Bael, A. et al. (1998), Side-bulging during tensile tests of IF-steels with cross-thickness
texture gradients, Mater. Sci. Forum, Vols 273-275, pp. 417-22.
Watanabe, K. et al. (1998), Development of simple formability evaluation method of sheet
forming parts using 2D FEM, R & D: Res. Devel. Kobe Steel Eng., Vol. 48 No. 1,
pp. 23-6.

Weiland, H. et al. (2002), New concepts to measure, calculate and analyze texture in
materials, Mater. Sci. Forum, Vols 408-412, pp. 101-6.
Winters, J. et al. (1995), Anisotropic finite element simulation of plane strain tests, in Shen,
S.F. and Dawson, P. (Eds), NUMIFORM 95, Balkema, Amsterdam, pp. 357-62.
Wu, P.D. et al. (2001), Large strain behaviour of very thin aluminium sheets under planar
simple shear, J. Phys. IV, Vol. 11 No. 5, pp. 229-36.
Xie, C. et al. (2000), Study of texture effect on strain localization of BCC steel sheets, Acta Mech.
Solida Sinica, Vol. 13 No. 2, pp. 95-104.
Xie, C.L. and Nakamachi, E. (2002), Investigations of the formability of BCC steel sheets by
using crystalline plasticity finite element analysis, Mater. Design, Vol. 23 No. 1,
pp. 59-68.
Xie, C.L. and Nakamachi, E. (2002), The effect of crystallographic textures on the formability of
high-strength steel sheets, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 122 No. 1, pp. 104-11.
Xie, C.L. and Nakamachi, E. (2003), Design of texture for improved formability of high-strength
steel, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, Vol. 340 Nos 1/2, pp. 130-8.
Xu, Y. (2001), Development and application of universal formability technology, J. Mater. Sci.
Technol., Vol. 17 No. 4, pp. 471-2.
Yamada, K. et al. (2003), Anisotropic yield function of sheet forming simulation for aluminum
alloy by using commercial FEM software LS-DYNA V950, J. Phys. IV, Vol. 105, pp. 47-52.
Yong, M.S. et al. (2003), Evaluation of the formability of magnesium alloy, AZ31, Mater. Sci.
Forum, Vols 437-438, pp. 435-8.
Yoon, J.W. et al. (1995), Finite element method for sheet forming based on an anisotropic
strain-rate potential and the convected coordinate system, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 37 No. 7,
pp. 733-52.
Yoon, J.W. et al. (2002), Microstructure-based constitutive modeling for the analysis and design
of aluminium sheet forming processes, Key Eng. Mater., Vols 230-232, pp. 497-500.
Yoshida, F. and Uemori, T. (2002), A model of large-strain cyclic plasticity describing the
Bauschinger effect and workhardening stagnation, Int. J. Plast., Vol. 18 Nos 5/6,
pp. 661-86.
Yoshida, T. et al. (1995), 3-D FEM analysis of sheet metal deep drawability and
stretchability-application of FEM analysis to research formability of sheet metals,
Nippon Steel Tech. Rep., Vol. 67, pp. 37-42.
Zhao, K.M. and Lee, J.K. (2001), Material properties of aluminum alloy for accurate draw-bend
simulation, J. Eng. Mater. Technol., ASME, Vol. 123 No. 3, pp. 287-92.
Zhao, K.M. and Lee, J.K. (2002), Finite element analysis of the three-point bending of sheet
metals, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 122 No. 1, pp. 6-11.
Zhou, Y. et al. (1997), Incorporation of an anisotropic (texture-based) strain-rate potential into
three-dimensional finite element simulations, Int. J. Plast., Vol. 13 Nos 1/2, pp. 165-81.
Zimniak, Z. (2000), Implementation of the forming limit stress diagram in FEM simulations,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 106 Nos 1/3, pp. 261-6.
Springback
Abdelsalam, U. et al. (1998), On a fast springback program for sheet metal stamping: validation
and applications, SAE Spec. Publ., Vol. 1322, pp. 69-72.
Boyce, M.C. and Karafillis, A.P. (1995), Tooling and binder design for 3D sheet metal
forming processes using springback calculations, in Shen, S.F. and Dawson, P. (Eds),
NUMIFORM 95, Balkema, Amsterdam, pp. 581-6.
Camelio, J.A. et al. (2002), Impact of fixture design on sheet metal assembly variation,
ASME Design Eng. Tech. Conf., Montreal, ASME, pp. 133-40.
Cao, J. et al. (1999), Prediction of springback in straight flanging operation, ASME Int.
Mech. Eng. Cong. Expo., MED Vol. 10, ASME, pp. 921-8.

Finite element
analyses

905

EC
21,8

906

Cao, J. et al. (2000), Consistent and minimal springback using a stepped binder force
trajectory and neural network control, J. Eng. Mater. Technol., ASME, Vol. 122 No. 1,
pp. 113-18.
Cao, J. et al. (2002), Eliminating springback error in U-shaped part forming by variable
blankholder force, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., Vol. 11 No. 1, pp. 64-70.
Chang, S.H. et al. (2002), Springback characteristics of the tailor-welded strips in U-bending,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vols 130-131, pp. 14-19.
Chang, Y.C. et al. (2002), A study of cold ironing as a post-process for net-shape manufacture,
Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., Vol. 42 No. 8, pp. 945-52.
Chen, F.K. and Chao, M.T. (1997), Deformation mechanics of the springback in U-bending,
Appl. Mech. Eng., Vol. 2 No. 3, pp. 379-403.
Cho, J.R. et al. (2003), Finite element investigation on spring-back characteristics in sheet metal
U-bending process, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 141 No. 1, pp. 109-16.
Choi, K.K. and Kim, N.H. (2002), Design optimization of springback in a deep drawing process,
AIAA J., Vol. 40 No. 1, pp. 147-53.
Chou, I.N. and Hung, C. (1999), Finite element analysis and optimization on springback
reduction, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., Vol. 39 No. 3, pp. 517-36.
Chun, B.K. et al. (2002), Modeling the Bauschinger effect for sheet metals. Part II: applications,
Int. J. Plast., Vol. 18 Nos 5/6, pp. 597-616.
Delannay, L. et al. (2003), Prediction of residual stresses and springback after bending of a
textured aluminium plate, J. Phys. IV, Vol. 105, pp. 175-82.
Du, C. et al. (1996), A new algorithm for die surface development in sheet metal forming, Cray
Channels, Vol. 18 No. 1, pp. 11-13.
Esat, V. et al. (2002), Finite element analysis of springback in bending of aluminium sheets,
Mater. Design, Vol. 23 No. 2, pp. 223-9.
Finn, M.J. et al. (1995), Use of a coupled explicit-implicit solver for calculating spring-back in
automotive body panels, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 50 Nos 1/4, pp. 395-409.
Geng, L. and Wagoner, R.H. (2002), Role of plastic anisotropy and its evolution on springback,
Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 44 No. 1, pp. 123-48.
Guo, Y.Q. et al. (2000), Two simple triangular shell element for springback simulation after deep
drawing of thin sheets, in Topping, B.H.V. (Ed.), Finite Elem.: Tech. Devel., Civil-Comp,
Stirling, pp. 285-98.
Guo, Y.Q. et al. (2002), An efficient DKT rotation free shell element for springback simulation in
sheet metal forming, Computers Struct., Vol. 80 No. 27, pp. 2299-312.
He, N. and Wagoner, R.H. (1996), Springback simulation in sheet metal forming, in Lee, J.K. et al.
(Eds), Numisheet 96, Dearborn, pp. 308-15.
Hira, T. et al. (2002), Utilization of finite element method for expanding application of high
strength steels to automotive body, Kawasaki Steel Tech. Rep., No. 46, pp. 12-18.
Hu, Z. (2000), Elasto-plastic solutions for spring-back angle of pipe bending using local
induction heating, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 102 Nos 1/3, pp. 103-08.
Huang, H.M. et al. (2001), Stress and strain histories of multiple bending-unbending
springback process, J. Eng. Mater. Technol., ASME, Vol. 123 No. 4, pp. 384-90.
Jerbic, B. et al. (1997), Finite element analysis of the stress-strain condition and computer aided
modeling of bending tools for robotic assembly, in Owen, D.R.J. (Ed.), 5th Int. Conf.
Comput. Plast., CIMNE, pp. 1916-21.
Joannic, D. and Gelin, J.C. (1995), Accurate simulation of springback in 3D sheet metal forming
processes, in Shen, S.F. and Dawson, P. (Eds), NUMIFORM 95, Balkema, Amsterdam,
pp. 729-34.
Jung, D.W. (2002), Static-explicit finite element method and its application to drawbead
process with spring-back, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 128 Nos 1/3, pp. 292-301.

Karafilis, A.P. and Boyce, M.C. (1996), Tooling and binder design for sheet metal forming
processes compensating springback error, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., Vol. 36 No. 4,
pp. 503-26.
Kutt, L.M. et al. (1999), Non-linear finite element analysis of springback, Commun. Num. Meth.
Eng., Vol. 15 No. 1, pp. 33-42.
Lee, S.W. (2002), Study on the forming parameters of the metal bellows, J. Mater. Process.
Technol., Vols 130-131, pp. 47-53.
Lee, S.W. et al. (1999), Comparative investigation into the dynamic explicit and the static
implicit method for springback of sheet metal stamping, Eng. Comput., Vol. 16 No. 3,
pp. 347-73.
Li, G.Y. et al. (1999), Springback analysis for sheet forming processes by explicit finite element
method in conjunction with the orthogonal regression analysis, Int. J. Solids Struct.,
Vol. 36 No. 30, pp. 4653-68.
Li, K.P. et al. (1999), Simulation of springback with the draw/bend test, paper presented at the
2nd Int. Conf. Intell. Process. Manuf. Mater., IPMM99, IEEE, pp. 91-104.
Li, K.P. et al. (2002), Simulation of springback, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 44 No. 1, pp. 103-22.
Li, X. et al. (2002), Effect of the material-hardening mode on the springback simulation accuracy
of V-free bending, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 123 No. 2, pp. 209-11.
Liew, K.M. et al. (2004), Optimal process design of sheet metal forming for minimum springback
via an integrated neural network evolutionary algorithm, Struct. Multidiscip. Optim.,
Vol. 26 Nos 3/4, pp. 284-94.
Lin, S.Y. (1998), Springback phenomenon exhibited in the process of hollow cylinder upsetting,
Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Tech., Vol. 14 No. 7, pp. 466-73.
Lin, S.Y. (1999), Upsetting of a cylindrical specimen between elastic tools, J. Mater. Process.
Technol., Vol. 86 Nos 1/3, pp. 73-80.
Lin, J.C. and Tai, C.C. (1999), The application of neural networks in the prediction of spring-back
in an L-shaped bend, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Tech., Vol. 15 No. 3, pp. 163-70.
Liu, G. et al. (2002), Variable blankholder force in U-shaped part forming for eliminating
springback error, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 120 Nos 1/3, pp. 259-64.
Liu, G. et al. (2002), Improving dimensional accuracy of a U-shaped part through an orthogonal
design experiment, Finite Elem. Anal. Design, Vol. 39 No. 2, pp. 107-18.
Liu, Y. et al. (2002), Springback simulation and analysis of strong anisotropic sheet metals in
U-channel bending process, Acta Mech. Sinica, Vol. 18 No. 3, pp. 264-73.
Liu, Y. et al. (2003), Quantitative prediction for springback of unloading and trimming in sheet
metal stamping forming, Chinese J. Mech. Eng., Vol. 16 No. 2, pp. 190-6.
Livatyali, H. and Altan, T. (2001), Prediction and elimination of springback in straight flanging
using computer aided design methods. Part 1: experimental investigations, J. Mater.
Process. Technol., Vol. 117 Nos 1/2, pp. 262-8.
Livatyali, H. et al. (2002), Prediction and elimination of springback in straight flanging using
computer-aided design methods. Part 2: FEM predictions and tool design, J. Mater.
Process. Technol., Vol. 120 Nos 1/3, pp. 348-54.
Lu, X. and Balendra, R. (2001), Finite element simulation for die-cavity compensation,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 115 No. 2, pp. 227-32.
Mattiasson, K. et al. (1995), Simulation of springback in sheet metal forming, in Shen, S.F.
and Dawson, P. (Eds), NUMIFORM 95, Balkema, Amsterdam, pp. 115-24.
Mercer, C.D. et al. (1995), Effective application of different solvers to forming simulations,
in Shen, S.F. and Dawson, P. (Eds), NUMIFORM 95, Balkema, Amsterdam,
pp. 469-74.
Micari, F. et al. (1997), Springback evaluation in fully 3D sheet metal forming processes, CIRP
Annals, Vol. 46 No. 1, pp. 167-70.
Morimoto, H. et al. (1998), Analysis of springback in the side bending process, Furukawa Rev.,
Vol. 16, pp. 89-95.

Finite element
analyses

907

EC
21,8

908

Narasimhan, N. and Lovell, M. (1999), Predicting springback in sheet metal forming: an explicit
to implicit sequential solution procedure, Finite Elem. Anal. Design, Vol. 33 No. 1,
pp. 29-42.
Nishino, S. et al. (2003), Proposal for reducing press working load and highly accurate
evaluation of springback error in bending automobile sheet metal, JSAE Rev., Vol. 24
No. 3, pp. 283-8.
Ohwue, T. et al. (2003), Experiment and static implicit analysis of springback in bend forming of
a bumper model, Mater. Trans., Vol. 44 No. 5, pp. 946-50.
Papeleux, L. and Ponthot, J.P. (2002), Finite element simulation of springback in sheet metal
forming, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vols 125-126, pp. 785-91.
Park, D.W. et al. (1999), Springback simulation by combination method of explicit and implicit
FEM, in Gelin, J.C. et al. (Eds), NUMISHEET 99, pp. 35-40.
Peng, X. et al. (2003), FE analysis of springback and secondary yielding effect during forward
extrusion, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 135 Nos 2/3, pp. 211-18.
Pourboghrat, F. and Chu, E. (1995), Springback in plane strain stretch/draw sheet forming, Int.
J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 36 No. 3, pp. 327-41.
Pourboghrat, F. and Chu, E. (1995), Prediction of spring-back and side-wall curl in 2D draw
bending, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 50 Nos 1/4, pp. 361-74.
Pourboghrat, F. et al. (1998), A 3D hybrid membrane/shell method with kinematic hardening to
predict the springback of sheet metals, paper presented at the 4th World Cong. Comput.
Mech., Buenos Aires, p. 338.
Pourboghrat, F. et al. (1998), A hybrid membrane/shell method for rapid estimation of
springback in anisotropic sheet metals, J. Appl. Mech., ASME, Vol. 65 No. 3, pp. 671-84.
Pourboghrat, F. et al. (2000), A hybrid membrane/shell method for calculating springback of
anisotropic sheet metals undergoing axisymmetric loading, Int. J. Plast., Vol. 16 No. 6,
pp. 677-700.
Rosochowski, A. (2001), Die compensation procedure to negate die deflection and component
springback, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 115 No. 2, pp. 187-91.
Ruffini, R. and Cao, J. (1998), Using neural network for springback minimization in a channel
forming process, SAE Spec. Publ., Vol. 1322, pp. 77-85.
Samuel, M. (2000), Experimental and numerical prediction of springback and side wall curl in
U-bendings of anisotropic sheet metals, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 105 No. 3,
pp. 382-93.
Shima, S. and Yang, M. (1995), Study of accuracy in an intelligent V-bending process for sheet
metals-change in Youngs modulus due to plastic deformation, effect on springback, J. Soc.
Mater. Sci. Jpn., Vol. 44 No. 500, pp. 578-83.
Shu, J.S. and Hung, C. (1996), Finite element analysis and optimization of springback reduction:
the double-bend technique, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., Vol. 36 No. 4, pp. 423-34.
Soltani, B. et al. (1996), Residual stresses and spring back of blade forging using solid and flow
approaches, paper presented at the 9th Nordic Sem. Comput. Mech., Lyngby, pp. 47-50.
Song, N. et al. (2001), Effective models for prediction of springback in flanging, J. Eng. Mater.
Technol., ASME, Vol. 123 No. 4, pp. 456-61.
Song, Y. et al. (2003), Spring-back simulation of sheet metal forming for the HT-7U vacuum
vessel, Fusion Eng. Design, Vol. 69 Nos 1/4, pp. 361-5.
Sunseri, M. et al. (1996), Accommodation of springback error in channel forming using active
binder force control: simulations and experiments, J. Eng. Mater. Technol., ASME,
Vol. 118 No. 3, pp. 426-35.
Uemori, T. et al. (2000), FE analysis of springback in hat-bending with consideration of initial
anisotropy and the Bauschinger effect, Key Eng. Mater., Vols 177-180, pp. 497-502.
Valente, F. et al. (1997), Springback prediction for stamping tools compensation by numerical
simulation, in Owen, D.R.J. (Ed.), 5th Int. Conf. Comput. Plast., CIMNE, pp. 1431-8.

Wagoner, R.H. et al. (1999), Simulation of springback with the draw/bend test, IPMM 99,
pp. 91-104.
Wu, L. et al. (1995), Iterative FEM die surface design to compensate for springback in sheet
metal stampings, in Shen, S.F. and Dawson, P. (Eds), NUMIFORM 95, Balkema,
Amsterdam, pp. 637-41.
Zhao, K.M. (1999), Cyclic stress-strain curve and springback simulation, PhD thesis, The Ohio
State University, Columbus, OH.
Zhou, D. et al. (1996), Bending and springback using membrane elements, Eng. Syst. Design
Anal., Vol. 75, ASME, pp. 135-42.
Fracture mechanics problems
Ahmetoglu, M. et al. (1995), Control of blank holder force to eliminate wrinkling and fracture in
deep-drawing rectangular parts, CIRP Annals, Vol. 44 No. 1, pp. 247-50.
Arrieux, R. et al. (1996), A method to predict the onset of necking in numerical simulation of
deep drawing operations, CIRP Annals, Vol. 45, pp. 255-8.
Balasubramanian, S. and Anand, L. (1996), Single crystal and polycrystal elasto-viscoplasticity:
application to earing in cup drawing of FCC materials, Comput. Mech., Vol. 17 No. 4,
pp. 209-25.
Balasubramanian, S. and Anand, L. (1998), Polycrystalline plasticity: application to earing in
cup drawing of Al2008-T4 sheet, J. Appl. Mech., ASME, Vol. 65 No. 1, pp. 268-71.
Bandstra, J.P. and Koss, D.A. (2001), Modeling the ductile fracture process of void coalescence
by void-sheet formation, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, Vols 319-321, pp. 490-5.
Bandstra, J.P. et al. (1998), Ductile failure as a result of a void-sheet instability: experiment and
computational modeling, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, Vol. 249 Nos 1/2, pp. 46-54.
Boudeau, N. and Gelin, J.C. (1996), Post-processing of finite element results and prediction of the
localized necking in sheet metal forming, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 60 Nos 1/4,
pp. 325-31.
Boudeau, N. et al. (1996), Necking in sheet metalforming prediction from finite element
simulations and computations, in Lee, J.K. et al. (Eds), Numisheet 96, Dearborn, pp. 220-7.
Brocks, W. et al. (2001), Modeling of crack growth in sheet metal, ZAMM, Vol. 81 S1, pp. 133-6.
Brunet, M. and Morestin, F. (2001), Experimental and analytical necking studies of anisotropic
sheet metals, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 112 Nos 2/3, pp. 214-26.
Brunet, M. and Sabourin, F. (1995), A simplified triangular shell element with a necking
criterion for 3D sheet forming analysis, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 50 Nos 1/4,
pp. 238-51.
Brunet, M. et al. (1995), Necking prediction using forming limit stress surfaces in 3D sheet metal
forming simulation, in Shen, S.F. and Dawson, P. (Eds), NUMIFORM 95, Balkema,
Amsterdam, pp. 669-74.
Cao, J. (1999), Wrinkling prediction in numerical simulation, paper presented at the 5th US Nat.
Cong. Comput. Mech., Boulder, p. 410.
Cao, J. (1999), Prediction of plastic wrinkling using the energy method, J. Appl. Mech., ASME,
Vol. 66 No. 3, pp. 646-52.
Cao, J. and Boyce, M.C. (1995), Optimization of sheet metal forming processes by instability
analysis and control, in Shen, S.F. and Dawson, P. (Eds), NUMIFORM 95, Balkema,
Amsterdam, pp. 675-9.
Cao, J. and Boyce, M.C. (1997), A predictive tool for delaying wrinkling and tearing failures
in sheet metal forming, J. Eng. Mater. Technol., ASME, Vol. 119 No. 4, pp. 354-65.
Cao, J. and Boyce, M.C. (1997), Wrinkling behavior of rectangular plates under lateral
constraint, Int. J. Solids Struct., Vol. 34 No. 2, pp. 153-76.
Cao, J. et al. (2002), Characterization of sheet buckling subjected to controlled boundary
constraints, J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., ASME, Vol. 124 No. 3, pp. 493-501.

Finite element
analyses

909

EC
21,8

910

Casas, E.B.L. et al. (1998), Drawbead simulation and failure criterion in sheet metal forming
processes, paper presented at the 4th World Cong. Comput. Mech., Buenos Aires,
p. 1162.
Chabanet, O. et al. (2003), Predicting crack growth resistance of aluminium sheets, Comput.
Mater. Sci., Vol. 26 No. 1, pp. 1-12.
Chen, Z.T. et al. (2003), A linked FEM-damage percolation model of aluminum alloy sheet
forming, Int. J. Plast., Vol. 19 No. 12, pp. 2099-120.
Chien, W.Y. et al. (2003), Failure prediction of aluminum laser-welded blanks, Int. J. Damage
Mech., Vol. 12 No. 3, pp. 193-224.
Chow, C.L. and Tai, W.H. (2000), Damage based formability analysis of sheet metal with
LS-DYNA, Int. J. Damage Mech., Vol. 9 No. 3, pp. 241-54.
Chow, C.L. et al. (2003), Computer simulation of sheet metal forming based on damage
mechanics approach, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 139 Nos 1/3, pp. 553-8.
Croix, P. et al. (2003), Improvement of damage prediction by anisotropy of microvoids, J. Mater.
Process. Technol., Vols 143-144, pp. 202-8.
Crosby, K.E. et al. (1998), Yield locus of Al-Li sheets under biaxial condition, paper presented at
the 1998 ASME Energy Sources Tech. Conf., Houston, ASME, 98-4570.
Dawicke, D.S. et al. (1995), Three-dimensional CTOA and constraint effects during stable
tearing in a thin-sheet material, ASTM Spec. Tech. Publ. No. 1256, pp. 223-42.
Dawicke, D.S. et al. (1995), Measurement and analysis of critical CTOA for an aluminum alloy
sheet, ASTM Spec. Tech. Publ. No. 1220, pp. 358-79.
De M. Correia, J.P. and Ferron, G. (2002), Wrinkling predictions in the deep-drawing process of
anisotropic metal sheets, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 128 Nos 1/3, pp. 178-90.
De M. Correia, J.P. and Ferron, G. (2003), Wrinkling of anisotropic sheet metals under deep
drawing, J. Phys. IV, Vol. 105, pp. 89-96.
De M. Correia, J.P. et al. (2003), Analytical and numerical investigation of wrinkling for
deep-drawn anisotropic metal sheets, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 45 Nos 6/7, pp. 1167-80.
De Magalhaes, J.P. and Ferron, G. (2003), Wrinkling of anisotropic sheet metals under deep
drawing, J. Phys. IV, Vol. 105, pp. 89-96.
Di, S. and Thomson, P.F. (1997), Neural network approach for prediction of wrinkling limit in
square metal sheet under diagonal tension, J. Test. Eval., Vol. 25 No. 1, pp. 74-81.
Elgueta, M. (2002), Ductile damage analysis of sheet metal forming, J. Mater. Process. Technol.,
Vol. 121 No. 1, pp. 148-56.
Farzin, M. et al. (2002), Determination of buckling limit of strain in cold roll forming by the finite
element analysis, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vols 125-126, pp. 626-32.
Fawaz, S.A. and De Rijck, J.J.M. (1999), A thin-sheet, combined tension and bending specimen,
Exp. Mech., Vol. 39 No. 3, pp. 171-6.
Gotoh, M. et al. (1995), Finite-element simulation of deformation and breakage in sheet metal
forming, JSME Int. J. Ser A, Vol. 38 No. 2, pp. 281-8.
Gotoh, M. et al. (1996), Investigations of puckering in the cylindrical cup-drawing, Trans. Jpn.
Soc. Mech. Eng., Ser C, Vol. 62 No. 595, pp. 1147-55.
Grange, M. et al. (2000), An anisotropic Gurson type model to represent the ductile rupture of
hydrided Zircaloy-4 sheets, Int. J. Fract., Vol. 105 No. 3, pp. 273-93.
Gullerud, A.S. et al. (1999), Three-dimensional modeling of ductile crack growth in thin sheet
metals: computational aspects and validation, Eng. Fract. Mech., Vol. 63 No. 4, pp. 347-73.
Haggblad, B. and Nordlund, P. (1996), Tracing local buckling phenomena (wrinkles) in sheet
metal forming, paper presented at the 9th Nordic Sem. Comput. Mech., Lyngby,
pp. 149-51.
Hambli, R. (2001), Finite element model fracture prediction during sheet-metal blanking
processes, Eng. Fract. Mech., Vol. 68 No. 3, pp. 365-78.
Hambli, R. and Kobi, S. (2002), Damage and fracture prediction during L-bending processes,
IEEE Int. Conf. Syst. Man. Cyber., Vol. 3, pp. 467-71.

Hematian, J. and Wild, P.M. (2001), The effects of tooling imperfections on the initiation of
wrinkling in finite element modeling of a deep drawing process, J. Eng. Mater. Technol.,
ASME, Vol. 123 No. 4, pp. 442-6.
Hofmeyer, H. et al. (2000), Finite element models for web crippling and bending moment failure
of first-generation trapezoidal sheeting, paper presented at the 15th Int. Spec. Conf.
Cold-Form. Struct., St Louis, MO
Hofmeyer, H. et al. (2002), Combined web crippling and bending moment failure of
first-generation trapezoidal steel sheeting, J. Constr. Steel Res., Vol. 58 No. 12, pp. 1509-29.
Hora, P. et al. (1996), Prediction method for ductile sheet metal failure in FE-simulation, in Lee,
J.K. et al. (Eds), Numisheet 96, Dearborn, pp. 252-6.
Hu, J. et al. (2000), Finite element analysis of damage evolution and the prediction of the limiting
draw ratio in textured aluminum sheets, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 103 No. 3,
pp. 374-82.
Huang, H.M. et al. (2000), Failure prediction in anisotropic sheet metals under forming
operations with consideration of rotating principal stretch directions, Int. J. Plast., Vol. 16
No. 6, pp. 611-33.
Jain, M. et al. (1999), Fracture limit prediction using ductile fracture criteria for forming of an
automotive aluminum sheet, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 41 No. 10, pp. 1273-88.
Jia, S. and Povirk, G.L. (2002), Modeling the effects of hole distribution in perforated aluminum
sheets II: minimum strength failure paths, Int. J. Solids Struct., Vol. 39 No. 9, pp. 2533-45.
Jia, S. et al. (2002), Modeling the effects of hole distribution in perforated aluminum sheets I:
representative unit cells, Int. J. Solids Struct., Vol. 39 No. 9, pp. 2517-32.
Kawka, M. et al. (2001), Simulation of wrinkling in sheet metal forming, J. Mater. Process.
Technol., Vol. 109 No. 3, pp. 283-9.
Kim, J.B. and Yang, D.Y. (2003), Prediction of wrinkling initiation in sheet metal forming
processes, Eng. Comput., Vol. 20 Nos 1/2, pp. 6-39.
Kim, J.B. et al. (2000), Wrinkling initiation and growth in modified Yoshida buckling test: finite
element analysis and experimental comparison, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 42 No. 9,
pp. 1683-714.
Kim, J.B. et al. (2001), Investigation into wrinkling behavior in the elliptical cup deep drawing
process by finite element analysis using bifurcation theory, J. Mater. Process. Technol.,
Vol. 111 Nos 1/3, pp. 170-4.
Kim, J.B. et al. (2003), Investigation into the wrinkling behaviour of thin sheets in the cylindrical
cup deep drawing process using bifurcation theory, Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng., Vol. 56 No. 12,
pp. 1673-705.
Lanciotti, A. and Polese, C. (2003), Fatigue crack propagation of through cracks in thin sheets
under combined traction and bending stresses, Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct., Vol. 26
No. 5, pp. 421-8.
Lee, Y.C. and Chen, F.K. (2000), Yield criterion for a perforated sheet with a uniform triangular
pattern of round holes and a low ligament ratio, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 103 No. 3,
pp. 353-61.
Li, W. and Siegmund, T. (2002), An analysis of crack growth in thin-sheet metal via a
cohesive zone model, Eng. Fract. Mech., Vol. 69 No. 18, pp. 2073-93.
Liu, Y. et al. (2002), Finite element analysis of the flange earrings of strong anisotropic
sheet metals in deep-drawing processes, Acta Mech. Sinica, Vol. 18 No. 1, pp. 82-91.
Lievers, W.B. et al. (1999), Incorporating void damage into numerical predictions of
AA6111 sheet bendability, Light Metals 1999, Canada, pp. 501-12.
Logan, R.W. (1995), Finite element analysis of earing using non-quadratic yield surfaces,
in Shen, S.F. and Dawson, P. (Eds), NUMIFORM 95, Balkema, Amsterdam,
pp. 755-60.
Mahnken, R. (2000), A comprehensive study of a multiplicative elastoplasticity model coupled to
damage including parameter identification, Computers Struct., Vol. 74 No. 2, pp. 179-200.

Finite element
analyses

911

EC
21,8

912

Mattiasson, K. (1999), Prediction of necking failure in sheet metals with special reference to shell
element formulation, paper presented at the 2nd Europ. LS-DYNA Conf., Gothenburg, pp.
C3-11.
Mikkelsen, L.P. (1997), Post-necking behaviour modelled by a gradient dependent plasticity
theory, Int. J. Solids Struct., Vol. 34 Nos 35/36, pp. 4531-46.
Mikkelsen, L.P. (1997), 2D nonlocal approach to the post-necking behaviour, in Owen, D.R.J.
(Ed.), 5th Int. Conf. Comput. Plast., CIMNE, pp. 696-701.
Nakamachi, E. and Dong, X. (1997), Study of texture effect on sheet failure in a limit dome
height test by using elastic/crystalline viscoplastic finite element analysis, J. Appl. Mech.,
ASME, Vol. 64 No. 3, pp. 519-24.
Nordlund, P. (1998), Adaptivity and wrinkle indication in sheet metal forming, Comp. Meth.
Appl. Mech. Eng., Vol. 161 Nos 1/2, pp. 127-43.
Nordlund, P. and Haggblad, B. (1997), Prediction of wrinkle tendencies in explicit sheet metal
forming simulations, Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng., Vol. 40 No. 22, pp. 4079-95.
Ozturk, F. (2002), Analysis of forming limits using ductile fracture criteria, PhD thesis,
Rensselaer Polytech. Inst.
Pardoen, T. et al. (2004), Mode I fracture of sheet metal, J. Mech. Phys. Solids, Vol. 52 No. 2,
pp. 423-52.
Prat, F. et al. (1998), Behavior and rupture of hydrided Zircaloy-4 tubes and sheets, Metall.
Mater. Trans. A, Vol. 29 No. 6, pp. 1643-51.
Rogers, C.A. and Hancock, G.J. (2001), Fracture toughness of G550 sheet steels subjected to
tension, J. Constr. Steel Res., Vol. 57 No. 1, pp. 71-89.
Roschke, P. and Mascorro, E. (1996), Failure prediction for cross-rolled beryllium sheet
material, J. Eng. Mater. Technol., ASME, Vol. 118 No. 2, pp. 207-12.
Simonsen, B.C. and Lauridsen, L.P. (2000), Energy absorption and ductile failure in metal sheets
under lateral indentation by a sphere, Int. J. Impact Eng., Vol. 24 No. 10, pp. 1017-39.
Tai, W.H. and Lee, W.B. (1996), Finite element simulation of in-plane forming processes of
sheets containing plastic damage, in Lee, J.K. et al. (Eds), Numisheet 96, Dearborn,
pp. 257-61.
Takuda, H. (2003), Prediction of forming limit of high-strength steel sheets by means of criterion
for ductile fracture, Key Eng. Mater., Vols 251-252, pp. 1-6.
Takuda, H. et al. (1997), Fracture prediction in stretch forming using finite element simulation
combined with ductile fracture criterion, Arch. Appl. Mech., Vol. 67 No. 3, pp. 143-50.
Takuda, H. et al. (1999), The application of some criteria for ductile fracture to the prediction of
the forming limit of sheet metals, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 95 Nos 1/3, pp. 116-21.
Takuda, H. et al. (2000), Finite element analysis of limit strains in biaxial stretching of sheet
metals allowing for ductile fracture, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 42 No. 4, pp. 785-98.
Vollertsen, F. and Lange, K. (2002), Process layout avoiding reverse drawing wrinkles in
hydroforming of sheet metal, CIRP Annals, Vol. 51 No. 1, pp. 203-8.
Wang, L. and Atluri, S.N. (1996), Elastic-plastic analyses of multiple site damages in aluminum
sheets using finite element alternating method, 1996 ASME Int. Mech. Eng. Cong. Expo.,
AD Vol. 52, ASME, pp. 227-39.
Wang, X. and Cao, J. (2000), On the prediction of side-wall wrinkling in sheet metal forming
processes, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 42 No. 12, pp. 2369-94.
Wang, D.A. et al. (2003), A Gurson yield function for anisotropic porous sheet metals and its
applications to failure prediction of aluminum sheets, Chinese J. Mech. Ser A, Vol. 19 No. 1,
pp. 161-8.
Yao, H. and Cao, J. (2001), Assessment of corner failure depths in the deep drawing of 3D panels
using simplified 2D numerical and analytical models, J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., ASME, Vol. 123
No. 2, pp. 248-57.
Yoon, J.W. et al. (2000), Earing predictions based on asymmetric nonquadratic yield function,
Int. J. Plast., Vol. 16 No. 9, pp. 1075-104.

Yu, Y. et al. (2002), Design of a cruciform biaxial tensile specimen for limit strain analysis by
FEM, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 123 No. 1, pp. 67-70.
Zhao, K.M. and Lee, J.K. (2002), Finite element analysis of the three-point bending of sheet
metals, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 122 No. 1, pp. 6-11.
Computational strategies, modelling and other phenomena
Aberlenc, F. et al. (1995), OPTRIS: the complete simulation of the sheet metal forming, in Shen,
S.F. and Dawson, P. (Eds), NUMIFORM 95, Balkema, Amsterdam, pp. 651-6.
Baik, S.C. et al. (1996), Analysis of the deformation of a perforated sheet under uniaxial tension,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 58 Nos 2/3, pp. 139-44.
Baik, S.C. et al. (1997), Plastic behaviour of perforated sheets under biaxial stress state, Int.
J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 39 No. 7, pp. 781-93.
Batoz, J.L. and Guo, Y.Q. (1997), Analysis and design of sheet forming parts using a simplified
inverse approach, in Owen, D.R.J. (Ed.), 5th Int. Conf. Comput. Plast., CIMNE, pp. 178-95.
Batoz, J.L. et al. (1998), The inverse approach with simple triangular shell elements for large
strain predictions of sheet metal forming parts, Eng. Comput., Vol. 15 No. 7, pp. 864-92.
Brunet, M. and Sabourin, F. (1995), A simplified triangular shell element with a necking
criterion for 3D sheet forming analysis, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 50 Nos 1/4,
pp. 238-51.
Cai, Z. and Li, M. (2001), Optimum path forming technique for sheet metal and its realization in
multi-point forming, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 110 No. 2, pp. 136-41.
Cai, Z.Y. et al. (2001), Theory and method of optimum path forming for sheet metal, Chinese
J. Aeronaut., Vol. 14 No. 2, pp. 118-22.
Carleer, B.D. and Huetink, J. (1996), Closing the gap between the workshop and numerical
simulation in sheet metal forming, in Desideri, J.A. et al. (Eds), ECCOMAS 96, pp. 554-60.
Carleer, B.D. et al. (1996), Sheet metal forming simulations with a friction model based on local
contact conditions, in Lee, J.K. et al. (Eds), Numisheet 96, pp. 40-6.
Chen, F.K. (1995), Deformation analysis of simple-shear sheet specimens, J. Eng. Mater.
Technol., ASME, Vol. 117 No. 3, pp. 269-77.
Chen, K.K. and Schmitz, D.J. (1995), Using binder forming analysis to assist the design of sheet
metal forming dies, in Shen, S.F. and Dawson, P. (Eds), NUMIFORM 95, Balkema,
Amsterdam, pp. 687-92.
Chen, G. et al. (1995), 3D elasto-plastic finite element simulation of sheet metal forming, Num.
Implem. Appl. Constit. Models FEM, AMD Vol. 213, ASME, pp. 145-9.
Cho, J.W. et al. (2002), A simplified approach for incorporating thickness stress in the analysis of
sheet metal forming using shell elements, Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng., Vol. 53 No. 10,
pp. 2311-27.
Chung, W.J. et al. (1996), A study on dynamic effects of dynamic explicit FEM in sheet metal
forming analysis, in Lee, J.K. et al. (Eds), Numisheet 96, Dearborn, pp. 414-20.
Chung, W.J. et al. (1998), On the dynamic effects of explicit FEM in sheet metal forming
analysis, Eng. Comput., Vol. 15 No. 6, pp. 750-76.
Chung, K. et al. (2000), Ideal sheet forming with frictional constraints, Int. J. Plast., Vol. 16 No. 6,
pp. 595-610.
Darendeliler, H. (1998), Elastic-plastic large strain-large displacement analysis of sheet metal
forming processes, in Topping, B.H.V. (Ed.), Adv. Comp. Struct. Mech., Civil-Comp,
Stirling, pp. 343-8.
Dong, X. and Nakamachi, E. (1996), Prediction of plastic instability of sheet metal by using
elastic/crystalline viscoplastic FE analysis, in Lee, J.K. et al. (Eds), Numisheet 96,
Dearborn, pp. 136-43.
Du, C. et al. (1996), A new algorithm for die surface development in sheet metal forming, Cray
Channels, Vol. 18 No. 1, pp. 11-13.

Finite element
analyses

913

EC
21,8

914

El Mouatassim, M. et al. (1995), An industrial finite element code for one-step simulation of sheet
metal forming, in Shen, S.F. and Dawson, P. (Eds), NUMIFORM 95, Balkema,
Amsterdam, pp. 761-6.
Esche, S.K. et al. (1999), An axisymmetric membrane element with bending stiffness for static
implicit sheet metal forming simulation, J. Appl. Mech., ASME, Vol. 66 No. 1, pp. 153-64.
Galbraith, P.C. and Hallquist, J.O. (1995), Shell element formulations in LS-DYNA3D: their use in
the modelling of sheet metal forming, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 50 Nos 1/4,
pp. 158-67.
Gantar, G. et al. (2002), Optimization of sheet metal forming processes by the use of numerical
simulations, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vols 130-131, pp. 54-9.
Gearing, B.P. et al. (2001), A plasticity model for interface friction: application to sheet metal
forming, Int. J. Plast., Vol. 17 No. 2, pp. 237-71.
Gelin, J.C. et al. (1995), Quasi-static implicit and transient explicit analyses of sheet-metal
forming using C0 three-node shell element, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 50 Nos 1/4,
pp. 54-69.
Guangxia, C. et al. (1995), 3D elasto-plastic finite element simulation of sheet metal forming,
1995 ASME Int. Mech. Eng. Cong. Expo., AMD Vol. 213, ASME, pp. 145-9.
Guo, Y.Q. et al. (1998), Some recent developments of the simplified inverse approach for sheet
metal forming analysis, in Topping, B.H.V. (Ed.), Adv. Comp. Struct. Mech., Civil-Comp,
Stirling, pp. 333-42.
Guo, Y.Q. et al. (2000), Recent developments on the analysis and optimum design of sheet metal
forming parts using a simplified inverse approach, Computers Struct., Vol. 78 Nos 1/3,
pp. 133-48.
Haar, R. (1996), Friction in sheet metal forming, the influence of local contact conditions and
deformation, PhD thesis, University of Twente, Enschede.
Haar, R. et al. (1996), Special friction tester for measurements under sheet metal forming contact
conditions, in Kals, H.J.J. et al. (Eds), SHEMET 96, Vol. 1, pp. 357-66.
Hallquist, J.O. et al. (1995), Improved simulation of thin sheet metalforming using LS-DYNA3D
on parallel computers, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 50 Nos 1/4, pp. 144-57.
Hao, S. et al. (1995), Measuring and modeling friction for sheet metal forming process analysis
and control, 1995 ASME Int. Mech. Eng. Cong. Expo., MED 2-2, ASME, pp. 1213-26.
Hayashi, H. et al. (1995), Recent progress of other technologies in metal working, J. Iron Steel
Inst. Jpn., Vol. 81 No. 4, pp. 356-61.
Hildebrand, B.G. et al. (2000), An evaluation of three material models used in the finite element
simulation of a sheet stretching process, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 103 No. 1,
pp. 57-64.
Hongzhi, D. and Zhongquin, L. (2000), Investigation of sheet metal forming by numerical
simulation and experiment, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 103 No. 3, pp. 404-10.
Hsu, O.C. (2001), Comparison of different analysis models to measure plastic strains on sheet
metal forming parts by digital image processing, paper presented at the 2nd Int. Conf.
Exper. Mech., Singapore, SPIE, pp. 442-7.
Hsu, T.C. and Chu, C.H. (1996), A finite element analysis of sheet metal forming processes,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 54 Nos 1/4, pp. 70-81.
Huh, H. and Kim, S.H. (2001), Optimum process design in sheet-metal forming with finite
element analysis, J. Eng. Mater. Technol., ASME, Vol. 123 No. 4, pp. 476-81.
Huh, H. and Lee, C.H. (1997), Parameter study for optimum design of sheet metal forming
processes with inverse finite element analysis, in Owen, D.R.J. (Ed.), 5th Int. Conf.
Comput. Plast., CIMNE, pp. 1459-66.
Huo, T.G. and Nakamachi, E. (1995), Evaluation of the dynamic explicit elastoviscoplastic finite
element method in sheet forming simulation, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 50 Nos 1/4,
pp. 180-96.

Inal, K. et al. (2002), Large strain behaviour of aluminium sheets subjected to in-plane simple
shear, Model. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng., Vol. 10 No. 2, pp. 237-52.
Inal, K.A. (2002), Numerical simulation of sheet metal forming processes and localized
deformation phenomena for FCC polycrystals, PhD thesis, University de Sherbrooke,
Sherbrooke.
John, R. et al. (2000), Simulation of sheet metal forming on the basis of the deformation theory
and optimization techniques, ZAMM, Vol. 80 S2, pp. 527-8.
Ju, X. et al. (1998), Sheet forming simulation and its application, Automotive Eng., Vol. 20 No. 3,
pp. 144-9.
Jung, D.W. (1998), Study of dynamic explicit analysis in sheet metal forming processes using
faster punch velocity and mass scaling scheme, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., Vol. 7 No. 4,
pp. 479-90.
Jung, D.W. and Yang, K.B. (2000), Comparative investigation into membrane, shell and
continuum elements for the rigid-plastic finite element analysis of 2D sheet metal
forming, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 104 No. 3, pp. 185-90.
Jung, D.W. et al. (1995), A dynamic explicit/rigid-plastic finite element formulation and its
application to sheet metal forming processes, Eng. Comput., Vol. 12 No. 8, pp. 707-22.
Katayama, T. et al. (1995), Optimum process design for sheet forming using finite element
method and mathematical programming (hybrid search method and experimental
verification), Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. Ser A, Vol. 61 No. 590, pp. 2229-34.
Kawka, M. and Makinouchi, A. (1995a), Shell element formulation in the static explicit FEM
code for the simulation of sheet stamping, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 50 Nos 1/4,
pp. 105-15.
Kawka, M. and Makinouchi, A. (1995b), Some advances in FEM simulation of sheet metal
forming processes using shell elements, in Shen, S.F. and Dawson, P. (Eds), NUMIFORM
95, Balkema, Amsterdam, pp. 735-40.
Keum, Y.T. and Lee, K.B. (2000), Sectional finite element analysis of forming processes for
aluminum-alloy sheet metals, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 42 No. 10, pp. 1911-33.
Kim, S.H. and Huh, H. (2002), Design sensitivity analysis of sheet metal forming process with a
direct differentiation method, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vols 130-131, pp. 504-10.
Kim, S. et al. (1995), Application of finite element method to controlling flatness in sheet
metal forming, 1995 ASME Int. Mech. Eng. Cong. Expo., MED 2-2, ASME,
pp. 1111-17.
Kitagawa, H. et al. (1995), Localized deformation on silicon iron sheet (numerical simulation of
BCC crystal based on crystal plasticity theory), Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. Ser A, Vol. 61
No. 590, pp. 2259-63.
Kleiber, M. and Sosnowski, W. (1995), Parameter sensitivity analysis in frictional contact
problems of sheet metal forming, Comput. Mech., Vol. 16 No. 5, pp. 297-306.
Kleiber, M. et al. (2002), Reliability assessment for sheet metal forming operations, Comp.
Meth. Appl. Mech. Eng., Vol. 191 No. 39, pp. 4511-32.
Kompis, M. and Faurholdt, T.G. (2001), Determination of constitutive material parameters for
sheet metal forming, paper presented at the 8th Int. Conf. Civil Struct. Eng. Comput.,
Vienna, pp. 209-10.
Kong, Y. et al. (2002), A simulation technology of sheet-metal forming with trial-and-error
contact algorithm, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 120 Nos 1/3, pp. 1-5.
Kubli, W. and Reissner, J. (1995), Optimization of sheet metal forming processes using the
special-purpose program AUTOFORM, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 50 Nos 1/4,
pp. 292-305.
Kutt, L.M. et al. (1998), Slow-dynamic finite element simulation of manufacturing processes,
Computers Struct., Vol. 66 No. 1, pp. 1-17.

Finite element
analyses

915

EC
21,8

916

Lee, C.H. and Huh, H. (1998), Blank design and strain estimates for sheet metal forming
processes by a finite element inverse approach with initial guess of linear deformation,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 82 Nos 1/3, pp. 145-55.
Lee, D.W. and Yang, D.Y. (1997), Consideration of geometric nonlinearity in rigid-plastic finite
element formulation of continuum elements for large deformation, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 39
No. 12, pp. 1423-40.
Lee, S.W. et al. (1998), A stress integration algorithm for plane stress elastoplasticity and its
applications to explicit FE analysis of sheet metal forming processes, Computers Struct.,
Vol. 66 Nos 2/3, pp. 301-11.
Lee, B.H. et al. (2002), Modeling of the friction caused by lubrication and surface roughness in
sheet metal forming, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vols 130-131, pp. 60-3.
Lei, L.P. et al. (2001), Finite element analysis and design in stainless steel sheet forming and its
experimental comparison, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 110 No. 1, pp. 70-7.
Li, Y.C. (1998), Finite element modelling with contact and friction in sheet metal forming, paper
presented at the 4th World Cong. Comput. Mech., Buenos Aires, p. 418.
Li, K.P. and Cescotto, S. (1996), Numerical simulations of 3D sheet metal forming by a mixed
brick element, in Lee, J.K. et al. (Eds), Numisheet 96, Dearborn, pp. 80-6.
Li, G. and Zhong, Z.H. (1995), Simulation of sheet forming processes with different shell
formulations, paper presented at the 1st Int. Conf. Eng. Comput. Comp. Simul., Changsha,
pp. 156-66.
Li, K.P. et al. (1995), Numerical simulations and benchmarks of 3D sheet metal forming using
LAGAMINE program, in Shen, S.F. and Dawson, P. (Eds), NUMIFORM 95, Balkema,
Amsterdam, pp. 749-54.
Li, G. et al. (1996), 3D dynamic finite element analysis for sheet forming by using a general
contact searching algorithm and different shell elements, in Lee, J.K. et al. (Eds),
Numisheet 96, Dearborn, pp. 421-26.
Li, G.Y. et al. (2001), Sheet forming analysis based on improved contact searching algorithm and
simple approach for contact force evaluation, J. Eng. Mater. Technol., ASME, Vol. 123
No. 1, pp. 119-24.
Liao, K.C. et al. (1998), Effects of yield surface shape on sheet metal forming simulations, Int.
J. Num. Meth. Eng., Vol. 41 No. 3, pp. 559-84.
Lin, S.B. and Ding, J.L. (1995), Experimental study of the plastic yielding of rolled sheet metals
with the cruciform plate specimen, Int. J. Plast., Vol. 11 No. 5, pp. 583-604.
Liu, S.D. and Assempoor, A. (1995), Development of FAST-3D a design-oriented one step FEM
in sheet metal forming, in Owen, D.R.J. (Ed.), 4th Int. Conf. Comput. Plast., Pineridge,
pp. 1515-26.
Lu, S.C. et al. (1996), Integration of CAD and FEA for concurrent engineering design of sheet
stamping, J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., ASME, Vol. 118 No. 3, pp. 310-317.
McLennan, M. et al. (1997), Finite element simulation and on plant experimental validation of
sheet metal forming, paper presented at the 8th Int. Conf. Comput. Meth. Exp. Measur.,
Comp. Mech., pp. 87-96.
Madhavan, V. et al. (2000), Nonlinear finite element analysis of machining and sheet metal
forming, AIAAJ., Vol. 38 No. 11, pp. 2176-86.
Makinouchi, A. (1996), Sheet metal forming simulation in industry, J. Mater. Process. Technol.,
Vol. 60 Nos 1/4, pp. 19-26.
Makinouchi, A. and Kawka, M. (1995), Prediction of geometrical defects in sheet metal forming
processes by semi-implicit FEM, in Ghosh, S.K. et al. (Eds), Mater. Proc. Defects, Elsevier,
Amsterdam, pp. 265-82.
Makinouchi, A. et al. (1998), Advance in FEM simulation and its related technologies in sheet
metal forming, CIRP Annals- Manufact. Tech., Vol. 47 No. 2, pp. 641-9.
Mamuzic, I. et al. (1996), Finite elements for analysis of sheet forming processes, Metallurgy,
Vol. 35 No. 3, pp. 139-44.

Martinet, F. and Chabrand, P. (2000), Application of ALE finite elements method to a lubricated
friction model in sheet metal forming, Int. J. Solids Struct., Vol. 37 No. 29, pp. 4005-31.
Mattiasson, K. et al. (1996), Solution of quasi-static, force-driven problems by means of a
dynamic explicit approach and an adaptive loading procedure, Eng. Comput., Vol. 13 Nos
2/4, pp. 172-89.
Meinders, T. et al. (1998), Implementation of an equivalent drawbead model in a finite element
code for sheet metal forming, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 83 Nos 1/3, pp. 234-44.
Mercer, C.D. et al. (1995), Effective application of different solvers to forming simulations, in
Shen, S.F. and Dawson, P. (Eds), NUMIFORM 95, Balkema, Amsterdam, pp. 469-74.
Michel, J.F. and Picart, P. (2002), Modelling the constitutive behaviour of thin metal sheet using
strain gradient theory, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vols 125-126, pp. 164-9.
Mori, K. et al. (1996), Inclusion of elastic deformation in rigid-plastic finite element analysis, Int.
J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 38 No. 6, pp. 621-31.
Moshfegh, R. et al. (2000), Gradient-based refinement indicators in adaptive finite element
analysis with special reference to sheet metal forming, Eng. Comput., Vol. 17 No. 8,
pp. 910-32.
Nakamachi, E. (1995), Sheet forming process characterization by static-explicit anisotropic
elastic-plastic finite-element simulation, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 50 Nos 1/4,
pp. 116-32.
Nakamachi, E. (1996), Static-explicit elastic plastic finite element simulation and virtual
manufacturing of sheet metal forming, Eng. Comput., Vol. 13 Nos 2/4, pp. 283-307.
Nakamachi, E. (1997), Elastic/crystalline viscoplastic finite element analysis and optimum
fabrication design of sheet metal, in Owen, D.R.J. (Ed.), 5th Int. Conf. Comput. Plast.,
CIMNE, pp. 101-18.
Nakamachi, E. (1998), Optimum design of sheet material and sheet forming process by using
virtual manufacturing system, paper presented at the 4th World Cong. Comput. Mech.,
Buenos Aires, p. 1163.
Nakamachi, E. and Dong, X. (1996), Elastic/crystalline-viscoplastic finite element analysis of
dynamic deformation of sheet metal, Eng. Comput., Vol. 13 Nos 2/4, pp. 308-26.
Nakamachi, E. and Huo, T. (1996), Dynamic-explicit elastic plastic finite-element simulation of
hemispherical punch-drawing of sheet metal, Eng. Comput., Vol. 13 Nos 2/4, pp. 327-38.
Nielsen, K.B. et al. (1999), Optimization of sheet metal forming processes by a systematic
application of finite element simulations, paper presented at the 2nd Europ. LS-DYNA
Conf., Gothenburg, pp. A3-16.
Nielsen, K.B. et al. (2000), Optimization of sheet metal forming processes using finite element
simulations, Acta Metall. Sinica, Vol. 13 No. 2, pp. 531-9.
Nikishkov, G.P. and Makinouchi, A. (1996), Parallel ITAS3D FEM code for sheet metal forming
simulation, in Lee, J.K. et al. (Eds), Numisheet 96, Dearborn, pp. 65-71.
Nikishkov, G.P. et al. (1998), Porting an industrial sheet metal forming code to a distributed
memory parallel computer, Computers Struct., Vol. 67 No. 6, pp. 439-49.
Nilsson, L. et al. (1995), Explicit FE-analysis of sheet metal forming and vehicle collisions using
MPP computers, paper presented at the 1st Int. Conf. Eng. Comput. Comp. Simul.,
Changsha, pp. 66-75.
Ohata, T. et al. (1996), Development of optimum process design system by numerical
simulation, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 60 Nos 1/4, pp. 543-8.
Ohata, T. et al. (1997), Optimum process design for sheet metal forming using the finite element
method and mathematical programming (2nd Rep Sweeping simplex method), Trans.
Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. Ser A, Vol. 63 No. 612, pp. 1808-13.
Ohata, T. et al. (2003), Development of optimum process design system for sheet fabrication
using response surface method, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vols 143-144, pp. 667-72.
Ohata, T. et al. (2003), Optimum process design system for sheet fabrication by response
surface, Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. Ser A, Vol. 69 No. 2, pp. 273-9.

Finite element
analyses

917

EC
21,8

918

Owen, D.R.J. et al. (1996), Iterative methods on parallel computers for FE simulation of 3D sheet
forming operations, in Lee, J.K. et al. (Eds), Numisheet 96, Dearborn, pp. 1-8.
Park, J.J. and Kim, Y.H. (2003), Fundamental studies on the incremental sheet metal forming
technique, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 140 Nos 1/3, pp. 447-53.
Park, S.K. et al. (2001), Analysis of the deformation of a perforated sheet under thermal and
tension load using finite element method, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 113 Nos 1/3,
pp. 761-5.
Penazzi, L. et al. (1996), Assessment of thermal effect in the sheet metal forming processes,
paper presented at the 3rd Bienn. Joint Conf. Eng. Syst. Design Anal., PD Vol. 75, ASME,
pp. 235-9.
Pietrosanti, C. et al. (1998), Quality improvement in sheet metal forming based on the quality
functions and process optimisation concepts, paper presented at the 4th World Cong.
Comput. Mech., Buenos Aires, p. 1118.
Placidi, F. et al. (1998), A comprehensive approach to design optimisation of sheet metal forming
process, paper presented at the 4th World Cong. Comput. Mech., Buenos Aires, p. 1120.
Rees, D.W.A. and Power, R.K. (1998), Process signatures and finite elements in sheet metal
forming, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 77 Nos 1/3, pp. 134-44.
Santos, A. and Makinouchi, A. (1995), Contact strategies to deal with different tool descriptions
in static explicit FEM for 3D sheet metal forming simulation, J. Mater. Process. Technol.,
Vol. 50 Nos 1/4, pp. 277-91.
Schmoeckel, D. et al. (1997), Topography deformation of sheet metal during the forming process
and its influence on friction, CIRP Annals, Vol. 46 No. 1, pp. 175-8.
Shen, Q. et al. (2000), One step finite element simulation of sheet metal forming, J. Shanghai
Jiaotong Univ., Vol. 34 No. 10, pp. 1402-05.
Shi, X. et al. (2001), Simulation of sheet metal forming by a one-step approach: choice of
element, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 108 No. 3, pp. 300-6.
Shimada, K. et al. (1996), Automated mesh generation for sheet metal forming simulation, in
Lee, J.K. et al. (Eds), Numisheet 96, Dearborn, pp. 300-7.
Shimada, K. et al. (1999), Automated mesh generation for finite element analysis of sheet metal
forming, Int. J. Vehicle Des., Vol. 21 Nos 2/3, pp. 278-91.
Shimizu, T. and Sano, T. (1995), Development of a penalty method contact algorithm and its
application to sheet forming problem, in Shen, S.F. and Dawson, P. (Eds), NUMIFORM
95, Balkema, Amsterdam, pp. 489-94.
Shimizu, T. and Sano, T. (1997), Development of a penalty method contact algorithm and
its application to a sheet forming problem, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 67 Nos
1/3, pp. 177-82.
Sklad, M.P. (1995), Modelling of part shape and deformation evolution in the conventional
forming of large sheet metal components, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 50 Nos 1/4,
pp. 324-34.
Slagter, W.J. and Thung, K.G. (1996), Simulation of sheet metal forming processes using
MSC/DYTRAN, in Lee, J.K. et al. (Eds), Numisheet 96, Dearborn, pp. 394-402.
Song, I.S. et al. (1995), Rigid plastic finite element analysis of sheet metal forming processes
using a selective membrane shell formulation, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 47 Nos 3/4,
pp. 323-44.
Sosnowski, W. and Kleiber, M. (1995), Sensitivity of velocity field with respect to friction in
sheet metal forming, in Owen, D.R.J. (Ed.), 4th Int. Conf. Comput. Plast., Pineridge,
pp. 1483-92.
Stelzmann, U. and Stuhmeyer, A. (1999), Sheet metal forming with Eta/DYNAFORM
simulations, Blech. Rohre Profile, Vol. 46 No. 10, pp. 32-4.
Stoughton, T.B. (2002), A non-associated flow rule for sheet metal forming, Int. J. Plast., Vol. 18
Nos 5/6, pp. 687-714.

Tang, S.C. and Hu, Y. (1995), Quasi-static analysis of sheet metal forming processes on a parallel
computer, in Shen, S.F. and Dawson, P. (Eds), NUMIFORM 95, Balkema, Amsterdam,
pp. 495-500.
Tathi, B. (1995), A joint project for the numerical simulation of 3D sheet metal forming
processes with quasi-static or dynamic approaches, in Shen, S.F. and Dawson, P. (Eds),
NUMIFORM 95, Balkema, Amsterdam, pp. 779-84.
Taylor, L. et al. (1995), Numerical simulations of sheet metal forming, J. Mater. Process.
Technol., Vol. 50 Nos 1/4, pp. 168-79.
Tekkaya, A.E. (2000), State-of-the-art of simulation of sheet metal forming, J. Mater. Process.
Technol., Vol. 103 No. 1, pp. 14-22.
Teodosiu, C. et al. (1995), Modelling and simulation of the can-making process using solid finite
elements, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 50 Nos 1/4, pp. 133-43.
Van den Boogaard, A. et al. (2003), Efficient implicit finite element analysis of sheet forming
processes, Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng., Vol. 56 No. 8, pp. 1083-107.
Vegter, H. et al. (1996), Modelling of the plastic behaviour of aluminium alloys and steel for sheet
forming, in Kals, H.J.J. et al. (Eds), SHEMET 96, Vol. 1, pp. 313-24.
Vreede, P.T. et al. (1995), Finite element simulation of sheet forming processes with the help of
contact elements on small-scale workstations, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 50 Nos 1/4,
pp. 264-76.
Weili, X. et al. (2000), A new contact judgement method for sheet metal forming simulation,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 100 Nos 1/3, pp. 219-23.
Wilson, W.R.D. et al. (1995), A realistic friction model for computer simulation of sheet metal
forming processes, J. Eng. Industry, ASME, Vol. 117 No. 2, pp. 202-9.
Wu, L. (1997), Tooling mesh generation technique for iterative FEM die surface design
algorithm to compensate for springback in sheet metal stamping, Eng. Comput., Vol. 14
No. 6, pp. 630-48.
Xing, H.L. and Makinouchi, A. (1997), 3D thermal-elastic-plastic FEM in finite deformation and
its application to non-isothermal sheet forming, in Owen, D.R.J. (Ed.), 5th Int. Conf.
Comput. Plast., CIMNE, pp. 1445-52.
Xing, H.L. et al. (1999), An adaptive mesh h-refinement algorithm for the finite element modeling
of sheet forming, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 91 Nos 1/3, pp. 183-90.
Xu, W. et al. (2000), Simple and reliable contact algorithm for static-implicit FE code, Chinese
J. Mech. Eng., Vol. 13 No. 4, pp. 301-5.
Yang, S. and Nezu, K. (1997), Application of an inverse FE approach in sheet metal forming
process design, paper presented at the 5th Pan-Amer. Conf. Appl. Mech., San Juan, Puerto
Rico.
Yang, S. and Nezu, K. (1999), Concurrent design of sheet metal forming product and process,
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., ASME, Vol. 121 No. 2, pp. 189-94.
Yang, D.Y. et al. (1995), Comparative investigation into implicit, explicit and iterative implicit
explicit schemes for the simulation of sheet metal forming processes, J. Mater. Process.
Technol., Vol. 50 Nos 1/4, pp. 39-53.
Yang, D.Y. et al. (1995), Finite element simulation of sheet metal forming by using
non-parametric tool description with automatically refined patches, in Shen, S.F. and
Dawson, P. (Eds), NUMIFORM 95, Balkema, Amsterdam, pp. 799-804.
Yang, D.Y. et al. (1996), Effective blankholder gap control algorithm for implicit and explicit
codes in sheet metal forming processes, in Lee, J.K. et al. (Eds), Numisheet 96, Dearborn,
pp. 32-9.
Yang, D.Y. et al. (2003), Recent trends in numerical simulation of three-dimensional sheet
forming processes, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part B, Vol. 217 No. 11, pp. 1553-70.
Yoon, J.H. and Huh, H. (2003), Efficiency enhancement in sheet metal forming analysis with a
mesh regularization method, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 140 Nos 1/3, pp. 616-21.

Finite element
analyses

919

EC
21,8

920

Yoon, J.W. et al. (1999), A general elasto-plastic finite element formulation based on incremental
deformation theory for planar anisotropy and its application to sheet forming, Int. J. Plast.,
Vol. 15 No. 1, pp. 35-67.
Zhang, S. et al. (2002), Effect of membrane stress on surface roughness changes in sheet
forming, Wear, Vol. 253 Nos 5/6, pp. 610-17.
Zhang, S. et al. (2003), A finite element simulation of micro-mechanical frictional behaviour in
metal forming, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 134 No. 1, pp. 81-91.
Zhou, D. and Wagoner, R.H. (1995), Development and application of sheet-forming simulation,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 50 Nos 1/4, pp. 1-16.
Zhou, D. and Wagoner, R.H. (1997), An algorithm for improved convergence in forming
analysis, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 39 No. 12, pp. 1363-84.
Zimniak, Z. (2000), Problems of multi-step forming sheet metal process design, J. Mater.
Process. Technol., Vol. 106 Nos 1/3, pp. 152-8.
Zimniak, Z. (2000), Application of a system for sheet metal forming design, J. Mater. Process.
Technol., Vol. 106 Nos 1/3, pp. 159-162.

Specific sheet metal/sheet metal components forming processes


Bending sheet metal forming
Alva, U. and Gupta, S.K. (2001), Automated design of sheet metal punches for
bending multiple parts in a single set-up, Robot. Comp. Integr. Manuf., Vol. 17 Nos 1/2,
pp. 33-47.
Batoz, J.L. et al. (1995), Accounting for bending effects in sheet metal forming using the inverse
approach, in Owen, D.R.J. (Ed.), 4th Int. Conf. Comp. Plast., Pineridge, pp. 707-18.
Batoz, J.L. et al. (1995), The inverse approach including bending effects for the analysis and
design of sheet metal forming parts, in Shen, S.F. and Dawson, P. (Eds), NUMIFORM 95,
Balkema, Amsterdam, pp. 661-7.
Boscher, D. and Gasperini, M. (2000), Simulation of the bending process of an aluminum-rubber
profile, Mater. Sci. Forum, Vol. 331, pp. 1793-8.
Chen, F.K. and Chao, M.T. (1997), Deformation mechanics of the springback in U-bending,
Appl. Mech. Eng., Vol. 2 No. 3, pp. 379-403.
Cho, J.R. et al. (2003), Finite element investigation on spring-back characteristics in sheet metal
U-bending process, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 141 No. 1, pp. 109-16.
Chou, I.N. and Hung, C. (1997), Three-dimensional finite element analysis of sheet metal bending
with complex die geometry, J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., ASME, Vol. 119 No. 3, pp. 324-31.
Chung, W.J. et al. (1998), On the dynamic effects of explicit FEM in sheet metal forming
analysis, Eng. Comput., Vol. 15 No. 6, pp. 750-76.
Doege, E. et al. (2002), Analysis of the levelling process based upon an analytic forming model,
CIRP Annals, Vol. 51 No. 1, pp. 191-4.
Esche, S.K. and Kinzel, G.L. (1998), Effect of modeling parameters and bending on
two-dimensional sheet metal forming simulation, SAE Spec. Publ., Vol. 1322, pp. 87-98.
Faurholdt, T.G. and Lorentzen, T. (1997), Measurements of residual stresses in a sheet
metal bending specimen, in Ericsson, T. (Ed.), 5th Int. Conf. Resid. Stress, Linkoping,
pp. 82-7.
Ferran, G. and De Almeida, M.A. (2001), Behavior of sheet metal submitted to cyclic bending
and stationary drawing deformation, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 115 No. 1, pp. 114-17.
Forcellese, A. et al. (1996), Computer aided engineering of the sheet bending process, J. Mater.
Process. Technol., Vol. 60 Nos 1/4, pp. 225-32.
Hsu, T.C. and Shien, I.R. (1997), Finite element modeling of sheet forming process with bending
effects, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 63 Nos 1/3, pp. 733-7.
Huang, Y.M. and Leu, D.K. (1995), An elasto-plastic finite element analysis of sheet metal
U-bending process, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 48 Nos 1/4, pp. 151-8.

Huang, Y.M. and Leu, D.K. (1995), Finite element analysis of contact problems for a sheet metal
bending process, Computers Struct., Vol. 57 No. 1, pp. 15-27.
Huang, Y.M. and Leu, D.K. (1995), An elasto-plastic finite-element simulation of successive
UO-bending processes of sheet metal, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 53 Nos 3/4,
pp. 643-61.
Huang, Y.M. and Leu, D.K. (1998), Effects of process variables on V-die bending process of steel
sheet, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 40 No. 7, pp. 631-50.
Joannic, D. and Gelin, J.C. (1995), Accurate simulation of springback in 3D sheet metal forming
processes, in Shen, S.F. and Dawson, P. (Eds), NUMIFORM 95, Balkema, Amsterdam,
pp. 729-34.
Kim, S.H. and Huh, H. (1998), Optimum finite element for simulation of elasto-plastic bending of
sheet metal, Metals Mater., Vol. 4 No. 4, pp. 685-94.
Lei, L.P. et al. (2001), Finite element analysis and design in stainless steel sheet forming and its
experimental comparison, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 110 No. 1, pp. 70-7.
Lievers, W.B. et al. (2003), The influence of iron content on the bendability of AA6111 sheet,
Mater. Sci. Eng. A, Vol. 361 Nos 1/2, pp. 312-20.
Ling, Y.E. et al. (2002), Web-based metal forming advisory system for the finite
element analysis of sheet metal bending, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part B, Vol. 216 No. 1,
pp. 39-45.
Liu, Y. et al. (2002), Springback simulation and analysis of strong anisotropic sheet metals in
U-channel bending process, Acta Mech. Sinica, Vol. 18 No. 3, pp. 264-73.
Livatyali, H. et al. (1999), Roll bending irregular shapes from plate and sheet, TPJ-Tube Pipe J.,
Vol. 10 No. 4, pp. 36-41.
Math, M. and Grizelj, B. (2002), Finite element approach in the plate bending process, J. Mater.
Process. Technol., Vols 125-126, pp. 778-84.
Morimoto, H. et al. (1998), Analysis of springback in the side bending process, Furukawa Rev.,
Vol. 16, pp. 89-95.
Nilsson, A. et al. (1997), Finite element simulation of V-die bending: a comparison with
experimental results, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 65 Nos 1/3, pp. 52-8.
Nishino, S. et al. (2003), Proposal for reducing press working load and highly accurate
evaluation of springback error in bending automobile sheet metal, JSAE Rev., Vol. 24
No. 3, pp. 283-8.
Ohwue, T. et al. (2003), Experiment and static implicit analysis of springback in bend forming of
a bumper model, Mater. Trans., Vol. 44 No. 5, pp. 946-50.
Papeleux, L. and Ponthot, J.P. (2002), Finite element simulation of springback in sheet metal
forming, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vols 125-126, pp. 785-91.
Pourboghrat, F. and Chu, E. (1995), Prediction of spring-back and side-wall curl in 2D draw
bending, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 50 Nos 1/4, pp. 361-74.
Samuel, M. (2000), Experimental and numerical prediction of springback and side wall curl in
U-bendings of anisotropic sheet metals, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 105 No. 3,
pp. 382-93.
Shima, S. and Yang, M. (1995), Study of accuracy in an intelligent V-bending process for sheet
metals-change in Youngs modulus due to plastic deformation, effect on springback, J. Soc.
Mater. Sci. Jpn., Vol. 44 No. 500, pp. 578-83.
Shu, J.Y. and Stolken, J.S. (1999), Strain gradient effects in bending of sheet metal, paper
presented at the 1999 ASME Mech. Mater. Conf., pp. 288.
Von Fickenstein, E. et al. (1996), FEM supported optimization of bending processes for vibration
damping steel sheets, Steel Res., Vol. 67 No. 9, pp. 364-8.
Zhao, K.M. and Lee, J.K. (1999), On simulation of bending/reverse bending of sheet metals,
paper presented at the Int. Mech. Eng. Cong. Expo., Tennessee, pp. 926-31.
Zhao, K.M. and Lee, J.K. (2002), Finite element analysis of the three-point bending of sheet
metals, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 122 No. 1, pp. 6-11.

Finite element
analyses

921

EC
21,8

922

Stretch forming
Asnafi, N. (1999), On stretch and shrink flanging of sheet aluminium by fluid forming, J. Mater.
Process. Technol., Vol. 96 Nos 1/3, pp. 198-214.
Baik, S.C. et al. (1997), Plastic behaviour of perforated sheets under biaxial stress state, Int.
J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 39 No. 7, pp. 781-93.
Clausen, A.H. et al. (2000), Stretch bending of aluminium extrusions for car bumpers, J. Mater.
Process. Technol., Vol. 102 Nos 1/3, pp. 241-8.
Feng, X. et al. (2004), Study on the influences of geometrical parameters on the formability of
stretch curved flanging by numerical simulation, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 145
No. 1, pp. 93-8.
Hildebrand, B.G. et al. (2000), An evaluation of three material models used in the finite element
simulation of a sheet stretching process, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 103 No. 1,
pp. 57-64.
Hsu, T.C. and Chu, C.H. (1995), Finite element analysis of sheet metal forming processes,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 54 Nos 1/4, pp. 70-5.
Hsu, T.C. and Yang, T.S. (2001), The computer simulation of tribological influence on strain
path and forming limit in punch stretching of sheet metal, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Tech.,
Vol. 17 No. 6, pp. 393-9.
Jung, D.W. and Yang, K.B. (2000), Comparative investigation into membrane, shell and
continuum elements for the rigid-plastic finite element analysis of 2D sheet metal
forming, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 104 No. 3, pp. 185-90.
Liao, K.C. et al. (1998), Effects of yield surface shape on sheet metal forming simulations, Int.
J. Num. Meth. Eng., Vol. 41 No. 3, pp. 559-84.
Lu, Y.H. et al. (1997), Strategies for improving efficiency on axisymmetric sheet stretching
process, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 63 Nos 1/3, pp. 111-16.
Siegert, K. et al. (1997), Prediction of the final part properties in sheet metal forming by
CNC-controlled stretch forming, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 71 No. 1, pp. 141-6.
Takuda, H. et al. (2000), Finite element analysis of limit strains in biaxial stretching of sheet
metals allowing for ductile fracture, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 42 No. 4, pp. 785-98.
Worswick, M.J. and Finn, M.J. (2000), The numerical simulation of stretch flange forming, Int.
J. Plast., Vol. 16 No. 6, pp. 701-20.
Wu, P.D. et al. (2003), Analysis of roping in AA6111 automotive sheet, Acta Mater., Vol. 51
No. 7, pp. 1945-57.
Yamaguchi, K. et al. (1995), Increase in forming limit of sheet metals by removal of surface
roughening with plastic strain (balanced biaxial stretching of aluminium sheets), J. Mater.
Process. Technol., Vol. 48 Nos 1/4, pp. 27-34.
Deep drawing
Abichou, H. et al. (2000), A new approach for a 3D deep drawing using an asymptotic numerical
method, ZAMM, Vol. 80 S2, pp. 499-500.
Ahmetoglu, M. et al. (1995), Control of blank holder force to eliminate wrinkling and fracture in
deep-drawing rectangular parts, CIRP Annals, Vol. 44 No. 1, pp. 247-50.
Arrieux, R. et al. (1996), A method to predict the onset of necking in numerical simulation of
deep drawing operations, CIRP Annals, Vol. 45, pp. 255-8.
Cao, F. and Qi, T. (2002), Optimization of the blank design in deep drawing by the computer
simulation method, Chinese J. Mech. Eng., Vol. 15 Suppl., pp. 29-31.
Cao, J. et al. (2001), Analysis of an axisymmetric deep-drawn part forming using reduced
forming steps, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 117 Nos 1/2, pp. 193-200.
Carleer, B.D. et al. (1995), Modelling drawbeads in 3D finite element simulations of the deep
drawing process, in Shen, S.F. and Dawson, P. (Eds), NUMIFORM 95, Balkema,
Amsterdam, pp. 681-5.

Chabrand, P. and Dubois, F. (1995), A study on the friction occurring in the context of deep
drawing, in Shen, S.F. and Dawson, P. (Eds), NUMIFORM 95, Balkema, Amsterdam,
pp. 395-400.
Chabrand, P. et al. (1996), Modelling drawbeads in sheet metal forming, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 38
No. 1, pp. 59-77.
Chandorkar, K. et al. (1995), Deep drawing of rectangular pans from aluminum alloy 2008-T4,
Automotive Stamp. Tech., Detroit, SAE, pp. 27-34.
Chen, F.K. et al. (2003), Deep drawing of square cups with magnesium alloy AZ31 sheets, Int.
J. Mach. Tools Manuf., Vol. 43 No. 15, pp. 1553-9.
Choi, S.H. et al. (2000), Texture evolution of FCC sheet metals during deep drawing process, Int.
J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 42 No. 8, pp. 1571-92.
Choi, Y. et al. (2000), Investigations of weld-line movements for the deep drawing process of
tailor welded blanks, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 108 No. 1, pp. 1-7.
Choi, T.H. et al. (2002), Application of intelligent design support system for multi-step deep
drawing process, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vols 130-131, pp. 76-88.
Chung, K. et al. (1996), Finite element simulation of sheet forming based on a planar anisotropic
strain-rate potential, Int. J. Plast., Vol. 12 No. 1, pp. 93-115.
Colgan, M. and Monaghan, J. (2003), Deep drawing process: analysis and experiment, J. Mater.
Process. Technol., Vol. 132 Nos 1/3, pp. 35-41.
Courvoisier, L. et al. (2003), Analytical modelling of drawbeads in sheet metal forming, J. Mater.
Process. Technol., Vol. 133 No. 3, pp. 359-70.
Danckert, J. (1995), Reduction of the residual stresses in a deep-drawn cup by modifying the
draw die profile, CIRP Annals, Vol. 44 No. 1, pp. 259-62.
Danckert, J. (1995), Residual stresses in deep drawn cylindrical cups, in Owen, D.R.J. (Ed.), 4th
Int. Conf. Comput. Plast., Pineridge, pp. 1493-503.
Darendeliler, H. et al. (2002), Effect of variable friction coefficient on sheet metal drawing,
Tribology Int., Vol. 35 No. 2, pp. 97-104.
De M. Correia, J.P. and Ferron, G. (2002), Wrinkling predictions in the deep-drawing process of
anisotropic metal sheets, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 128 Nos 1/3, pp. 178-90.
De M. Correia, J.P. et al. (2003), Analytical and numerical investigation of wrinkling for
deep-drawn anisotropic metal sheets, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 45 Nos 6/7, pp. 1167-80.
De Magalhaes, J.P. and Ferron, G. (2003), Wrinkling of anisotropic sheet metals under deep
drawing, J. Phys. IV, Vol. 105, pp. 89-96.
DiLorenzo, R. et al. (1998), Design of fuzzy controller for the deep drawing process by using
GAs, paper presented at the 2nd Int. Conf. Knowl.-Based Intell. Elect. Syst., IEEE,
pp. 102-8.
Doege, E. and Elend, L.E. (2001), Design and application of pliable blank holder for the
optimization of process conditions in sheet metal forming, J. Mater. Process. Technol.,
Vol. 111 Nos 1/3, pp. 182-7.
Doege, E. et al. (2001), Cp-Ti sheet material and its application in deep drawing processes,
Process. Fabr. Advanced Mater. X, pp. 512-21.
Duchene, L. et al. (2002), Texture evolution during deep-drawing processes, J. Mater. Process.
Technol., Vols 125-126, pp. 110-18.
Duchene, L. et al. (2003), Micro-macro analysis of steel sheet behaviour in finite element
simulations. Application to deep-drawing process, J. Phys. IV, Vol. 105, pp. 223-30.
Eriksen, M. (1997), The influence of die geometry on tool wear in deep drawing, Wear, Vol. 207
Nos 1/2, pp. 10-15.
Evangelista, S.H. et al. (2002), Implementing a modified Marciniak-Kuczynski model using the
finite element method for the simulation of sheet metal deep drawing, J. Mater. Process.
Technol., Vols 130-131, pp. 135-44.
Fereshteh-Saniee, F. and Montazeran, M.H. (2003), A comparative estimation of the forming load
in the deep drawing process, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 140 Nos 1/3, pp. 555-61.

Finite element
analyses

923

EC
21,8

924

Ferran, G. and De Almeida, M.A. (2001), Behavior of sheet metal submitted to cyclic bending
and stationary drawing deformation, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 115 No. 1, pp. 114-17.
Fratini, L. et al. (1995), Deep drawing with a compressive load: numerical analysis and experimental
tests, in Owen, D.R.J. (Ed.), 4th Int. Conf. Comput. Plast., Pineridge, pp. 1505-13.
Fratini, L. et al. (1995), Deep drawing of square boxes: analysis of the influence of geometrical
parameters by numerical simulations and experimental tests, in Shen, S.F. and Dawson,
P. (Eds), NUMIFORM 95, Balkema, Amsterdam, pp. 705-09.
Fratini, L. et al. (1996), Analysis of the influence of the blank holder pressure in the deep
drawing of square boxes, paper presented at the 12th Int. Conf. CAD/CAM Robot. Fact.
Future, Middlesex, pp. 821-28.
Gantar, G. and Kuzman, K. (2002), Sensitivity and stability evaluation of the deep drawing
process, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vols 125-126, pp. 302-8.
Ghoo, B.Y. and Keum, Y.T. (2000), Expert drawbead models for sectional FEM analysis of sheet
metal forming processes, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 105 Nos 1/2, pp. 7-16.
Gotoh, M. et al. (1996), Investigations of puckering in the cylindrical cup-drawing, Trans. Jpn.
Soc. Mech. Eng., Ser C, Vol. 62 No. 595, pp. 1147-55.
Gotoh, M. et al. (2003), A fundamental study of can forming by the stretch-drawing process,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 138 Nos 1/3, pp. 545-50.
Grujicic, M. and Batchu, S. (2002), Crystal plasticity of earing in deep-drawn OFHC copper
cups, J. Mater. Sci., Vol. 37 No. 4, pp. 753-64.
Guo, Y.Q. et al. (2000), Two simple triangular shell element for springback simulation after deep
drawing of thin sheets, in Topping, B.H.V. (Ed.), Finite Elem.: Tech. Devel., Civil-Comp,
pp. 285-98.
Hao, S. et al. (2000), Acoustic emission monitoring of sheet metal forming: characterization of the
transducer, the work material and the process, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 101 Nos
1/3, pp. 124-36.
Harpell, E. et al. (1996), Deep drawing and stretching of Al 5754 sheet: LS-DYNA3D simulation
and validation, in Lee, J.K. et al. (Eds), Numisheet 96, Dearborn, pp. 386-93.
Harpell, E.T. et al. (2000), Numerical prediction of the limiting draw ratio for aluminum alloy
sheet, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 100 No. 1, pp. 131-41.
Hira, T. et al. (2002), Utilization of finite element method for expanding application of high
strength steels to automotive body, Kawasaki Steel Tech. Rep., No. 46, pp. 12-18.
Hofmann, A. (2001), Deep drawing of process optimized blanks, J. Mater. Process. Technol.,
Vol. 119 Nos 1/3, pp. 127-32.
Hortig, D. and Schmoeckel, D. (2001), Analysis of local loads on the draw die profile with regard
to wear using the FEM and experimental investigations, J. Mater. Process. Technol.,
Vol. 115 No. 1, pp. 153-8.
Hu, J. et al. (1998), FEM simulation of deep drawing of textured aluminum sheets using
anisotropic fourth-order strain-rate potential, Mater. Trans. JIM, Vol. 39 No. 4, pp. 469-77.
Hu, P. et al. (2001), Numerical study of the flange earring of deep-drawing sheets with stronger
anisotropy, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 43 No. 1, pp. 279-96.
Huang, Y.M. and Li, C.L. (1999), Elasto-plastic finite element analysis of the metal sheet
redrawing process, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vols 89-90, pp. 331-8.
Huh, H. and Han, S.S. (1995), Numerical simulation of rectangular cup drawing processes with
drawbeads, in Shen, S.F. and Dawson, P. (Eds), NUMIFORM 95, Balkema, Amsterdam,
pp. 723-8.
Huh, H. and Lee, C.H. (1997), Parameter study for optimum design of sheet metal forming
processes with inverse finite element analysis, in Owen, D.R.J. (Ed.), 5th Int. Conf.
Comput. Plast., CIMNE, pp. 1459-66.
Iseki, H. and Sowerby, R. (1995), Determination of the optimum blank shape when deep drawing
nonaxisymmetric cups, using a finite element method, JSME Int. J. Ser A, Vol. 38 No. 4,
pp. 473-9.

Iwata, N. et al. (1995), Finite-element simulation of deformation and breakage in sheet metal
forming (2nd Rep, An elastic-plastic analysis of square-cup drawing), JSME Int. J. Ser A,
Vol. 38 No. 2, pp. 289-95.
Jain, M. et al. (1998), Deep drawing characteristics of automotive aluminum alloys, Mater. Sci.
Eng. A, Vol. 256 Nos 1/2, pp. 69-82.
Jensen, M.R. et al. (1998), Optimization of the draw-die design in conventional deep-drawing in
order to minimize tool wear, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 83 Nos 1/3, pp. 106-14.
Jensen, M.R. et al. (1998), Applying the finite element method for determination of tool wear in
conventional deep-drawing, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 83 Nos 1/3, pp. 98-105.
Jensen, M.R. et al. (2000), Numerical model for the oil pressure distribution in the
hydromechanical deep drawing process, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 103 No. 1,
pp. 74-9.
Jensen, M.R. et al. (2001), Aspects of finite element simulation of axi-symmetric
hydromechanical deep drawing, J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., ASME, Vol. 123 No. 3, pp. 411-15.
Jung, S. and Schmoeckel, D. (1999), Characterisation of the anisotropy induced during a
deep-drawing process, Stahl Eisen, Vol. 119 No. 9, pp. 107-13.
Jung, D.W. et al. (1995), Improved method for the application of blank-holding force considering
the sheet thickness in the deep-drawing simulation of planar anisotropic sheet, J. Mater.
Process. Technol., Vol. 52 Nos 2/4, pp. 472-88.
Kampus, Z. and Balic, J. (2003), Deep drawing of tailored blanks without a blankholder,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 133 Nos 1/2, pp. 128-33.
Kim, S. et al. (1998), Blank design and formability for non-circular deep drawing processes by
the finite element method, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 75 Nos 1/3, pp. 94-9.
Kim, H. et al. (2000), Forming and drawing characteristics of tailor welded sheets in a circular
drawbead, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 105 No. 3, pp. 294-301.
Kim, J.B. et al. (2001), Investigation into wrinkling behavior in the elliptical cup deep drawing
process by finite element analysis using bifurcation theory, J. Mater. Process. Technol.,
Vol. 111 Nos 1/3, pp. 170-4.
Kim, S.H. et al. (2001), Finite element inverse analysis for the design of intermediate dies in
multi-stage deep-drawing processes with large aspect ratio, J. Mater. Process. Technol.,
Vol. 113 Nos 1/3, pp. 779-85.
Kim, D.H. et al. (2003), Process design and forming analysis of a permalloy shielding can for
instrument clusters, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 135 Nos 2/3, pp. 366-74.
Kim, J.B. et al. (2003), Investigation into the wrinkling behaviour of thin sheets in the cylindrical
cup deep drawing process using bifurcation theory, Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng., Vol. 56 No. 12,
pp. 1673-705.
Kishor, N. and Ravi Kumar, D. (2002), Optimization of initial blank shape to minimize earing in
deep drawing using finite element method, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vols 130-131,
pp. 20-30.
Kladnik, P. et al. (2000), Shape optimization of the blank sheet for deep drawing of a square cup,
Solutions Product. Probl., INFORMATIKA, Ljubljana, pp. 61-9.
Kleiner, M. et al. (1997), Experimental and finite element analysis of capabilities and limits of a
combined pneumatic and mechanical deep-drawing process, CIRP Annals, Vol. 46 No. 1,
pp. 201-4.
Koyama, H. and Manabe, K.I. (2003), Virtual processing in intelligent BHF control deep
drawing, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vols 143-144, pp. 261-5.
Ku, T.W. et al. (2002), Finite element analysis of multi-stage deep drawing process for
high-precision rectangular case with extreme aspect ratio, J. Mater. Process. Technol.,
Vols 130-131, pp. 128-34.
Kuwabara, T. et al. (2001), Cup drawing of pure titanium sheet- finite element analysis and
experimental validation, in Mori, K. (Ed.), 7th NUMIFORM 2001, Balkema, Amsterdam,
pp. 781.

Finite element
analyses

925

EC
21,8

926

Lee, C. and Cao, J. (2001), Shell element formulation of multi-step inverse analysis for
axisymmetric deep drawing process, Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng., Vol. 50 No. 3, pp. 681-706.
Lee, J.K. et al. (1996), Simulation of deep drawing of square cup using an elasto-plastic finite
element method, in Lee, J.K. et al. (Eds), Numisheet 96, Dearborn, pp. 120-7.
Lei, L.P. et al. (2001), Finite element analysis and design in stainless steel sheet forming and its
experimental comparison, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 110 No. 1, pp. 70-7.
Leu, D.K. et al. (1999), Influence of punch shapes on the collar drawing process of sheet steel,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 88 No. 1, pp. 134-46.
Li, K.P. et al. (1995), Simulation of square-cup deep-drawing with different finite elements,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 50 Nos 1/4, pp. 81-91.
Li, R. et al. (1999), Formability in non-symmetric aluminium panel drawing using active
drawbeads, CIRP Annals, Vol. 48 No. 1, pp. 209-12.
Li, S. et al. (2002), An improved equivalent drawbead model and its application, J. Mater.
Process. Technol., Vol. 121 Nos 2/3, pp. 308-12.
Liao, W. et al. (1995), Blank development of deep drawing parts with the analogue method,
paper presented at the 1st Int. Conf. Eng. Comput. Comp. Simul., Changsha, pp. 88-93.
Liu, Y. et al. (1999), Flange earing and its control of deep drawing of anisotropy circular sheets,
Acta Mech. Solida Sinica, Vol. 12 No. 4, pp. 294-306.
Liu, Y. et al. (2002), Finite element analysis of the flange earrings of strong anisotropic sheet
metals in deep-drawing processes, Acta Mech. Sinica, Vol. 18 No. 1, pp. 82-91.
Liu, Y.Q. et al. (2002), The numerical analysis of anisotropic sheet metals in deep-drawing
processes, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 120 Nos 1/3, pp. 45-52.
Mamalis, A.G. et al. (1996), On the finite element modelling of the deep-drawing of square
sections of coated steels, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 58 Nos 2/3, pp. 153-9.
Mamalis, A.G. et al. (1997), Simulation of sheet metal forming using explicit finite element
techniques: effect of material and forming characteristics. Part I: deep drawing, J. Mater.
Process. Technol., Vol. 72 No. 1, pp. 48-60.
Mamalis, A.G. et al. (1997), Simulation of sheet metal forming using explicit finite element
techniques: effect of material and forming characteristics. Part 2: deep drawing of cups,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 72 No. 1, pp. 110-16.
Marron, G.C. and Patou, P.F. (1998), Effect of forming in the design of deep-drawn structural
parts, paper presented at the TMS Ann. Meet. Model. Mech. Resp. Str. Mater., San
Antonio, pp. 25-36.
Meguid, S.A. and Refaat, M.H. (1997), Finite element analysis of the deep drawing process
using variational inequalities, Finite Elem. Anal. Design, Vol. 28 No. 1, pp. 51-67.
Meinders, T. et al. (1998), Implementation of an equivalent drawbead model in a finite
element code for sheet metal forming, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 83 Nos 1/3,
pp. 234-44.
Meinders, T. et al. (2000), Deep drawing simulation of tailored blanks and experimental
verification, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 103 No. 1, pp. 65-73.
Meinders, T. et al. (2003), Improvement of implicit finite element code performance in deep
drawing simulations by dynamics contributions, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 134
No. 3, pp. 413-20.
Menezes, L.F. and Teodosiu, C. (2000), Three-dimensional numerical simulation of the
deep-drawing process using solid finite elements, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 97 Nos
1/3, pp. 100-6.
Min, D.K. et al. (1996), A study on process improvements of multi-stage deep-drawing by the
finite element method, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 54 Nos 1/4, pp. 230-8.
Moreira, L.P. et al. (2000), Experimental and numerical analysis of the cup drawing test for
orthotropic metal sheets, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 108 No. 1, pp. 78-86.

Morimoto, H. and Nakamachi, E. (1999), Elastic/crystalline viscoplastic finite element analysis


of the deep drawing process, taking account of texture structure, Furukawa Rev., No. 18,
pp. 119-24.
Munhoven, S. et al. (1995), Application of an anisotropic yield locus based on texture to a deep
drawing simulation, in Shen, S.F. and Dawson, P. (Eds), NUMIFORM 95, Balkema,
Amsterdam, pp. 767-72.
Nakamachi, E. and Huo, T. (1996), Dynamic-explicit elastic plastic finite-element simulation of
hemispherical punch-drawing of sheet metal, Eng. Comput., Vol. 13 Nos 2/4, pp. 327-38.
Nam, J. and Han, K.S. (2000), Finite element analysis of deep drawing and ironing process in the
steel D&I canmaking, ISIJ Int., Vol. 40 No. 12, pp. 1223-9.
Natarajan, S. et al. (2002), A note on deep drawing process: numerical simulation and
experimental validation, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 127 No. 1, pp. 64-7.
Nhat, T.N. et al. (1998), Plastic instability for off-axes loading in deep drawing operations,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 77 Nos 1/3, pp. 175-9.
Osakada, K. et al. (1995), Controlled FEM simulation for determining history of blank force in
deep drawing, CIRP Annals, Vol. 44 No. 1, pp. 243-6.
Park, D.H. et al. (2001), A study on the improvement of formability for elliptical deep drawing
processes, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 113 Nos 1/3, pp. 662-5.
Parsa, M.H. and Yamaguchi, K. (1997), Consideration of direct and reverse redrawing of copper
sheet by rigid-plastic finite element, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 63 Nos 1/3, pp. 661-5.
Parsa, M.H. et al. (2001), Redrawing analysis of aluminum-stainless-steel laminated sheet using
FEM simulations and experiments, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 43 No. 10, pp. 2331-47.
Pegada, V. et al. (2002), An algorithm for determining the optimal blank shape for the deep
drawing of aluminum cups, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vols 125-126, pp. 743-50.
Peled, A. et al. (2004), Analysis of blank thickening in deep drawing processes using the
theory of a Cosserat generalized membrane, J. Mech. Phys. Solids, Vol. 52 No. 2,
pp. 317-40.
Pourboghrat, F. and Chu, E. (1995), Prediction of spring-back and side-wall curl in 2D draw
bending, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 50 Nos 1/4, pp. 361-74.
Primoz, K. et al. (1999), Shape optimization of the blank sheet for deep drawing of a square
cup, paper presented at the 5th Int. Symp. Operat. Res. Slovenia, SOR 99, pp. 221-6.
Qin, Y. and Balendra, R. (2004), Design considerations for hydromechanical deep drawing
of sheet components with concave features, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 145 No. 2,
pp. 163-70.
Ronda, J. et al. (1995), Influence of rotational effects on the frictional contact problem in deep
drawing, in Owen, D.R.J. (Ed.), 4th Int. Conf. Comp. Plast., Pineridge, pp. 817-27.
Ronda, J. et al. (1995), Simulation of square-cup deep-drawing with various friction and material
models, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 50 Nos 1/4, pp. 92-104.
Sato, E. et al. (1995), Square cup deep drawing of thick plate by multi-axial loading. 1 Finite
element analysis, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 48 Nos 1/4, pp. 69-74.
Schunemann, M. et al. (1996), Prediction of process conditions in drawing and ironing of cans,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 59 Nos 1/2, pp. 1-9.
Shim, H.B. and Yang, D.Y. (1997), Elastic-plastic finite element analysis of deep drawing
processes by membrane and shell elements, J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., ASME, Vol. 119 No. 3,
pp. 341-9.
Shulkin, L. et al. (1996), Elastic deflections of the blank holder in deep drawing of sheet metal,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 59 Nos 1/2, pp. 34-40.
Sunaga, H. et al. (1996), Finite element modeling of drawbead in sheet metal forming, in Lee,
J.K. et al. (Eds), Numisheet 96, Dearborn, pp. 191-8.
Takuda, H. et al. (1996), Prediction of forming limit in deep drawing of Fe/Al laminated
composite sheets using ductile fracture criterion, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 60 Nos
1/4, pp. 291-6.

Finite element
analyses

927

EC
21,8

928

Takuda, H. et al. (2002), Finite element simulation of warm deep drawing of aluminium alloy
sheet when accounting for heat conduction, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 120 Nos 1/3,
pp. 412-18.
Takuda, H. et al. (2003), Finite element analysis of the formability of an austenitic stainless steel
sheet in warm deep drawing, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vols 143-144, pp. 242-8.
Thiruvarudchelvan, S. and Wang, H.B. (1998), Pressure generated in the hydraulic-pressure
augmented deep drawing process, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 74 Nos 1/3, pp. 286-91.
Thiruvarudchelvan, S. and Wang, H. (2000), Investigations into the hydraulic-pressure
augmented deep drawing process, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 105 Nos 1/2, pp. 161-75.
Thiruvarudchelvan, S. et al. (1998), Hydraulic pressure enhancement of the deep-drawing
process to yield deeper cups, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 82 Nos 1/3, pp. 156-64.
Thuillier, S. et al. (2002), Experimental and numerical study of reverse re-drawing of anisotropic
sheet metals, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vols 125-126, pp. 764-71.
Traversin, M. and Kergen, R. (1995), Closed-loop control of the blank holder force in deep
drawing: finite element modeling of its effects and advantages, J. Mater. Process.
Technol., Vol. 50 Nos 1/4, pp. 306-17.
Vollertsen, F. et al. (1999), Method for deep drawing with multiple elastomer membranes, CIRP
Annals, Vol. 48 No. 1, pp. 221-6.
Wang, X.W. and Zhu, X.H. (1995), Numerical simulation of deep-drawing process, J. Mater.
Process. Technol., Vol. 48 Nos 1/4, pp. 123-7.
Worswick, M.J. et al. (2000), Numerical prediction of the limiting draw ratio for aluminum alloy
sheet, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 100 Nos 1/3, pp. 131-41.
Yang, J.H. et al. (2003), Experimental testing of draw-bead restraining force in sheet metal
forming, Acta Metall. Sinica, Vol. 16 No. 1, pp. 46-50.
Yao, H. et al. (2000), Rapid design of corner restraining force in deep drawn rectangular parts,
Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., Vol. 40 No. 1, pp. 113-31.
Yoshida, T. et al. (1995), 3D FEM analysis of sheet metal deep drawability and stretchabilityapplication of FEM analysis to research formability of sheet metals, Nippon Steel Tech.
Rep., Vol. 67, pp. 37-42.
Zimniak, Z. (2000), Problems of multi-step forming sheet metal process design, J. Mater.
Process. Technol., Vol. 106 Nos 1/3, pp. 152-8.
Pressing and stamping
Baldo, O. (1999), Simulation of the process of stamping with a rubber cushion, Lamiera, Vol. 36
No. 6, pp. 70-4.
Boubakar, M.L. et al. (1996), Finite element modelling of the stamping of anisotropic sheet
metals, Eng. Comput., Vol. 13 Nos 2/4, pp. 143-71.
Chen, F.K. and Chiang, B.H. (1997), Analysis of die design for the stamping of a bathtub,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 72 No. 3, pp. 421-8.
Chen, F.K. and Chiang, B.H. (1998), Three-dimensional finite element analysis for the stamping
of a motorcycle oil tank, J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., ASME, Vol. 120 No. 4, pp. 770-3.
Chen, F.K. and Liu, J.H. (1995), Analysis of die designs for the stamping of an automobile rear
floor panel, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 55 Nos 3/4, pp. 408-16.
Chen, F.K. and Liu, J.H. (1997), Analysis of an equivalent drawbead model for the finite element
simulation of a stamping process, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., Vol. 37 No. 4, pp. 409-24.
Chen, F.K. and Tszeng, P.C. (1998), Analysis of drawbead restraining force in the stamping
process, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., Vol. 38 No. 7, pp. 827-42.
Cheng, W. (1998), A modified shell element method for determining 3D large strain distributions
in sheet metal stamping, Commun. Num. Meth. Eng., Vol. 14 No. 6, pp. 519-27.
Dubar, L. et al. (1999), Improvement of stamping computations by means of the identification of
the bulk behaviour of coatings: application to galvanized sheets, J. Mater. Process.
Technol., Vol. 94 No. 1, pp. 23-9.

Duffett, G.A. et al. (1997), STAMPAR: a parallel processing approach for the analysis of sheet
stamping problems, in Owen, D.R.J. (Ed.), 5th Int. Conf. Comput. Plast., CIMNE,
pp. 1781-89.
Godwin, M.J. (1995), Simulation of the press forming of coated strip steel using finite element
analysis, Galvatech 95, AIME, Chicago, IL, pp. 749-52.
Guo, Y.Q. et al. (2003), Initial solution estimation to speed up inverse approach in stamping
modeling, Eng. Comput., Vol. 20 No. 7, pp. 810-34.
Ha, D.H. and Kim, Y.S. (1998), Design of optimized tool geometry for the PSS test with finite
element simulation, SAE Spec. Publ., Vol. 1322, pp. 107-15.
Hughes, D. and Jeffs, J.L. (1995), Numerical simulation of strip steel press forming, Ironmaking
Steelmaking, Vol. 22 No. 4, pp. 287-90.
Iwata, N. et al. (1995), Improvements in finite element simulation for stamping and application
to the forming of laser-welded blanks, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 50 Nos 1/4,
pp. 335-47.
Jung, D.W. and Yang, D.Y. (1998), Step-wise combined implicit-explicit finite element simulation
of autobody stamping processes, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 83 Nos 1/3, pp. 245-60.
Jung, D.W. and Yang, D.Y. (1999), Elastic-plastic finite element analysis of automotive body
panel stamping processes using dynamic explicit time integration scheme, J. Mater. Eng.
Perform., Vol. 8 No. 6, pp. 719-29.
Jung, D.W. et al. (1996), Application to auto-body panel stamping, in Lee, J.K. et al. (Eds),
Numisheet96, Dearborn, pp. 403-13.
Kang, B.S. et al. (2004), A comparative study of stamping and hydroforming processes for an
automobile fuel tank using FEM, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., Vol. 44 No. 1, pp. 87-94.
Kawka, M. and Makinouchi, A. (1995), Shell element formulation in the static explicit FEM code
for the simulation of sheet stamping, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 50 Nos 1/4,
pp. 105-15.
Keum, Y.T. et al. (2001), Application of an expert drawbead to the finite element simulation of
sheet forming processes, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 111 Nos 1/3, pp. 155-8.
Kleiber, M. et al. (2002), Reliability assessment for sheet metal forming operations, Comp. Meth.
Appl. Mech. Eng., Vol. 191 No. 39, pp. 4511-32.
Lee, C.H. and Huh, H. (1997), Blank design and strain prediction of automobile stamping parts
by an inverse finite element approach, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 63 Nos 1/3,
pp. 645-50.
Lee, S.Y. et al. (1997), Three-dimensional finite element method simulations of stamping process
for planar anisotropic sheet metals, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 39 No. 10, pp. 1181-98.
Levy, G.N. et al. (2003), On the use of SLS tool in sheet metal stamping, CIRP Annals, Vol. 52
No. 1, pp. 249-52.
Liu, J.H. et al. (1996), Application of viscous pressure forming (VPF) to low volume stamping of
difficult-to-form alloys- results of preliminary FEM simulations, J. Mater. Process.
Technol., Vol. 59 Nos 1/2, pp. 49-58.
Li, D. et al. (2002), Section analysis of industrial sheet-metal stamping processes, J. Mater.
Process. Technol., Vol. 120 Nos 1/3, pp. 37-44.
Li, H.F. et al. (2002), A dexterous part-holding model for handling compliant sheet metal parts,
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., ASME, Vol. 124 No. 1, pp. 109-18.
Luet, D. et al. (1998), Quality function approach to design and optimization of stamping process:
application to an industrial case, SAE Spec. Publ., Vol. 1322, pp. 99-105.
McLennan, M. et al. (1997), Finite element simulation and on plant experimental validation of
sheet metal forming, paper presented at the 8th Int. Conf. Comput. Meth. Exp. Measur.,
Comp. Mech., pp. 87-96.
Naceur, H. et al. (2002), New enhancements in the inverse approach for the fast modeling of
autobody stamping process, Int. J. Comput. Eng. Sci., Vol. 3 No. 4, pp. 355-84.

Finite element
analyses

929

EC
21,8

930

Nye, T.J. (2001), Stamping blank optimal layout and coil slitting widths for single and multiple
blanks, J. Eng. Mater. Technol., ASME, Vol. 123 No. 4, pp. 482-8.
Onate, E. et al. (1995), NUMISTAMP: a research project for assessment of finite element models
for stamping processes, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 50 Nos 1/4, pp. 17-38.
Onate, E. et al. (1996), A simple thin shell triangle with translational degrees of freedom for sheet
stamping, in Lee, J.K. et al. (Eds), Numisheet 96, Dearborn, pp. 102-11.
Park, K. and Kim, Y. (1995), Effect of material and process variables on the stamping
formability of sheet materials, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 51 Nos 1/4, pp. 64-78.
Peng, Y. and Zhao, Z. (2002), Development of a practical blank layout optimisation system for
stamping die design, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Tech., Vol. 20 No. 5, pp. 357-62.
Peng, X. et al. (2004), FE simulation of laser-aided stamping, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 145
No. 2, pp. 256-63.
Rojek, J. et al. (1996), Industrial applications of sheet stamping simulation using new finite
element models, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 60 Nos 1/4, pp. 243-9.
Rojek, J. et al. (1998), Industrial applications of sheet stamping simulation using a new finite
element models, Comput. Model. Simul. Eng., Vol. 3 No. 3, pp. 147-52.
Samokhvalov, V.N. and Samokhvalov, V.P. (1995), Investigating the technological scope for
controlling the processes of magnetic-pulsed stamping of thin-walled parts, Russian
Aeronaut., Vol. 38 No. 3, pp. 106-9.
Shim, H. (2002), Determination of optimal shapes for the stampings of arbitrary shapes,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 121 No. 1, pp. 116-22.
Sun, J.S. et al. (2000), Effects of geometry and fillet radius on die stresses in stamping processes,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 104 No. 3, pp. 254-64.
Thomas, W. et al. (2000), Process simulation in stamping- recent applications for product and
process design, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 98 No. 2, pp. 232-43.
Wang, Z. et al. (2003), FEM analysis of contact mechanism in press-forming of lubricant
precoated steel sheet, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 140 Nos 1/3, pp. 514-19.
Wu, L. et al. (1995), Iterative FEM die surface design to compensate for springback in sheet
metal stampings, in Shen, S.F. and Dawson, P. (Eds), NUMIFORM 95, Balkema,
Amsterdam, pp. 637-41.
Yang, S. and Nezu, K. (1998), Application of an inverse FE approach in the concurrent design of
sheet stamping, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 79 Nos 1/3, pp. 86-93.
Yang, D.Y. et al. (1995), Finite element simulation of sheet metal forming by using
non-parametric tool description with automatically refined patches, in Shen, S.F. and
Dawson, P. (Eds), NUMIFORM 95, Balkema, Amsterdam, pp. 799-804.
Zhang, W. et al. (1998), Research on dynamic simulation for stamping forming of Santana cars
roof, Automotive Eng., Vol. 20 No. 3, pp. 187-92.
Zhao, K.M. et al. (2001), Finite element analysis of tailor-welded blanks, Finite Elem. Anal.
Design, Vol. 37 No. 2, pp. 117-30.
Zimniak, Z. and Piela, A. (2000), Finite element analysis of a tailored blanks stamping process,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 106 Nos 1/3, pp. 254-60.
Hydroforming
Asnafi, N. and Skogsgardh, A. (2000), Theoretical and experimental analysis of
stroke-controlled tube hydroforming, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, Vol. 279 Nos 1/2, pp. 95-110.
Asnafi, N. et al. (2003), Tubular hydroforming of automotive side members with extruded
aluminium profiles, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 142 No. 1, pp. 93-101.
Berg, H.J. et al. (1996), Simulation of complex hydroforming processes using an explicit code
with a new shell formulation, in Lee, J.K. et al. (Eds), Numisheet 96, Dearborn, pp. 330-5.
Boudeau, N. et al. (2002), Influence of material and process parameters on the development of
necking and bursting in flange and tube hydroforming, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vols
125-126, pp. 849-55.

Carleer, B. et al. (2000), Analysis of the effect of material properties on the hydroforming process
of tubes, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 104 Nos 1/2, pp. 158-66.
Chang, Y.C. et al. (2002), Finite element analysis of sheet metal hydroforming, NAMRC XXX,
West Lafayette, No. MR02-137, pp. 1-8.
Chen, F.K. (1999), Formability analysis of tube-hydroforming process, Appl. Mech. Eng., Vol. 4
No. 1, pp. 149-69.
Cherouat, A. et al. (2002), Numerical improvement of thin tubes hydroforming with respect to
ductile damage, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 44 No. 12, pp. 2427-46.
Choi, H.H. et al. (2002), Comparison of implicit and explicit finite element methods for the
hydroforming process of an automobile lower arm, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Tech., Vol. 20 No. 6,
pp. 407-13.
Dohmann, F. and Hartl, C. (1996), Hydroforming a method to manufacture light-weight parts,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 60 Nos 1/4, pp. 669-76.
Fann, K.J. and Hsiao, P.Y. (2003), Optimization of loading conditions for tube hydroforming,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 140 Nos 1/3, pp. 520-4.
Gao, L. et al. (2002), Classification and analysis of tube hydroforming processes with respect to
adaptive FEM simulations, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 129 Nos 1/3, pp. 261-7.
Gelin, J.C. and Labergere, C. (2002), Application of optimal design and control strategies to the
forming of thin walled metallic components, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vols 125-126,
pp. 565-72.
Gelin, J.C. et al. (1998), Modelling and control of hydroforming processes for flanges forming,
CIRP Annals Manufact. Tech., Vol. 47 No. 1, pp. 213-16.
Haas, A. et al. (1999), Production integrity for hydroforming products by using FEA
techniques, paper presented at the 2nd Europ. LS-DYNA Conf., Gothenburg, pp. E3-22.
Hama, T. et al. (2003), Analysis of hydrostatic tube bulging with cylindrical die using static
explicit FEM, Mater. Trans., Vol. 44 No. 5, pp. 940-5.
Hsu, Q.C. (2003), Theoretical and experimental study on the hydroforming of bifurcation tube,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 142 No. 2, pp. 367-73.
Hwang, Y.M. and Altan, T. (2003), Finite element analysis of tube hydroforming processes in a
rectangular die, Finite Elem. Anal. Design, Vol. 39 No. 11, pp. 1071-82.
Hwang, Y.M. and Chen, W.C. (2003), Analysis and finite element simulation of tube expansion in
a rectangular cross-sectional die, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part B, Vol. 217 No. 1, pp. 127-35.
Hwang, Y.M. and Lin, Y.K. (2002), Analysis and finite element simulation of the tube bulge
hydroforming process, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vols 125-126, pp. 821-5.
Hwang, Y.M. and Lin, Y.K. (2002), FE-simulations of T-shape tube hydroforming, Key Eng.
Mater., Vols 233-236, pp. 317-22.
Jain, N. et al. (2004), Finite element analysis of dual hydroforming processes, J. Mater. Process.
Technol., Vol. 145 No. 1, pp. 59-65.
Kang, B.S. et al. (2004), A comparative study of stamping and hydroforming processes for an
automobile fuel tank using FEM, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., Vol. 44 No. 1, pp. 87-94.
Kim, J. and Kang, B.S. (2002), Implementation of backward tracing scheme of the FEM for
design of initial tubular blank in hydroforming, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vols 125-126,
pp. 839-48.
Kim, J. et al. (2002), Manufacture of an automobile lower arm by hydroforming, Int. J. Mach.
Tools Manuf., Vol. 42 No. 1, pp. 69-78.
Kim, J. et al. (2002), Computational approach to analysis and design of hydroforming process for
an automobile lower arm, Computers Struct., Vol. 80 No. 14, pp. 1295-304.
Kim, J. et al. (2002), Preform design in hydroforming by the three-dimensional backward tracing
scheme of the FEM, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vols 130-131, pp. 100-6.
Kim, J. et al. (2003), Preform design in hydroforming of automobile lower arm by FEM, J. Mater.
Process. Technol., Vol. 138 Nos 1/3, pp. 58-62.

Finite element
analyses

931

EC
21,8

932

Ko, M. et al. (2000), The use of FEA and design of experiments to establish design guidelines for
simple hydroformed parts, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., Vol. 40 No. 15, pp. 2249-66.
Koc, M. (2003), Investigation of the effect of loading path and variation in material properties on
robustness of the tube hydroforming process, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 133 No. 3,
pp. 276-81.
Koc, M. (2003), Tribological issues in the tube hydroforming process selection of a lubricant
for robust conditions for an automotive structural frame part, J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., ASME,
Vol. 125 No. 3, pp. 484-92.
Koc, M. and Altan, T. (2002), Application of two dimensional (2D) FEA for the tube
hydroforming process, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., Vol. 42 No. 11, pp. 1285-95.
Koc, M. and Arslan, M.A. (2003), Design and FEA of innovative tooling elements (stress pins) to
prolong die life and improve dimensional tolerances in precision forming processes,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 142 No. 3, pp. 773-85.
Koc, M. et al. (2001), On the characteristics of tubular materials for hydroformingexperimentation and analysis, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., Vol. 41 No. 5, pp. 761-72.
Kridli, G.T. et al. (2003), Investigation of thickness variation and corner filling in tube
hydroforming, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 133 No. 3, pp. 287-96.
Lang, L.H. et al. (2000), Numerical simulation of cup hydrodynamic deep drawing, Trans.
Nonferr. Met. Soc. China, Vol. 10 No. 5, pp. 631-4.
Lang, L.H. et al. (2000), Key technologies of numerical simulation of cup hydrodynamic deep
drawing, Trans. Nonferr. Met. Soc. China, Vol. 10 No. 6, pp. 772-6.
Lei, L.P. et al. (2000), Analysis and design of hydroforming process for automobile rear axle
housing by FEM, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., Vol. 40 No. 12, pp. 1691-708.
Lei, L.P. et al. (2001), Prediction of the forming limit in hydroforming processes using the finite
element method and a ductile fracture criterion, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 113 Nos
1/3, pp. 673-9.
Lei, L.P. et al. (2001), Analysis and design of hydroforming processes by the rigid-plastic finite
element method, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 114 No. 3, pp. 201-6.
Lei, L.P. et al. (2003), Rigid-plastic finite element analysis of hydroforming process and its
applications, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 139 Nos 1/3, pp. 187-94.
Lejeune, A. et al. (2003), Influence of material and process parameters on bursting during
hydroforming process, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vols 143-144, pp. 11-17.
Lin, F.C. and Kwan, C.T. (2003), Investigation of T-shape tube hydroforming with finite element
method, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Tech., Vol. 21 No. 6, pp. 420-5.
Liu, S.D. et al. (1998), Analytical and experimental examination of tubular hydroforming limits,
SAE Spec. Publ., Vol. 1322, pp. 139-50.
Lucke, H.U. et al. (2001), Hydroforming, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 115 No. 1, pp. 87-91.
Manabe, K.I. and Amino, M. (2002), Effects of process parameters and material properties on
deformation process in tube hydroforming, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 123 No. 2,
pp. 285-91.
Massoni, E. and Aliaga, C. (1998), 2D numerical simulation of tube hydroforming process,
paper presented at the 4th World Cong. Comput. Mech., Buenos Aires, p. 1116.
Mattiasson, K. et al. (1996), Solution of quasi-static, force-driven problems by means of a
dynamic explicit approach and an adaptive loading procedure, Eng. Comput., Vol. 13 Nos
2/4, pp. 172-89.
Mikkelsen, L.P. and Tvergaard, V. (1998), A 2D non-local analysis of hydroforming for thin
sheets, J. Phys. IV, Vol. 8 No. 8, pp. 249-56.
Moshfegh, R. et al. (1999), Finite element simulation of the hydro-mechanical deep drawing
process, Int. J. Forming Process., Vol. 2, pp. 167-91.
Nefussi, G. and Combescure, A. (2002), Coupled buckling and plastic instability for tube
hydroforming, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 44 No. 5, pp. 899-914.

Nguyen, B. et al. (2003), Analysis of tube free hydroforming using an inverse approach with
FLD-based adjustment of process parameters, J. Eng. Mater. Technol., ASME, Vol. 125
No. 2, pp. 133-40.
Nguyen, B.N. et al. (2003), Analysis of tube hydroforming by means of an inverse approach,
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., ASME, Vol. 125 No. 2, pp. 369-77.
Nielsen, K.B. et al. (1999), Optimization of sheet metal forming processes by a systematic
application of finite element simulations, paper presented at the 2nd Europ. LS-DYNA
Conf., Gothenburg, pp. A3-16.
Novotny, S. and Geiger, M. (2003), Process design for hydroforming of lightweight metal sheet
at elevated temperatures, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 138 Nos 1/3, pp. 594-9.
Rama, S.C. et al. (2003), A two-dimensional approach for simulation of hydroforming expansion
of tubular cross-sections without axial feed, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 141 No. 3,
pp. 420-30.
Shin, Y.S. et al. (2002), Prototype tryout and die design for automotive parts using welded blank
hydroforming, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vols 130-131, pp. 121-7.
Skogsgardh, A. (1999), FE-simulation of tube hydroforming, paper presented at the 2nd Europ.
LS-DYNA Conf., Gothenburg, pp. E23-31.
Smith, L.M. et al. (2003), Double-sided high-pressure tubular hydroforming, J. Mater. Process.
Technol., Vol. 142 No. 3, pp. 599-608.
Srinivasan, T.M. et al. (1998), Tubular hydroforming: correlation of experimental and simulation
results, SAE Spec. Publ., Vol. 1322, pp. 131-7.
Teng, B.G. et al. (2001), Experimental and numerical simulation of hydro-forming toroidal shells
with different initial structure, Int. J. Press. Vess. Piping, Vol. 78 No. 1, pp. 31-4.
Trana, K. (2002), Finite element simulation of the tube hydroforming process bending,
preforming and hydroforming, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 127 No. 3, pp. 401-8.
Vollertsen, F. and Lange, K. (2002), Process layout avoiding reverse drawing wrinkles in
hydroforming of sheet metal, CIRP Annals, Vol. 51 No. 1, pp. 203-8.
Vollertsen, F. and Plancak, M. (2002), On possibilities for the determination of the coefficient of
friction in hydroforming of tubes, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vols 125-126, pp. 412-20.
Wang, B. et al. (1995), Numerical simulation for the hydrobulging process of a polyhedric shell,
Computers Struct., Vol. 55 No. 1, pp. 159-62.
Wang, Z.R. et al. (1996), Experimental research and finite element simulation of plates
hydrobulging in pairs, Int. J. Press. Vess. Piping, Vol. 68 No. 3, pp. 243-8.
Wang, F. et al. (1997), Research of the dieless hydro-forming of non-uniform thickness spherical
vessels, J. Plasticity Eng., Vol. 4 No. 4, pp. 24-9.
Wang, F.Z. et al. (1997), Research into the dieless hydroforming of non-uniform thickness
spherical vessels, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., Vol. 37 No. 8, pp. 1123-30.
Xing, H.L. and Makinouchi, A. (2001), Numerical analysis and design for tubular
hydroforming, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 43 No. 4, pp. 1009-26.
Yang, J.B. et al. (2001), Design sensitivity analysis and optimization of the hydroforming
process, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 113 Nos 1/3, pp. 666-72.
Yuan, S. et al. (1999), Finite element analysis of hydro-forming process of a toroidal shell, Int.
J. Mach. Tools Manuf., Vol. 39 No. 9, pp. 1439-50.
Yuansong Z. and Wang, Z.R. (1997), Numerical simulation of the integral hydrobulging of
ellipsoidal shells, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 72 No. 3, pp. 358-62.
Zhang, S.H. et al. (1996), Finite element analysis of the integral hydrobulge forming of
double-layer gap spherical vessels, Int. J. Press. Vess. Piping, Vol. 68 No. 2, pp. 161-7.
Zhang, S.H. et al. (1998), Numerical simulation of the integral hydro-bulge forming of
non-clearance double-layer spherical vessels: analysis of the stress state, J. Mater.
Process. Technol., Vol. 75 Nos 1/3, pp. 212-21.
Zhang, S.H. et al. (1998), Research on the integral hydrobulge forming technology of spheroidal
shells, Steel Res., Vol. 69 No. 7, pp. 268-71.

Finite element
analyses

933

EC
21,8

934

Zhang, S.H. et al. (1998), Spherical and spheroidal steel structure products made by using
integral hydro-bulge forming technology, J. Constr. Steel Res., Vol. 46 Nos 1/3, pp. 338-9.
Zhang, S.H. et al. (1999), Numerical simulation of the integral hydro-bulge forming of
non-clearance double-layer spherical vessels: deformation analysis, Computers Struct.,
Vol. 70 No. 2, pp. 243-56.
Zhang, S.H. et al. (1999), Integral hydro-bulge forming of pressure vessel heads, J. Mater.
Process. Technol., Vol. 86 Nos 1/3, pp. 184-9.
Zhang, S.H. et al. (2000), Finite element analysis of the hydromechanical deep-drawing process
of tapered rectangular boxes, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 102 Nos 1/3, pp. 1-8.
Zhang, S.H. et al. (2000), Analysis of the hydromechanical deep drawing of cylindrical cups,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 103 No. 3, pp. 367-73.
Zhang, S.H. et al. (2003), Technology of sheet hydroforming with a movable female die, Int.
J. Mach. Tools Manuf., Vol. 43 No. 8, pp. 781-5.
Other processes
Alberti, N. et al. (1998), Sheet metal forming of titanium blanks using flexible media, CIRP
Annals- Manufact. Tech., Vol. 47 No. 1, pp. 217-20.
Altan, T. et al. (2000), Improvement of hem quality by optimizing flanging and pre-hemming
operations using computer aided die design, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 98 No. 1,
pp. 41-52.
Anagnostou, E.L. (2002), Optimized tooling design algorithm for sheet metal forming over
reconfigurable compliant tooling, PhD thesis, State University of New York, Stony Brook.
Baillet, L. et al. (1996), Numerical and experimental analysis of ironing and thin sheet metal, in
Lee, J.K. et al. (Eds), Numisheet 96, Dearborn, pp. 72-9.
Beaudoin, A.J. et al. (1998), Analysis of ridging in aluminum auto body sheet metal, Metall.
Mater. Trans. A, Vol. 29 No. 9, pp. 2323-32.
Bonet, J. et al. (1997), Finite element analysis of the superplastic forming of thick sheet using the
incremental flow formulation, Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng., Vol. 40 No. 17, pp. 3205-28.
Brokken, D. et al. (2000), Predicting the shape of blanked products: a finite element approach,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 103 No. 1, pp. 51-6.
Buenten, R. et al. (1996), Development of a FEM-model for the simulation of the transfer of
surface structure in cold-rolling processes, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 60 Nos 1/4,
pp. 369-76.
Cai, Z.Y. and Li, M.Z. (2002), Multi-point forming of three-dimensional sheet metal and the
control of the forming process, Int. J. Press. Vess. Piping, Vol. 79 No. 4, pp. 289-96.
Cai, Z. et al. (2002), Numerical method for prediction of net-shaped blank in multi-point forming
of sheet metal, Chinese J. Mech. Eng., Vol. 15 No. 4, pp. 314-18.
Casalino, G. and Ludovico, A.D. (2002), Parameter selection by an artificial neural network for a
laser bending process, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part B, Vol. 216 No. 11, pp. 1517-20.
Chan, K.C. et al. (2002), Deformation behaviour of chromium sheets in mechanical and laser
bending, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 122 Nos 2/3, pp. 272-7.
Chandra, N. et al. (1999), Critical issues in the industrial application of SPF-process modeling
and design practices, Mater. Trans. JIM, Vol. 40 No. 8, pp. 723-36.
Chen, K.K. and Sa, C.Y. (2001), Effects of some modeling parameters of finite element models of
binder forming, J. Eng. Mater. Technol., ASME, Vol. 123 No. 4, pp. 447-55.
Chen, K.K. and Sun, P.C. (1996), Binder forming simulation using dynamic explicit finite
element, in Lee, J.K. et al. (Eds), Numisheet 96, Dearborn, pp. 191-8.
Chen, G. and Xu, X. (2001), Experimental and 3D finite element studies of CW laser forming of
thin stainless steel sheets, J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., ASME, Vol. 123 No. 1, pp. 66-73.
Chen, G. et al. (1998), Experimental and 2D numerical studies on micro-scale bending of
stainless steel with pulsed laser, paper presented at the 1998 ASME Int. Mech. Eng. Cong.
Expo., HTD 361-4, ASME, pp. 49-57.

Chen, Z.H. et al. (1999), Simulation of the sheet metal extrusion process by the enhanced
assumed strain finite element method, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 91 Nos 1/3,
pp. 250-6.
Chen, Z.H. et al. (2001), Thermo-mechanical coupling finite element analysis of sheet metal
extrusion process, paper presented at the Conf. Comp. Mater. Mineral Metal Proc., San
Diego, MMMS, pp. 595-604.
Chen, D.J. et al. (2002), Simulation and experiment of curve irradiated laser bending process of
titanium alloy sheet, Mater. Sci. Technol., Vol. 18 No. 6, pp. 673-6.
Choi, H.H. et al. (1999), Blank design in sheet metal forming by the backward tracing scheme of
the finite element method, Tech. Paper- Soc. Manuf. Eng., MF99-154, SME, pp. 1-6.
Choy, C.M. et al. (2003), Plane-strain backward extrusion of AZ31 magnesium alloy, Mater. Sci.
Forum, Vols 419-422, pp. 337-44.
Chung, K. et al. (1997), Blank shape design for a planar anisotropic sheet based on ideal forming
design theory and FEM analysis, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 39 No. 1, pp. 105-20.
Chung, K. et al. (1998), Blank design for a sheet forming application using the anisotropic
strain-rate potential Srp98, Integr. Mater. Process. Product Design, Balkema, Amsterdam,
pp. 213-19.
Di Lorenzo, R. et al. (1999), Optimal blankholder force path in sheet metal forming processes: an
Al based procedure, CIRP Annals, Vol. 48 No. 1, pp. 231-4.
Dirksen, U. et al. (2001), Shape optimisation of sheet metal parts in a flexible production
environment, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 115 No. 1, pp. 136-41.
Doege, E. and Elend, L.E. (2001), Design and application of pliable blank holder for the
optimization of process conditions in sheet metal forming, J. Mater. Process. Technol.,
Vol. 111 Nos 1/3, pp. 182-7.
Doege, E. et al. (1996), Simulation and optimization of the forming process of tailored blanks, in
Lee, J.K. et al. (Eds), Numisheet 96, Dearborn, pp. 199-204.
Doege, E. et al. (2002), Analysis of the levelling process based upon an analytic forming model,
CIRP Annals, Vol. 51 No. 1, pp. 191-4.
El-Azab, A. et al. (2003), Modeling of the electromagnetic forming of sheet metals:
state-of-the-art and future needs, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 142 No. 3, pp. 744-54.
El-Morsy, A. et al. (2001), Superplastic characteristics of Ti-alloy and Al-alloy sheets by
multi-dome forming test, Mater. Trans., Vol. 42 No. 11, pp. 2332-8.
El-Morsy, A. et al. (2002), Superplastic forming of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet into a
rectangular pan, Mater. Trans. JIM, Vol. 43 No. 10, pp. 2443-8.
Esche, S.K. et al. (1996), Process and die design for multi-step forming of round parts from sheet
metal, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 59 Nos 1/2, pp. 24-33.
Fang, G. et al. (2002), Finite element simulation of the effect of clearance on the forming quality
in the blanking process, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 122 Nos 2/3, pp. 249-54.
Finckenstein, E.V. et al. (1998), In-process punching with pressure fluids in sheet metal
forming, CIRP Annals- Manufact. Tech., Vol. 47 No. 1, pp. 207-12.
Fukumura, M. et al. (1998), Elastic-plastic finite element simulation of the flat rolling process by
dynamic explicit method, NKK Tech. Rev., No. 79, pp. 8-14.
Furumoto, H. et al. (2002), Effect of the number of work-roll surface division on prediction of
contact length in coupled analysis of roll and strip deformation during sheet roll, ISIJ Int.,
Vol. 42 No. 7, pp. 736-43.
Garcia, D. et al. (2002), A combined temporal tracking and stereo-correlation technique for
accurate measurement of 3D displacements: application to sheet metal forming, J. Mater.
Process. Technol., Vols 125-126, pp. 736-42.
Ghoo, B.Y. and Keum, Y.T. (2000), Expert drawbead models for sectional FEM analysis of sheet
metal forming processes, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 105 Nos 1/2, pp. 7-16.
Ghoo, B.Y. et al. (1998), Finite element analysis of tailored sheet forming processes considering
laser welding zone, Metals Mater., Vol. 4 No. 4, pp. 862-70.

Finite element
analyses

935

EC
21,8

936

Goijaerts, A.M. et al. (2000), Can a new experimental and numerical study improve metal
blanking?, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 103 No. 1, pp. 44-50.
Grasty, L.V. and Andrew, C. (1996), Shot peen forming sheet metal: finite element prediction of
deformed shape, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part B, Vol. 210 No. 4, pp. 361-6.
Guan, Y. et al. (2003), Finite element modeling of laser bending of pre-loaded sheet metals,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 142 No. 2, pp. 400-7.
Hambli, R. (2001), Blanking tool wear modeling using the finite element method, Int. J. Mach.
Tools Manuf., Vol. 41 No. 12, pp. 1815-29.
Hambli, R. (2002), Prediction of burr height formation in blanking processes using neural
network, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 44 No. 10, pp. 2089-102.
Hambli, R. and Guerin, F. (2003), Application of a neural network for optimum clearance
prediction in sheet metal blanking processes, Finite Elem. Anal. Design, Vol. 39 No. 11,
pp. 1039-52.
Hambli, R. and Potiron, A. (2000), Finite element modeling of sheet-metal blanking operations
with experimental verification, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 102 Nos 1/3, pp. 257-65.
Hambli, R. et al. (2003), Prediction of optimum clearance in sheet metal blanking, Int. J. Adv.
Manuf. Tech., Vol. 22 Nos 1/2, pp. 20-5.
Hao, S. et al. (2000), Acoustic emission monitoring of sheet metal forming: characterization of the
transducer, the work material and the process, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 101 Nos
1/3, pp. 124-36.
Hassan, N.M. et al. (2003), The finite element deformation modeling of superplastic Al-8090,
JOM, Vol. 55 No. 10, pp. 38-42.
Hatanaka, N. et al. (2003), Finite element simulation of the shearing mechanism in the blanking
of sheet metal, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 139 Nos 1/3, pp. 64-70.
Hatanaka, N. et al. (2003), Simulation of sheared edge formation process in blanking of sheet
metals, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 140 Nos 1/3, pp. 628-34.
Hira, T. et al. (2002), Utilization of finite element method for expanding application of high
strength steels to automotive body, Kawasaki Steel Tech. Rep., No 46, pp. 12-18.
Hu, P. et al. (1997), Rigid viscoplastic finite element analysis of the gas-pressure constrained
bulging of superplastic circular sheets into cone disk shape dies, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 39
No. 4, pp. 487-96.
Hu, Z. et al. (2001), Computer simulation and experimental investigation of sheet metal bending
using laser beam scanning, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., Vol. 41 No. 4, pp. 589-607.
Hu, Z. et al. (2002), Experimental and numerical modeling of buckling instability of laser sheet
forming, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., Vol. 42 No. 13, pp. 1427-39.
Huang, Y.M. and Chen, T.C. (2003), An elasto-plastic finite element analysis of sheet metal
camber process, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 140 Nos 1/3, pp. 432-40.
Huang, A. et al. (2000), Sheet thickness optimization for superplastic forming of engineering
structures, J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., ASME, Vol. 122 No. 1, pp. 117-23.
Huang, A. et al. (2001), Experimental validation of sheet thickness optimisation for superplastic
forming of engineering structures, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 112 No. 1, pp. 136-43.
Huh, H. et al. (1995), Experimental verification of superplastic sheet metal forming analysis by
the finite element method, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 49 Nos 3/4, pp. 355-71.
Hwang, Y.M. and Lay, H.S. (2003), Study on superplastic blow-forming in a rectangular
closed-die, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 140 Nos 1/3, pp. 426-31.
Hwang, Y.M. et al. (2000), A general velocity field for shape rolling of a V-sectioned sheet,
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., ASME, Vol. 122 No. 1, pp. 227-34.
Hwang, Y.M. et al. (2002), Study on superplastic blow-forming of 8090 Al-Li sheets in an
ellip-cylindrical closed-die, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., Vol. 42 No. 12, pp. 1363-72.
Iseki, H., (2001), An approximate deformation analysis and FEM analysis for the incremental
bulging of sheet metal using a spherical roller, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 111 Nos
1/3, pp. 150-4.

Ishikawa, T. et al. (1997), Superplastic forming of aluminum alloy sheet processed by


mechanical alloying, Mater. Sci. Forum, Vols 233-234, pp. 185-92.
Ji, Z. and Wu, S. (1998), FEM simulation of the temperature field during the laser forming of
sheet metal, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 74 Nos 1/3, pp. 89-95.
Jiang, J.Q. and Bate, P.S. (1996), The use of microstructural gradients in hot gas-pressure
forming of Zn-Al sheet, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, Vol. 27 No. 10, pp. 3250-58.
Jung, D.W. and Lee, S.J. (2000), The determination of initial blank shape by using the one-step
finite element method and experimental verification, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., Vol. 9 No. 2,
pp. 183-92.
Katoh, K. et al. (1997), Proposal of lubricant test for thick sheet forming, Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech.
Eng., Ser C, Vol. 63 No. 607, pp. 1015-20.
Keum, Y.T. et al. (2001), Application of an expert drawbead to the finite element simulation of
sheet forming processes, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 111 Nos 1/3, pp. 155-8.
Keum, Y.T. et al. (2001), Expert drawbead models for finite element analysis of sheet metal
forming processes, Int. J. Solids Struct., Vol. 38 No. 30, pp. 5335-53.
Kim, N. and Oh, S.I. (1999), Analysis tool for roll forming of sheet metal strips by the finite
element method, CIRP Annals, Vol. 48 No. 1, pp. 235-8.
Kim, J.Y. et al. (2000), Optimum blank design of an automobile sub-frame, J. Mater. Process.
Technol., Vol. 101 Nos 1/3, pp. 31-43.
Kim, Y.H. et al. (2001), Optimal design of superplastic forming processes, J. Mater. Process.
Technol., Vol. 112 Nos 2/3, pp. 166-73.
Kinell, L. et al. (2003), Component forming simulations validated using optical shape
measurements, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 5144, pp. 409-19.
Kleiner, M. et al. (2000), Die-less forming of sheet metal parts, J. Mater. Process. Technol.,
Vol. 103 No. 1, pp. 109-13.
Kleiner, M. et al. (2002), Combined methods for the prediction of dynamic instabilities in sheet
metal spinning, CIRP Annals, Vol. 51 No. 1, pp. 209-14.
Klepaczko, J.R. et al. (1999), Quasi-static dynamic shearing of sheet metals, Europ. J. Mech.,
A/Solids, Vol. 18 No. 2, pp. 271-89.
Kopp, R. and Schulz, J. (2002), Flexible sheet forming technology by double-sided simultaneous
shot peen forming, CIRP Annals, Vol. 51 No. 1, pp. 195-8.
Kridli, G.T. and El-Gizawy, A.S. (1996), Process design and optimization for superplastic
forming of Weldalite 049 sheet products, paper presented at the 1996 ASME Int. Mech.
Eng. Cong. Expo., MD Vol. 74, ASME, pp. 127-8.
Krishnan, N. and Cao, J. (2003), Estimation of optimal blank holder force trajectories in
segmented binders using an ARMA model, J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., ASME, Vol. 125 No. 4,
pp. 763-70.
Ku, T.W. et al. (2001), Implementation of backward tracing scheme of the FEM to blank design
in sheet metal forming, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 111 Nos 1/3, pp. 90-7.
Kumagai, T. et al. (1999), Hole flanging with ironing of two-ply thick sheet metals, J. Mater.
Process. Technol., Vols 89-90, pp. 51-7.
Kyrsanidi, A.K. et al. (2000), An analytical model for the prediction of distortions caused by the
laser forming process, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 104 Nos 1/2, pp. 94-102.
Lee, S. (1995), Computer simulation in superplastic forming of bonded multiple sheet
structures, paper presented at the 124th TMS Ann. Meet., Las Vegas, pp. 227-37.
Lee, W.B. and Ma, Z.R. (1995), Prediction of the limiting shape and die-height in the hydraulic
bulge-forming of a circular cup, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 51 Nos 1/4, pp. 309-20.
Leu, D.K. (1996), Finite element simulation of hole-flanging process of circular sheets of
anisotropic materials, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 38 Nos 8/9, pp. 917-33.
Li, Y. et al. (1996), Numerical simulation of the superplastic constrained bulging of sheet metals
in cylindrical dies, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 59 No. 3, pp. 243-9.

Finite element
analyses

937

EC
21,8

938

Li, K. et al. (1998), Research on the distribution of the displacement in backward tube spinning,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 79 Nos 1/3, pp. 185-8.
Li, W. et al. (1998), Numerical simulation for a laser bending of sheet metal, Chinese J. Mech.
Eng., Vol. 11 No. 4, pp. 277-82.
Liew, K.M. et al. (2003), Finite element modeling of superplastic sheet metal forming for cavity
sensitive materials, J. Eng. Mater. Technol., ASME, Vol. 125 No. 3, pp. 256-9.
Liu, L. et al. (1999), Design and analysis of blank sheet forming process based on the ideal
deformation theory, J. Plasticity Eng.,Vol. 6 No. 1, pp. 6-11.
Liu, J.H. et al. (2002), A study of the stress and strain distributions of first-pass conventional
spinning under different roller-traces, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 129 Nos 1/3,
pp. 326-9.
McClure, C.K. and Li, H. (1995), Roll forming simulation using finite element analysis, Manuf.
Rev., Vol. 8 No. 2, pp. 114-19.
Ma, B. et al. (2003), Comparison of asperity flattening under different wavelength models for
sheet metal forming, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 140 Nos 1/3, pp. 635-40.
Maiti, S.K. et al. (2000), Assessment of influence of some process parameters on sheet metal
blanking, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 102 Nos 1/3, pp. 249-56.
Malgyn, D. et al. (1998), Virtual manufacturing of sheet and bulk forming, paper presented at
the 1st Conf. Mech. Eng., GEPESZET 98, Budapest, pp. 472-6.
Markowski, J. et al. (2003), Theoretical analysis of the asymmetric rolling of sheets on leader and
finishing stands, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 138 Nos 1/3, pp. 183-8.
Michael et al. (2001), FEM simulation and experimental research on the sheet blanking, Chinese
J. Mech. Eng., Vol. 14 No. 3, pp. 254-8.
Min, S. et al. (1998), Stability of alternative horizontal levitation electromagnetic continuous
casting of aluminum sheet, ISIJ Int., Vol. 38 No. 9, pp. 1035-7.
Mori, K. et al. (2003), Prevention of shock lines in multi-stage sheet metal forming, Int. J. Mach.
Tools Manuf., Vol. 43 No. 12, pp. 1279-85.
Murata, M. et al. (2002), Simulation for hemming of aluminum sheet metal, Mater. Sci. Forum,
Vols 396-402, pp. 1629-34.
Naceur, H. et al. (2001), Optimization of drawbead restraining forces and drawbead design in
sheet metal forming process, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 43 No. 10, pp. 2407-34.
Nakagawa, T. et al. (1995), Application of laser stereolithography in FE sheet metal forming
simulation, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 50 Nos 1/4, pp. 318-23.
Nakayasu, H. et al. (1999), Design of die geometry for metal sheet forming in virtual
manufacturing, Int. J. Indust. Eng., Theo. Appl. Pract., Vol. 6 No. 4, pp. 271-81.
Odumodu, K.U. and Das, S. (1996), Forceless forming with laser, 1996 ASME Int. Mech. Eng.
Cong. Expo., MD Vol. 74, ASME, pp. 169-70.
Oliveira, D.A. and Worswick, M. (2003), Electromagnetic forming of aluminium alloy sheet,
J. Phys. IV, Vol. 110, pp. 293-8.
Park, S.H. et al. (1999), Optimum blank design in sheet metal forming by the deformation path
iteration method, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 41 No. 10, pp. 1217-32.
Park, Y.B. (2003), Sheet metal forming using rapid prototyped tooling, PhD thesis, Georgia
Institute of Technology, Atlanda, GA
Pilani, R. et al. (2000), A hybrid intelligent systems approach for die design in sheet metal
forming, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Tech., Vol. 16 No. 5, pp. 370-5.
Pyttel, T. et al. (2000), A finite element based model for the description of aluminium sheet
blanking, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., Vol. 40 No. 14, pp. 1993-2002.
Quigley, E. and Monaghan, J. (2001), Using a finite element model to study plastic strain in
metal spinning, paper presented at the 9th Int. Conf. Sheet Metal., pp. 255-62.
Quigley, E. and Monaghan, J. (2002), Enhanced finite element models of metal spinning,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 121 No. 1, pp. 43-9.

Quigley, E. and Monaghan, J. (2002), The finite element modelling of conventional spinning
using multi-domain models, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 124 No. 3, pp. 360-5.
Rachik, M. et al. (2002), Some phenomenological and computational aspects of sheet metal
blanking simulation, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 128 Nos 1/3, pp. 256-65.
Rachik, M. et al. (2002), Numerical simulation of sheet metal blanking predicting the shape
of the cut edge, Key Eng. Mater., Vols 233-236, pp. 329-34.
Ragai, I. and Younan, M.Y.A. (2001), Finite element modeling of superplastic forming of
Weldalite (049) alloy, paper presented at the 42nd Str., Str. Dyn. Mater. Conf., Seattle,
pp. 2454-60.
Rao, P.V.M. and Dhande, S.G. (2002), A flexible surface tooling for sheet-forming processes:
conceptual studies and numerical simulation, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 124 Nos 1/2,
pp. 133-43.
Samuel, M. (2002), Influence of drawbead geometry on sheet metal forming, J. Mater. Process.
Technol., Vol. 122 No. 1, pp. 94-103.
Song, I.S. et al. (1995), Finite element analysis and design of binder wraps for automobile sheet
metal parts using surface boundary conditions, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., Vol. 4 No. 5,
pp. 593-8.
Sosnowski, W. et al. (2002), Sensitivity based optimization of sheet metal forming tools,
J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 124 No. 3, pp. 319-28.
Svensson, M. and Mattiasson, K. (2002), Three-dimensional simulation of hemming with the
explicit FE-method, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 128 Nos 1/3, pp. 142-54.
Van de Moesdijk, R.D. et al. (1998), Blanking by means of the finite element method, paper
presented at the 4th World Cong. Comput. Mech., Buenos Aires, p. 1126.
Van den Boogaard, A. (2002), Thermally enhanced forming of aluminium sheet: modelling
and experiments, PhD thesis, Univ. Twente, The Netherlands.
Vasin, R.A. et al. (2003), Mathematical modelling of the superplastic forming of a long
rectangular sheet, Int. J. Non-Linear Mech., Vol. 38 No. 5, pp. 799-807.
Vollertsen, F. and Holzer, S. (1995), 3D thermomechanical simulation of laser forming, in
Shen, S.F. and Dawson, P. (Eds), NUMIFORM 95, Balkema, Amsterdam, pp. 785-91.
Wang, Y. et al. (2002), Research on applying one-step simulation to blank design in sheet
metal forming, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 120 Nos 1/3, pp. 111-14.
Wu, S. and Zhong, J. (2002), FEM simulation of the deformation field during the laser
forming of sheet metal, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 121 Nos 2/3, pp. 269-72.
Xing, H.L. and Makinouchi, A. (2002), FE modeling of thermo-elasto-plastic finite deformation
and its application in sheet warm forming, Eng. Comput., Vol. 19 Nos 3/4, pp. 392-410.
Xing, H.L. and Wang, Z.R. (1997), Finite element analysis and design of thin sheet
superplastic forming, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 68 No. 1, pp. 1-7.
Xing, H.L. and Wang, Z.R. (1998), Prediction and control of cavity growth during superplastic
sheet forming with finite element modeling, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 75 Nos 1/3,
pp. 87-93.
Xu, Y. et al. (1999), 3D rigid-plastic FEM numerical simulation on backward tube
spinning, Chinese J. Nonferrous Metals, Vol. 9 S1, pp. 199-203.
Xu, Y. et al. (2001), 3D rigid-plastic FEM numerical simulation on tube spinning, J. Mater.
Process. Technol., Vol. 113 Nos 1/3, pp. 710-13.
Xu, S. et al. (2002), FEM simulation and experimental research on the AlMg4.5Mn0.4 sheet
blanking, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 122 Nos 2/3, pp. 338-43.
Xue, K. et al. (1997), Disposal of key problems in the FEM analysis of tube stagger
spinning, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 69 Nos 1/3, pp. 176-9.
Xue, K. et al. (1997), Elasto-plastic FEM analysis and experimental study of diametral
growth in tube spinning, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol. 69 Nos 1/3, pp. 172-5.
Yang, J.H. et al. (2003), Experimental testing of draw-bead restraining force in sheet metal
forming, Acta Metall. Sinica, Vol. 16 No. 1, pp. 46-50.

Finite element
analyses

939

EC
21,8

940

Yao, Z.H. and Han, Z.D. (1995), Numerical analysis for the simulation of superplastic sheet metal
forming, paper presented at the 1st Int. Conf. Eng. Comput. Comp. Simul., Changsha,
pp. 167-72.
Zhang, X.M. and Chen, M.A. (2001), Influence of process parameters on hybrid forming of
aluminum sheet, Trans. Nonferr. Met. Soc. China, Vol. 11 No. 6, pp. 879-83.
Zeng, Q. and Tian, Q. (2002), Virtual die tryout technology for sheet metal forming, Chinese
J. Mech. Eng., Vol. 15 Suppl., pp. 32-4.
Zhang, K. et al. (1995), Simulation of superplastic sheet forming and bulk forming, J. Mater.
Process. Technol., Vol. 55 No. 1, pp. 24-7.
Zhou, S. et al. (1996), Influence of roll geometry and strip width on flattening in flat rolling, Steel
Res., Vol. 67 No. 5, pp. 200-4.
Zhang, G. et al. (2001), A study on fundamental mechanisms of warp and recoil in hemming,
J. Eng. Mater. Technol., ASME, Vol. 123 No. 4, pp. 436-41.