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Batuan Piroklastik

Klasifikasi Batuan Beku

Batuan piroklastik:
Terbentuk dari letusan gunung api (berasal dari pendinginan dan
pembekuan magma) namun seringkali bersifat klastik.

Eruption column of Mount St. Helens on May


18, 1980. This explosive release produced a
hot column of rising tephra, volcanic gases
and entrained air that rose to an altitude of 22
kilometers in less than ten minutes. Strong
prevailing winds carried the ash to the east at
about 100 kilometers per hour. In less than
four hours, ash was falling on the city of
Spokane about 400 kilometers away and two
weeks later the eruption cloud had encircled
the earth. USGS image by A. Post

Volcanic ash plume from Cleveland Volcano, located on Chuginadak Island in the Aleutian Island Chain off
Alaska. NASA image taken by Jeff Williams, Flight Engineer, from the International Space Station.

Satellite image of an ash plume from Chaitn Volcano in


southern Chile on May 3, 2008. This plume begins in
Chile, crosses Argentina and extends hundreds of miles
out over the Atlantic Ocean. NASA image

PIROKLASTIK dan TEFRA

EJECTA : material (solid


) yang terlontarkan
(
(ejected ) saat erupsi gunungapi
Batuan PIROKLASTIK (TEFRA) : batuan yang
terbentuk dari akumulasi material ejecta
Ukuran material piroklastik :
bomb : d > 64 mm
lapili : d = 2 - 64 mm
abu (ash ) : d < 2

Volcanic bomb (Krakatau)

Pengendapan material PIROKLASTIK


1) Pyroclastic fall
tersebar merata di daerah sekitar gunung
api, tidak dipengaruhi bentuk topografi
(membentuk bidang waktu untuk korelasi )
distribusi material dipengaruhi oleh
ukuran material/ fragmen , kekuatan dan
arah angin
seringkali memperlihatkan hasil
pemilahan (sorting ) material

MOUNT ST. HELENS (1982)

Pengendapan material PIROKLASTIK


2) Pyroclastic flow
disebut juga sbg nue ardante atau
wedhus gembel
temperature: ~700 1000 0C
kecepatan bisa mencapai ~150 km/h
salah batuan yg terbentuk ignimbrite

WEDUS GEMBEL

WEDHUS-GEMBEL
(pyroclastic clouds)
pyroclastic clouds

Pyroclastic flow

Rekaman korban pyroclastic -flow (Pompeii 79 AD)

Tuff

Tuff

An ignimbrite in the field,


Tenerife, Canary Islands.
Yellow notebook with cm
gradations for scale.

Light microscope image


of a welded ignimbrite

A) Section on the Santo Tomas River


bridge north of San Narciso, Zambales;
32 km west-southwest of vent. Layer A is
8 mm of sand-sized ash; layer B is 4 mm
of mostly fine ash. Note weak normal
grading of layer C and scattered coarse
clasts on surface of deposit.
B) Tephra-fall deposits on unimproved
road along the Marella River 10.5 km
southwest of vent. Layer A, about 4 cm
thick, consists of coarse ash and fine
lapilli; layer B consists of several thin
layers of ash; layer C is 33 cm thick and
is the thickest section of the climactic
pumice-fall deposit yet found. Note
normal grading overall, but 2-cm pumice
lapillus in upper left. Layer D consists of
two 3- to 4-cm-thick beds of fine ash
separated by a bed of water-reworked
pumiceous ash.
C) Tephra deposits on unimproved road
about 9 km southeast of vent, north side
of Gumain River. Layer B is 23 cm thick
and consists of numerous graded ash
beds; layer C is 31 cm thick and has two
zones in lower part with minor fine ash
coatings.
D) Section at mouth of Pasig River
canyon about 15 km east of vent. Layer B
is 10 cm thick and layer C is about 18 cm
thick; note ash-rich zones that stand out
owing to increased cohesiveness. USGS
Images by W.E. Scott and J.J. Major.

Klasifikasi

Classification of the pyroclastic rocks. a) Based on type of mat erial. After Pettijohn (1975)
Sedimentary Rocks, Harper & Row, and Schmid (1981) Geology, 9, 40-43. b) Based on the
size of the material. After Fisher (1966) Earth Sci. Rev., 1, 287-298.

SCORIA :

dark brownish black or red vesicular ejecta of basaltic and


andesitic magmas (mafic version of pumice)
forming from dissolved gases rich magma rich
composed of volcanic glass fragments and few mineral
crystals
its specific gravity ranges from 0.8 to 2.1

PUMICE :

vesicular ejecta of intermediate to siliceous magmas


(including rhyolite, trachyte and phonolite)
usually light in colour ranging from white, yellowish, gray,
gray brown, and a dull red, average porosity of 90%

SKORIA (SCORIA)
Komposisi BASA

BATUAPUNG (PUMICE)
Komposisi ASAM

BATUAN PIROKLASTIKA

OBSIDIAN :

produced when a felsic lava cools rapidly and freezes without sufficient
time for crystal growth, composed of glass
because of the lack of crystal structure, obsidian blade edges c an reach
almost molecular thinness (use as arrowheads and surgical scalpe l blades)

BREKSI VOLKANIK
(VOLCANIC BRECCIA)

BOM VOLKANIK
(VOLCANIC BOMB)

BATUAN PIROKLASTIKA

TUFA
BATUAN PIROKLASTIKA

LAHAR = LARUTAN PEKAT


BERUPA PIROKLASTIKA / DEBU VOLKANIK
YANG TERBAWA OLEH AIR

BENDUNG TERTIMBUN

LAHAR = LARUTAN PEKAT


BERUPA PIROKLASTIKA / DEBU VOLKANIK
YANG TERBAWA OLEH AIR

RUMAH
TERTIMBUN

LAHAR = LARUTAN PEKAT


BERUPA PIROKLASTIKA / DEBU VOLKANIK
YANG TERBAWA OLEH AIR

LAHAR = LARUTAN PEKAT


BERUPA PIROKLASTIKA / DEBU VOLKANIK
YANG TERBAWA OLEH AIR

GUNUNG RINJANI & SEGARA ANAKAN, LOMBOK