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Data Sheet

a) Case 14 in the upstream


3

Volume of water, V (m ) = 0.001

Time to collect the water, t (sec) = 31

Flow rate, Q (m /sec) = 3.226 x 10-6


Sl

Distance
into duct
x (m)

Area of the
2
duct A (m )

Static
head
h (m)

Velocity
V (m/s)

h1

0.00

490.9 10

h2

0.0603

151.7 10

h3

0.0687

109.4 10

h4

0.0726

89.9 10

h5

0.0811

78.5 10

h6

0.1415

490.9 10

-6

0.147

6.571 10

2.201 10

147.002 10

-6

0.146

21.266 103

23.050 106

146.023 103

-6

0.145

29.488 103

44.320 106

145.044 103

-6

0.141

35.884 10

65.631 10

141.066 10

-6

0.137

41.096 103

86.078 106

137.086 103

0.140

6.571 10

-6

Dynamic
head (m)

Total head
H (m)
2

h V / 2g

V / 2g
3

2.201 10

140.002 10

b) Case 21 in the upstream


3

Volume of water, V (m ) = 0.001

Time to collect the water, t (sec) = 14

Flow rate, Q (m /sec) = 7.143 x 10-6


Sl

Distance
into duct
x (m)

Static
head
h (m)

Velocity
V (m/s)

-6

0.195

14.551 10

10.791 10

-6

0.195

90.994 103

422.010 106 195.422 103

-6

0.194

79.455 103

321.768 106 194.322 103

-6

0.194

65.292 10

217.284 10

-6

0.194

47.086 103

113.003 106 194.113 103

-6

0.194

14.551 10

Area of the
2
duct A (m )

h1

0.00

490.9 10

h2

0.0605

78.5 10

h3

0.0690

89.9 10

h4

0.0729

109.4 10

h5

0.0813

151.7 10

h6

0.1415

490.9 10

Dynamic
head (m)

Total head
H (m)
2

h V / 2g

V / 2g
3

10.791 10

195.011 10

194.217 10

194.011 10

Graph

Case 14o in the upstream


148
146
144
142
Total Head H (m) (x10-3)

140
138
136
134
132
0

0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16


Distance (m)

Case 21o in the upstream


196
195.5
195
Total Head H (m) (x10-3)

194.5
194
193.5
193
0

0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16


Distance (m)

Discussion
The main objective of this experiment is to investigate the validity of the Bernoulli
equation when applied to the steady flow of water in a tapered duct and also to measure flow
rates and both static and total pressure head in a rigid convergent/divergent tube of known
geometry for a range of steady flow rates. As the liquid flow from a wider pipe to a smaller one,
the velocity of the liquid increases, this is shown with the formula

V=

Q
A

where Q is constant

and as the area (A) gets smaller the V will get bigger. The results that we collected prove that the
theory is correct.
The results from the experiment also show that the water slightly rises in some of the
tubes when pressure difference increases, in theory when the pressure difference increases the
static head should also increase. This proves that there are some errors during the experiment
such as reading error, timing error, and the pipe is not 100% filled with water (still has water
bubble trapped inside).
There are 4 assumptions made in Bernoullis equation:
a) The liquid is incompressible
b) The liquid is non-viscous
c) The flow is steady and the velocity of liquid is less than the critical velocity for the
liquid
d) The is no loss of energy due to friction
With water bubbles that trapped inside the pipe it can cause friction and loss of energy
will occurs which will change the reading of the experiment.
In convergent flow, water flows from the wider tube to the narrow tube and the total head
calculation shows that as the water flow to the narrower tube the total head decreases. In
divergent flow which water flows from the narrower tube to the wider tube, the total head
calculation shows that total head decreases as it flow from narrower tube to the wider tube.

Conclusion
In conclusion, the velocity of fluid will increase if the fluid is flowing from a wider to narrower
tube and will decrease in opposite case despite of the type of flow (divergent or convergent). The
dynamic head values for all case also increase as the velocity increases. The total head for
divergent flow has the lowest value at h5 and highest value at h1, while in convergent flow h1 has
the highest value and h5 has the lowest value. There are also some errors occurred during the
experiment which make the result less accurate.