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Penjelasan Direct dan Indirect Speech (Reported Speech) - Direct dan

Indirect Speech merupakan materi grammar bahasa Inggris yang banyak


diajarkan di jenjang SMP dan SMA. Direct dan Indirect Speech atau yang biasa
disebut Reported Speech ini menjadi langganan bentuk soal yang sering keluar di
UN baik untuk SMP dan SMA.
Atas dasar begitu pentingnya materi Direct dan Indirect Speech ini, maka pada
kesempatan kali ini penulis memberikan penjelasan mengenai Direct dan Inderct
tersebut dengan lengkap kepada pengunjung sekalian. Semoga bermanfaat.
Direct dan Indirect Speech
Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung, ada
beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan struktur
kalimat, tensis, pronoun (kata ganti orang), keterangan waktu dan tempat
(Adverbs of time and place).
Sebelum melangkah jauh ke sub-pembahasan tersebut di atas, alangkah baiknya
ada juga mengerti tentang apa yang dimaksud Reporting Speech dan
Reported
Speech.
Reporting Speech adalah bagian dalam kalimat direct speech yang di tandai oleh
tanda petik (") dan di akhiri oleh tanda petik (").

He said, "I have a present for you in my bag."

He asked me, "why do you come late."

Sedangkan Reported Speech adalah baigan awal dari kalimat direct speech.

He said, "I have a present for you in my bag."

He asked me, "why do you come late."

Untuk itu, pada artikel ini penulis sengaja membagi beberpa sub-penjelasan
mengenai direct dan indirect speech berdasakan perubahan-perbuahan di atas.

1. Perubahan Stuktur kalimat

Jika kita lihat pada kalimat direct speech, terdapat ciri-ciri yang identik yaitu
terdapat tanda petik ("). Tada petik tersebut merupakan cara yang sering
digunakan untuk membedakan mana yang direct atau yang indirect.
Ketika klimat direct speech tersebut dirubah menjadi kalimat indirect speech,
tanda petik tersebut pun dihilangkan atau digantikan dengan kata "that" atau
"to" (untuk kalimat perintah). Misalnya:
No Direct Speech
He said, "I have a present for you in
01
my bag."
He asked me, "why do you come
02
late."
03 He orderd me, "don't bring a bag."

Indirect Speech
He said that he had a present for me
in his bag.
He asked me why I came late.
He ordered me to didn't bring a bag.

Perubahan struktur kalimat juga terjadi jika pada direct speech menggunakan
kalimat tanya, maka akan dirubah menjadi kalimat afirmatif (berita).
Untuk kalimat direct speech yang menggunakan kalimat tanya "yes-no question"
maka akan dirubah menjadi if/whether. Contohnya:
No Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
They asked me, "Do you want to
They asked me if/whether I want to
01
join us to play football?"
join them to play football.
He asked me, "Does she want to
He asked me if/whether she wants to
02
mary me?"
mary her.
Untuk kalimat direct speech yang menggunakan 5W1H question (Why, Who,
What, When, WHere, How), maka akan dirubah menjadi kalimat afirmatif
dengan cara sebagai berikut:
No
01
02
03
04
05

Direct Speech
He asked me, "why do you come late?"
He asked me, "what does she eat?"
He asked me, "when did you come?"
He asked me, "who are you?"
He asked me, "who is she?"

Indirect Speech
He asked me why you came late.
He asked me what she ate.
He asked me when I came.
He asked me who I was.
He asked me who she was.

2. Perubahan Tensis (Tenses)


Seperti yang dijelaskan dimuka, perbuahan dari direct ke indirect juga
mempengaruhi tensis yang digunakan. Kebanyakan siswa sulit memahami
perubahan yang satu ini. Untuk itu, penulis sengaja membuatkan tabel
perubahan tensis agar mudah dimengerti.

Di bawah ini adalah tabel Perubahan Tenses dari direct speech ke indirect
speech.
No
01
02
03
04
05
06
07

Direct Speech
Simple Present
Present Continuous
Present Future
Present Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous
Simple Past
Past Continuous

Indirect Speech
Simple Past
Past Continuous
Past Future
Past Perfect
Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect
Past Perfect Continuous

Atau bisa lebih dipermudah dengan tabel berikut di bawah ini, yaitu:
No
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11

Direct Speech
V1 (eat)
V2 (ate)
Am/is/are
Do/does
Do/does not
Did not
Was/were
Am/is/are + V-ing
Was/were +V-ing
Has/have + V3
Will/shall/can/may/must
Could/might/should/would +
12
V1/be

Indirect Speech
V2 (ate)
Had + V3 (had eaten)
Was/were
Did
Did not
Had not + V3
Had been
Was/were + V-ing
Had been + V-ing
Had + V3
Would/should/could/might/had to
Could/might/should/would + have+
V3/been

3. Perubahan Pronoun
Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang
dipakai di direct speech (kalimat langsung) yang tentunya mempengaruhi
perubahan pronoun pada indirect speech (kalimat tidak langsung).

Kata ganti orang pertama (I dan We) pada reporting speech (lihat
penjelasan di awal) berubah sesuai subjek yang ada di reproted speech.
No Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

01 He said, I am busy.
02 She said, I am unwell.
03 I said, I will be late.
They said, We will not permit
04
this.
We said, We need to buy some
05
clothes.

He said that he was busy.


She said that she was unwell.
I said that I would be late.
They said that they would not permit
that.
We said that we needed to buy some
clothes.

Kata ganti orang kedua (You) di reporting speech pada direct speech
berubah sesuai objek pada reported speech.
No Direct Speech
He said to me, You have to come with
01
me.
02 She said to me, You can go.
03 She said to him, You can go.

Indirect Speech
He told me that I had to go with
him.
She told me that I could go.
She told him that he could go.

Kata ganti orang ketiga (He, she, it dan they) pada direct speech tidak
mengalami perubahan ketika dirubah ke indirect speech.

No Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
01 He said, She is a good girl.
He said that she was a good girl.
02 She said, They have invited us.
She said that they had invited them.
They said, He does not have the
They said that he did not have the
03
necessary qualifications.
necessary qualifications.
4. Perubahan Keterangan waktu dan tempat (Adverbs of time and
place)
Tidak cuma itu, dalam perubahan dari direct speech ke indirect speech juga
mempengaruhi adverbs khusunya adverb of time (keterangan waktu) dan adverb
of place (keterangan tempat). Untuk itu anda wajib memahami tabel di bawah
ini.
No
01
02

Direct Speech
Now
To day

03

Tomorrow

04

Next ...

Indirect Speech
Then
That day
The next day
The day after
The following day
A day later
The ... after
The following ...

05

Last ...

06

... ago

07

Yesterday

08
09
10
11

The day before yesterday


Here
This
These

The ... before


The Previous ...
... before
... earlier
The day before
The previous day
The preceeding day
Two day before
There
That
Those

Di bawah ini adalah contoh-contoh direct dan indirect speech untuk menambah
pemahaman mengenai penjelasan di atas.
Direct Speech
He said, I have a present for you in
(+)
my bag. here
(-)

(?)

He said, I do not have a present for


you in my bag

Indirect Speech
He said that he had a present for me
in his bag there.

He said that he did not have a


present for me in his bag.

He asked, Do I have a present for you He asked me if/whether he had a


in my bag?
present for me in his bag.

He asked me why he had to have a


(?) He asked me, Why do I have to have
present for me in his bag.
a present for you in my bag?
(!) He ordered/commanded me, Bring
my bag here now!
(!)

He ordered/commanded me to bring
his bag there then.

He ordered me, Dont bring your bag


He ordered me not to bring my bag
here!
there.

Definition
Direct Speech

In grammar, direct speech is speech which is reported by using the exact


words that the speaker used.
When the reported speech stating the actual words, this is called direct
speech (direct sentence). Sentences are not connected by "that" it shall be
marked with (punctuation) comma.

Indirect Speech
Indirect speech is speech which tells you what someone said, but does not
use the person's actual words
When the reported speech gives substance to the words used by the speaker
and not the actual words are called indirect speech (indirect sentence). In
indirect speech sentences are associated with the word "that".
Time reporting verb forms are not changed, but the form of reported speech
time should be changed based on time reporting verb forms.

Example
Direct
Simple present
Present continous
Present perfect
continous

Indirect
Simple past
Past continous
Past perfect
continous

Present tense
Direct: She said, Its cold
Indirect
: She said that it was cold
Present continous
Direct: She said, "I'm teaching English online."
Indirect
: She said that she was teaching English online.
Present Perfect Continous
Direct: She said, "I've been teaching English for seven years."
Indirect
: She said that she had been teaching English for seven years
If the reported speech related to general truths or facts that have become
habits, present indefinite or simple present in the reported speech is not
transformed into
the past tense is appropriate, but still just as adanmya, for example:
Direct Speech - Indirect Speech

He said, "The Sun Rises in the east" - He said That the sun Rises in the east
In reported speech, when the present tense changed to past tense with the
rules I, adjectives, verbs or adverbs generally modified:
Direct Speech
this = this
these = this
come = to come
here = here, over here
Hence = from here
hither = to this place
ago = past
now = now
today = today
tomorrow = tomorrow
yesterday = yesterday
last night = last night
next week = next week
thus = so
example:
He said, "Will I come here".
Indirect Speech
That = was
Those = it
go = go
there = over there, over there
thence = from there
thither = to that place
before = first
then = at that time
that day = day
The next day next day =
the previous day = the day before
the previous night = night before
The following week = next week
so = so

He said That he would go there


But if this, here, now and so indicate on the object, place or time when talking,
then do not change.
Agus said, "This is my pen". - Agus said That this was his pen
(When talking pen in the hands of the speaker)
1) When the news reported speech sentences
With this rule, reporting verb is considered in the present or future tense and
whenever this particular case, the form of the verb in reported speech is not
changed at all in changing direct into indirect speech.
Reporting verbs - Reported speech
Present tense - Any tense (form any time)
Direct: She says to her friend, "I have been writing".
Indirect: She says to her friend That he has been writing. (Unchanged)
Direct: She has toll you, "I am reading".
Indirect: She has toll you That he is reading. (Unchanged)
Direct: She Will say, "You have done wrongly".
Indirect: She Will tell you That you have done wrongly. (Unchanged)
Direct: She Will say, "The boy Was not lazy".
Indirect: Them That She Will tell the boy Was not lazy. (Unchanged)
2) When the reported speech is an interrogative sentence
a) Reporting verb say or ask or tell converted to inquire. By repeating words and
asked to change tenses when asked the question begins with the word preached.
Direct
He said to me, "Where are you going?"
He said to me, "What are you doing?"
Indirect
He asked me where I was going
He inquired of me what I was doing
b) By using if or whether as a liaison between reporting and reported speech and
verb tenses change, if the question begins with a verb reported:

Direct
He said to me, "Are you going
away today? "
He asked me, "can you come along?"
Indirect
He asked me whether I was
going away that day.
He asked me if I Could come along.
3) The sentence commands (imperative sentences)
If the reported speech is a command line, reporting verbs say or tell to be
converted into a particular verb that indicates:
Command (command), for example, ordered, commanded, etc. which means sent,
ordered.
Precept (instructions, guidance, education), for example, advised that means
advising.
Request (petition), for example, asked which means asking, begging.
Entreaty (a very urgent request), for example, begged that means asking, begging
(very).
Prohibition (ban), for example, forbade that means banning.
In a change from a direct sentence to sentence indirectly, imperative mode should
be replaced with the infinitive. Specifically, reported verb (a verb or a verb in
reported speech reported) should be changed to infinitive with to.
a) Command:
Direct: He said to his servant, "Go away at once!"
Indirect: He ordered his servant to go away at once
b) Precept:
Direct: She said to her son, "Study hard!"
Indirect: He advised her son to study hard
c) Request:
Direct: He said to his friend, "Please Lend me your pen!"
Indirect: He asked his friend to be kind enough to Lend him his pencil
d) Entreaty:
Direct: He said to his master, "Pardon me, sir"
Indirect: He begged his master to pardon him.

e) Prohibition:
Direct: She said to her daughter, "Do not go there"
Indirect: She forbade her daughter to go there
If the reporting verb say or tell is converted into verbs reported ask, order,
command, etc. (but if not forbid), the predicate is changed to the infinitive with to,
which is preceded by a note or no + infinitive with to.
Direct: She said to her daughter, "Do not go there"
Indirect: She asked herdaughter not to go there.
4) Sentence exclamation (exclamatory sentences)
When the reported speech consists of words or phrases called optative, reporting
verbs say
or should be changed to tell the particular verb such as exclaim, cry out,
pray etc..
a) Exclamatory sentences
Direct: He said, "Hurrah! My old friend has come "
Indirect: He exclaimed with joy That Had his old friend come.
b) Optative sentences (sentences that expressed the hope, praise, etc.)
Direct: He said, "God bless you, my dear son"
Indirect: He prayed That God would bless his dear son