Anda di halaman 1dari 62

SlideShareExploreSearchYou

Upload
Login
Signup
Search

Home
Technology
Education
MoreTopics
ForUploaders
CollectLeads
Search

UpcomingSlideShare
Loadingin...5

3of45

IndustrialSummerTrainingReportatConstruction
SiteofCPWD
42,920
Share
Like
Download

AlokMishra,BloggeratBlogspot
Follow
0 24 0 3
PublishedonOct21,2012

ConstructionofPoliceStationKhajuriKhas,NearSoniaVihar,Delhi(SH:C/o
...

Publishedin:Education
5Comments
38Likes
Statistics
Notes

FullName
Commentgoeshere.
12hoursagoDeleteReplySpamBlock
AreyousureyouwanttoYesNo
Yourmessagegoeshere

Shareyourthoughts...
Post

SagarDuttatShardaUniversity
thankyousomuchalokbrother........
1weekagoReply
AreyousureyouwanttoYesNo
Yourmessagegoeshere

kisuja

Thanksforthesummertrainingreportatconstructionsite,ithasbeenabighelptomewhenIwas
preparingmyreport.
11monthsagoReply
AreyousureyouwanttoYesNo
Yourmessagegoeshere

KunwarVishvaPratapSingh,StudentatStudent
downlodkaoptionkoondega
11monthsagoReply
AreyousureyouwanttoYesNo
Yourmessagegoeshere

SanjeshGangradeatStudent
sirimpursuinginb.techfinalyearndineedasummertrainingreportonbridgeconstructionofpwdso
plssendmeonsanjeshgangrade2405@gmail.com
1yearagoReply
AreyousureyouwanttoYesNo
Yourmessagegoeshere

pradeep2220
sirimpursuinginb.techfinalyearndineedasummertrainingreportonbuildinconstructionofpwdso
plssendmeonpradeepbhalothia143@gmail.com.thanx
1yearagoReply
AreyousureyouwanttoYesNo
Yourmessagegoeshere

ALOKMANI
11minutesago

PranayMundhada
3daysago

bharatkachchhawah
1weekago

ayushsrivastava000
2weeksago

ShivamSrivastava
2weeksago
ShowMore

NoDownloads
Views
TotalViews
42,920
OnSlideshare
0
FromEmbeds
0
NumberofEmbeds
4
Actions
Shares
27
Downloads
2,540
Comments
5
Likes
38
Embeds0
Noembeds
Nonotesforslide

IndustrialSummerTrainingReportatConstructionSiteofCPWD
1. 1.KRISHNAINSTITUTEOFENGINEERING&TECHNOLOGYGhaziabadCENTRALPUBLIC
WORKSDEPARTMENTNewDelhi
2. 2.PROJECTREPORTONConstructionsiteofPOLICESTATIONATCENTRALPUBLICWORKS
DEPARTMENT(CPWD)(TRAININGPERIOD:15JUNE31JULY)SUBMITTEDBY:
ALOKMISHRA0902900015(CE3RDYEAR)KRISHNAINSTITUEOFENGINEERING&
TECHNOLOGY,GHAZIABADGUIDEDBY:Er.PRCHARANBABUEXECUTIVE
ENGINEERCentralPublicWorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhiPage2
3. 3.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTItisindeedagreatpleasureandprivilegetopresentthisreportontrainingat
CPWD.IamextremelygratefultomytrainingandplacementofficerforissuingaTrainingletter,
whichmademytrainingpossibleatCPWD,Delhi.IwouldliketoexpressmygratitudetoErPRCHARAN
BABUforhisinvaluablesuggestions,motivation,guidanceandsupportthroughoutthe
training.Hismethodologytostartfromsimpleantthendeepenthroughmademetobringoutthisproject
reportwithoutanxiety.ThankstoallotherCPWDofficials,operatorsandallothermembersofCPWD,
yetuncountedfortheirhelpincompletingtheprojectandseethelightofsuccess.Iamverythankfulto
friends,colleaguesandallotherpersonswhorenderedtheirassistancedirectlyorindirectlytocomplete
thisprojectworksuccessfully.IextendedmyduethankstoEr.VINODwhogavemevaluabletimeand
suggestionsandguidemealotatvariousstagesofmySummerTraining.DatedJuly2012ALOK
MISHRACentralPublicWorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhiPage3
4. 4.INDEXS.NODESCRIPTION1.INTRODUCTION2.PROJECTOVERVIEW3.SITELOCATION4.
FORMWORK5.PLANNING6.SEQUENCEOFSTRUCTUREWORK7.PROJECTMONITORING8.
QUALITY9.CONCLUSIONCentralPublicWorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhiPage4
5. 5.1.INTRODUCTIONABOUTTheCentralPublicWorksDepartmentofIndiaisaCentralGovernment
ownedauthoritythatisinchargeofpublicsectorworksinthecountry.CentralPublicWorksDepartment
(CPWD)underMinistryofUrbanDevelopmentisentrustedwithconstructionandmaintenanceofbuildings
formostoftheCentralGovernmentDepartments,Publicundertakingsandautonomousbodies.Inthe
IndianHistorybothpreandpostindependenceCPWDhasagloriouseraofmorethan150yearwith
dedicated,energeticandcommittedcorpsofEngineersandArchitects.Beforebeingrestructuredtoits
presentformin1930CentralPublicWorksDepartmentoriginatedinJuly1854whenthe
GovernorGeneralofIndiadecidedtosetupaCentralAgency:toexerciseuniversalcontroloverpublic
worksinIndiawithbestofscientificknowledgewithauthority&system.CentralPublicWorks
Department,DelhiisthepremieragencyofGovt.ofIndiaengagedinplanning,designing,constructionand

maintenanceofGovernmentassetsinthefieldofbuiltenvironmentandinfrastructuredevelopment.Assets
inbuiltenvironmentincludeHospitals,Schools,Colleges,TechnicalInstitutes,PoliceBuildings,Prisons,
CourtsetcassetsininfrastructuredevelopmentincludeRoads,Bridges,Flyovers,Footpaths,Subways
etc.CPWDDelhialsosustainsandpreservestheseassetsthroughawelldevelopedsystemofmaintenance
whichincludesamongstothersspecializedserviceslikerehabilitationworks,roadssignageandaesthetic
treatmentslikeinteriors,monumentlighting,landscaping.MISSIONCentralPublicWorksDepartment,IP
Bhawan,NewDelhiPage5
6. 6.1.SoundPlanningandDesign2.EngineeredConstruction3.EffectiveMaintenance4.Benchmarking
theStandards5.CapacityBuilding6.PublicPrivatePartnership7.ManpowerPlanning8.Transparencyin
Management1.SoundPlanningandDesignCentralPublicWorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhiPage
6
7. 7.1.Allbuildingnormsandspecificationstobestandardized.2.Architecturalandstructuraldesigntobe
undertakeninhouseasfaraspossible.3.Detailedplanningofallservicestomakethebuildings
operationalinallrespects.4.Architecturalandstructuraldesignstobecoordinatedtoevolveanefficient
buildingsystemcompliantwithlatestIndianStandards.2.EngineeredConstruction1.Standardizationof
differentbuildingelementsincludingtheirprefabrication,mechanizationinconstruction,useofinnovative
materialsandtechnologiesadoptingcleandevelopmentmechanismresultinginconservationofenergyand
naturalresources.3.EffectiveMaintenanceCentralPublicWorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhiPage
7
8. 8.1.Topreserveandmaintainbuildingsandservicesingoodoperatingcondition.2.Toimprovethe
specificationsdependinguponthedevelopmentthatistakingplaceinthebuilt
environment.4.BenchmarkingtheStandards1.UpdationofSpecificationsandstandardsforpublicworks
includingDelhiScheduleofRates,AnalysisofRates,WorksandMaintenanceManualonregularbasis.
5.CapacityBuilding1.Updatingtechnicalknowledgeofengineers,architectsbyeffectivetrainingand
participationinseminars,workshopsetc.2.Effectivetrainingtodevelopmanagerialskillsandhandling
publicgrievancessothatengineers,architectsandhorticulturistsbecomedevelopmentmanagersfor
tomorrow.3.TargetorientedtrainingtoworkersoncontemporaryskillsandbehaviouralCentralPublic
WorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhiPage8
9. 9.sciencetoimproveservicedeliverymechanism.6.PublicPrivatePartnership1.Toundertakecontractor
concessionagreementwithprivatesectorcompanyfordeliveringGeneralPoolResidential
AccommodationandGeneralPoolOfficeAccommodationonpaymentofuserchargesto:(1)Increasethe
stockofdwellingunitstherebyprovidinghousingtogovernmentemployees.(2)Increasetheofficespace
therebyprovidingcomfortableworkingenvironmenttogovernmentemployees7.ManpowerPlanning1.To
providethemanpowerofCPWDwithprofessionalenvironment,excellentworkingopportunitiesandstate
ofarttechnology.2.Toprovideperformanceandabilitybasedapproachtocareerdevelopmentas
perpolicyoftheGovernment.CentralPublicWorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhiPage9
10. 10.8.TransparencyinManagementofWorks1.etenderingshallbeintroduced.2.Effectiveuseof
websitesindischargeofregulatory,enforcementandthefunctionsshallbeintroducedthroughintegrated
computerization.3.Webbasedworkprogressmonitoringsystemshallbeintroduced.CentralPublicWorks
Department,IPBhawan,NewDelhiPage10
11. 11.CENTRALDESIGNORGANISATION(CDO)CDOwascreatedintheyear1969withaviewto
providehigherlevelofdesigninputsinmultistoreyedprojectswhichcouldnotbehandledbythedesign
unitsunderChiefEngineers.Aspressuresonavailabilityoflandincreased,CPWDcouldutilizethe
servicesofCDOforhighrisebuilthabitatsandcomplexprojectssuchasjettiesandbridges.CDOhas
provideditsservicestoover350projectsinCPWDand35projectsinlastfouryearsalone.Important
projectsdesignedbyCDOareParliamentLibraryComplex,ParliamentAnnexeBuilding,NationalGallery
ofModernArt,NationalMuseum,SupremeCourtExtension,NationalStadium,andAfghanParliamentin
Kabul,LalBahadurShastriNationalAcademyofAdministrationMussoorie,andHallofStatesITPO
etc.Atpresent,CentralDesignsOrganisationhastheresponsibilityofstructuraldesignofcomplex
structures(withstructuralcostoverRs.25Crores)incorporatingstateofartengineeringpracticesand
technology.ItisalsoresponsibleforcontributingtotheconsultationprocessofBISforframingnewCodes
andhandbooksandthussettingstandardsfortheConstructionIndustryasawhole.CDOalsooffersits
servicesinpreparingseveraltechnicaldocuments/reportssuchasHandbookonSeismicRetrofitting,Design
Manuals,Flyashutilizationguidelines,andseismicassessmentreportsofcriticalgovernmentbuildings.
CDOalsodevelopscomputeraideddesignandplanningsoftwaresuchasIntegratedAnalysis&Designof
Buildings(IADB).ImportantprojectsbeingdesignedinCDOatpresentareExtensiontoParliament
AnnexeBuilding,IndiraCentralPublicWorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhiPage11
12. 12.ParyavaranBhawan,NewCampusforSupremeCourt,NWAIJettyatKolkataand

Guwahati,UndergroundParkingforNirmanBhawan,andAGOfficeBuildingLucknow.CDOisheadedby
theChiefEngineer(Designs)whoisresponsiblefortheoveralladministrativeandtechnicalcontrolofthe
unit.FourSuperintendingEngineersdirectlyreporttotheC.E(Designs).S.Esarethedirectionofficersfor
control,coordinationandexecutionofalltasksrelatedtomodellinganalysis,design,detailinganddrafting
ofstructuraldrawings.OutoffourSuperintendingEngineers,oneisinchargeofComputerCellCPWD
responsibleforeGovernanceinthedepartment.EachSEhasthreeExecutiveEngineer(Designs)reporting
tohim,whoisresponsibleforallmodelling,designanddraftingtasksandpreparingdesignproposals.Each
EEisassistedbyasmallteamofAsstExecutiveEngineers/AsstEngineers,JuniorEngineersand
Draughtsmen.CDOismannedbycivilengineershavingexperienceinstructuraldesign.Alldesignand
draftingworkinCDOisfullycomputerised.Designandanalysisisdonebyusingsoftwaressuchas
STAAD,eTABS,STRUDS,SAP,STAADFoundationetc.DraftingworkisdonethroughAUTOCAD
usingheavydutyfullsizeHPdrafterplotters.ComputingisdonethroughhighendIntelCorei72600
Processors.CentralPublicWorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhiPage12
13. 13.ComputerCell,CDOTheCPWDisdeterminedtouseITtousherineraofeGovtosimplifyprocesses,
bringingintransparency,accountability,efficiencyeffectivenessandneedbasedtimelyand
qualityinformationtoallitsstakeholders,andtousetheavailableresourcesmoreeffectively.TheCDOunit
ofCPWDhasbeenentrustedthisjob.ManystepstowardseGovinitiativeshavealreadybeentakene.g.
PIMSforHRmanagement,includingtrainingmoduleandmonitoringofPGandVIPreferencesweb
basedprojectmonitoringsystemformonitoringphysicalandfinancialprogressoftheprojects,accessto
clienttoviewtheprogressoftheprojectsandalsotofurnishtheremarksCPWDSEWAinDelhi&NCR
andbeingextendedforPANIndiaformaintenancerelatedcomplaintsmanagementenlistmentforclass
onecontractorsandCPWDwebsiteforpublishingallcircularsandOMsandotherinformation.2.
PROJECTOVERVIEWCentralPublicWorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhiPage13
14. 14.NAMEofWORK:ConstructionofPoliceStationKhajuriKhas,NearSoniaVihar,Delhi(SH:C/o
PoliceStationBuilding,ElectricsubStation&ExternalDevelopmentWorki.e.InternalElectrical
Installations)AGREEMENTNO.:03/EE/CDIII/201112NAMEOFCONTRACTOR:M/SROSHAN
REALESTATESPVTLTD.PLOTSIZE:5984Sqm.AreaESTIMATEDCOST:CivilWorkRs6,01,
47,287/Elec.WorkRs24,75,332/Rs6,26,22,609/TENDEREDCOST:CivilWorkRs6,57,88,182/
Elec.WorkRs28,69,490/Rs6,86,57,672/DATEOFSTART:04082011STIPULATEDDATE
OFCOMPLETION:02082012ACTUALDATEOFWorkisUnderProgressCOMPLETION:(80%Work
isCompleted)TIMEALLOWED:365DaysCentralPublicWorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhi
Page14
15. 15.CentralPublicWorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhiPage15
16. 16.3.SITELOCATION:PoliceStation&StaffQuartersatKhajuriKhasnearSoniaVihar,New
DelhiAdvantagesofthissite:1.Land2.Store3.Healthunit4.Carparkingstand5.Canteen6.
Connectivityoftheyard7.EaseoftransportationFacilitiesCentralPublicWorksDepartment,IP
Bhawan,NewDelhiPage16
17. 17.4.FORMWORKFormworkisamouldordieusedtosupportandshapetheconcreteuntilitattains
sufficienttocarryitsownweight.Theformworkholdstheconcreteuntilithardenstorequiredshape
andsize.SIGNIFICANCEOFFORMWORK1)Formworkconstitutes30%ofthecostand60%ofthetime
inconcreteconstruction.2)Qualityofconcretefinishandsoundnessofconcretedependsverymuchonthe
formworksystem3)Desiredshapeofconcreteisnotpossibleifformworknotdoneproperly.4)Formwork
shouldbeproperlydesigned,fabricatedanderectedtoreceiveconcrete.5)Accidentshappenbecauseofthe
faultyformworkandscaffoldingorstaging.SAFETYINUSINGFORMWORK:1)Componentsarelight
inweightformanualhandling.2)Looseorhangingcomponentsareminimal.3)Appropriateuseoftools.4)
Minimumoperationsareinvolvedineachreuse.CentralPublicWorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhi
Page17
18. 18.TYPESOFFORMWORK1)Flexsystem2)Quickdecksystem3)Aluformsystem4)Flextable
formworkCuringworkandrefillingofeartharoundfooting.CentralPublicWorksDepartment,IP
Bhawan,NewDelhiPage18
19. 19.Workersonaconstructionsitebuilding.CentralPublicWorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhi
Page19
20. 20.CentralPublicWorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhiPage20
21. 21.CURINGV/SCOMRESSIVESTRENGTHCentralPublicWorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhi
Page21
22. 22.COLUMNCONSTRUCTIONWORKCentralPublicWorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhiPage
22
23. 23.6.PLANNINGCentralPublicWorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhiPage23

24. 24.PlanningofaCPWDProjectmainlyincludes:Prerequisitesforexecutionofwork.Depositworks
Preparationofestimates.Executionoforiginalwork.Expenditureonsurvey,exhibition.Registerof
buildings.Greenbuildingnorms.PreparationandaccountingofStandardMeasurementbook.Preparation
andpassingbillsforpayment.Documentationofaccounts.Generaldepartmentalcharges.Contractsand
forms.Preparationoftenderdocuments.PublicityoftendersSaleofdocumentsEarnestmoney.Issueof
materialtocontractors.Issueoftoolandplant.PaymenttocontractorsInsuranceLossesordamages.
BudgetingQualityassuranceandtechnicalauditwing.InspectionandAuditbyChiefController.Public
accountscommittee.CentralPublicWorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhiPage24
25. 25.6.SEQUENCEOFSTRUCTUREWORKSiteclearanceDemarcationofsitePositioningofcentral
coordinatei.e.(0,0,0)aspergridplanSurveyingandlayoutExcavationBarbindingandplacementof
foundationsteelShutteringandscaffoldingConcretingElectricalandplumbingCONSTRUCTION
PROCESSANDMATERIALUSED:SITECLEARANCEAnumberofconditionsdeterminethekindof
buildingthatmaybeerectedonaplotofground.Theseconditionsmaydeterminewhereonthelotitmay
belocated.Therearealsocovenantsthatarelegallybindingregulations.Thesemay,forexample,setthe
minimumsizeofahouse,prohibitutilitybuildings,orbanrooftoptelevisionantennas.Zoninglawsregulate
thesetbackandotherfactorsthatplayintotheequationofhouselocationonalot.Septictanksalsorequire
specialconsideration.ACertificateofOccupancyisanimportantpieceofpaper.Itisthefinalpieceof
paper,thesignoff,thatsaystheconstructionofthebuildingiscompleteanditisreadytobeoccupied.Any
townthathasadoptedtheBOCAorUBCbuildingcodesrequiresaCO.Inmostinstances,thebankmaking
themortgageloanrequiresacertificateofoccupationaswell.CentralPublicWorksDepartment,IP
Bhawan,NewDelhiPage25
26. 26.CONCRETE:ThereareeighttypesofPortlandcement.TheyaredesignatedbyRomannumeralsand
withanAsuffixonthreeofthemNormalconcreteismadeoffineaggregates(sand)andregularaggregates
(crushedstoneorgravel),pluswater.Concretewillsetuphardenoughinnormalweatherinabout3
hours.However,ittakes28daysforittoreachitsfulleststrength.Concretemayhaveadmixtures.
TheRomansaddedlard,blood,milk,andothermaterialstomaketheconcretemoreworkable.Thereareat
least6knownadmixtures.Normalconcretecontainsasmallamountofairbyaddinganairentrainment
admixture,theamountofairintheconcretecanbeincreasedby10percentormorebyvolume.Byusing
anaccelerator,itispossibletohaveconcretereachits28dayfullstrengthinonly7days.Calciumchloride
isthemostcommonaccelerator.Pozzolonasarenaturalvolcanicashorartificialmaterialsthatreactwith
limeinthewetconcretetoformcementingcompounds.Flyashisabyproductofcoalburningpower
generatingstations.RomansobtainedflyashfromMountVesuviuseruptions.Fullyloadedconcretemixer
trucksmayweighasmuchas80,000lbs,or40tons.Ifthemixercantgetcloseenoughtounload
theconcretewhereneeded,itisnecessarytousechutes,mixermountedconveyors,motorizedbuggies,or
wheelbarrows.Anothertermforrebarisdeformedsteelbar.Thisisthesteelreinforcementusedin
concretetoincreaseitstensilestrength.Threetypesofbarsupportmaterialareavailable:wire,
precastconcrete,andmouldedplastic.Rebarissupportedbychairsmadeofplasticorwelded
wire.Weldedwirefabric(WWF)lookslikefencingandismanufacturedwithplainordeformedcold
drawnwire.Slumpisameasureofhowconsistent,fluid,andworkableabatchoffreshlymixedconcrete
is.Anychangeintheslumpmaymeanthattheamountofwater,thetemperature,hydration,orsettinghas
changed.Slumpisameasureoftheamountofwaterinthemix.CentralPublicWorksDepartment,IP
Bhawan,NewDelhiPage26
27. 27.FoundationsThoughthefoundationsupportsabuilding,theearthistheultimatesupport.The
foundationisasystemcomprisingfoundationwall,footing,andsoil.Theprimepurposeofan
efficientstructuralfoundationsystemistotransmitthebuildingloadsdirectlytothesoilwithoutexceeding
thebearingcapacityofthesoil.AproperlyDesignedandconstructedfoundationsystemtransferstheloads
uniformly,minimizessettlement,andanchorsthestructureagainstrackingforcesanduplift.Becausesoil
typeandbearingcapacityarethecrucialfactorsinthefoundationsystem,thefoundationmustbedesigned
andbuiltasasystem.Toomanyresidentialfoundationsaredesignedandbuiltwithoutanyconcernforthe
soil.TypesofFoundationsThemanytypesoffoundationscanbeseparatedintotwobroadgroups:shallow
foundationsanddeepfoundations.Shallowfoundationsconsistoffourtypes:deepbasements(8
footwalls),crawlspaces,slabsongrade,andfrostprotectedshallowfoundations.Theyincludespread
footings,matorraftfootings,longfootings,andstrapfootings.Deepfoundationsextendconsiderably
deeperintotheearth.Theyincludedrilledcaissonsorpiers,groupsofpilesdrivenandcastinplace
concretepiles,andfloatingfoundations.Anumberofdifferentconstructionsystemscanbeused.Casting
placeconcreteisthemostwidelyusedmaterialforresidentialfoundations,followedbyconcreteblock.
Othermethodsincludeprecastfoundationwalls,castinplaceconcretesandwichpanels,andmasonry
orconcretepiers,allweatherwoodfoundations(AWWF),whicharenowcalledpermanent

woodfoundations(PWF),orpreserved.WoodfoundationsinCanada.Expandedpolystyrene(EPS)Blocks,
polyurethaneblocks,andothersimilarsystemsusingEPSblocksfilledwithconcretearealsoused.Central
PublicWorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhiPage27
28. 28.FOOTINGSFootings(whichmaybesquare,rectangular,orcircular)arestripsofconcreteorfilled
concreteblocksplacedunderthefoundationwall.Gravelorcrushedstonefootingsareusedwith
PWFs.Thepurposeofthefootingsistotransfertheloadsfromwalls,piers,orcolumnstothesoil.
Thespreadfootingisthemostcommontypeusedtosupportwalls,piers,orcolumns.The
NationalConcreteMasonryAssociation(NCMA)hasdevelopedasystemofsolid.Pilefoundation
systemsFoundationsrelyingondrivenpilesoftenhavegroupsofpilesconnectedbyaPilecap(alarge
concreteblockintowhichtheheadsofthepilesareembedded)todistributeloadswhicharelargerthan
onepilecanbear.Pilecapsandisolatedpilesaretypicallyconnectedwithgradebeamstotiethe
foundationelementstogetherlighterstructuralelementsbearonthegradebeamswhileheavierelements
beardirectlyonthepilecap.MonopilefoundationAmonopilefoundationutilizesasingle,generallylarge
diameter,foundationstructuralelementtosupportalltheloads(weight,wind,etc.)ofalargeabovesurface
structure.DriedPilesAlsocalledcaissons,drilledshafts,drilledpiers,Castindrilledholepiles(CIDH
piles)orCastinSitupiles.Rotaryboringtechniquesofferlargerdiameterpilesthananyotherpiling
methodandpermitpileconstructionthroughparticularlydenseorhardstrata.Constructionmethods
dependonthegeologyofthesite.Inparticular,whetherboringistobeundertakenindryground
conditionsorthroughwaterloggedbutstablestratai.e.wetboring.Wetboringalsoemploysatemporary
casingthroughunstablegroundandisusedwhenthepileborecannotbesealedagainstwateringress.
Boringisthenundertakenusingadiggingbuckettodrillthroughtheunderlyingsoilstodesigndepth.The
reinforcingcageisloweredintotheboreandconcreteisplacedbytremiepipe,followingwhich,extraction
ofthetemporarycasingtakesplace.CentralPublicWorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhiPage28
29. 29.UnderreamedpilesUnderreamedpileshavemechanicallyformedenlargedbasesthathavebeenas
muchas6mindiameter.Theformisthatofaninvertedconeandcanonlybeformedinstablesoils.The
largerbasediameterallowsgreaterbearingcapacitythanastraightshaftpile.AugercastpileAnaugercast
pile,oftenknownasaCFApile,isformedbydrillingintothegroundwithahollowstemmedcontinuous
flightaugertotherequireddepthordegreeofresistance.Nocasingisrequired.Augercastpilescause
minimaldisturbance,andareoftenusedfornoiseandenvironmentallysensitivesites.Augercastpilesare
notgenerallysuitedforuseincontaminatedsoils,duetoexpensivewastedisposalcosts.Incasessuchas
thesehoweveradisplacementpilemayprovidethecostefficiencyofanaugercastpileandminimal
environmentalimpact.Ingroundcontainingobstructionsorcobblesandboulders,augercastpilesareless
suitableasrefusalabovethedesignpiletipelevationmaybeencountered.Incertaincasesdrillmotorsthat
producemoretorqueandhorsepowermaybeabletomitigatetheseevents.SpecialtyPiles:1.Micropiles2.
Tripodpiles3.Sheetpiles4.Soldierpiles5.SuctionPiles6.AdfreezePilesCentralPublicWorks
Department,IPBhawan,NewDelhiPage29
30. 30.Typesofshallowfoundations:InterlockingconcreteblockscalledIDRfooterblocks.Theminimum
widthofthefootingisbasedonthefoundationwallthickness.An8inchthickfoundationwallwouldhave
an8inchwidefooting.However,footingsaremadewiderthanthefoundationwall,andtheextra
widthprojects(orcantilevers)equallybeyondeachsideofthewall.Contrarytowidespreadbelief,the
purposeoffootingsisnotforspreadingoutanddistributingtheloadstothesoil.Theextrawidthisusedto
supportthewallformswhiletheconcreteispoured,orasabaseforconcretemasonryblocksor
brick.FinishingandCuringConcreteWhenworkingwithconcrete,certainmethodsandtechniquesmustbe
employedtoensurethebestfinishedproduct.Thischapterdiscussesthefollowing:1)Screeding2)
Tampingandjitterbugging3)Finishing(includingFloating,Troweling,Brooming,Grooving,andEdging)
4)Curing(includingcuringtimeandcuringmethods)1)ScreedingToscreedistostrikeofforlevelslab
concreteafterpouring.Generally,allthedrymaterialsusedinmakingqualityconcreteareheavierthan
water.Thus,shortlyafterplacement,thesematerialswillhaveatendencytosettletothebottomandforce
anyexcesswatertothesurface.Thisreactioniscommonlycalledbleeding.Thisbleedingusuallyoccurs
withnonairentrainedconcrete.Itisofutmostimportancethatthefirstoperationsofplacing,screeding,
anddarbyingbeperformedbeforeanybleedingtakesplace.CentralPublicWorksDepartment,IP
Bhawan,NewDelhiPage30
31. 31.Theconcreteshouldnotbeallowedtoremaininwheelbarrows,buggies,orbucketsanylongerthanis
necessary.Itshouldbedumpedandspreadassoonaspossibleandstruckofftothepropergrade,then
immediatelystruckoff,followedatoncebydarbying.Theselasttwooperationsshouldbeperformed
beforeanyfreewaterisbledtothesurface.Theconcreteshouldnotbespreadoveralarge
areabeforescreedingnorshouldalargeareabescreededandallowedtoremainbeforedarbying.Ifany
operationisperformedonthesurfacewhilethebleedwaterispresent,seriousscaling,dusting,orcrazing

canresult.Thispointcannotbeoveremphasizedandisthebasicruleforsuccessfulfinishingofconcrete
surfaces.Thesurfaceisstruckofforroddedbymovingastraightedgebackandforthwithasawlikemotion
acrossthetopoftheformsorscreeds.Asmallamountofconcreteshouldalwaysbekeptaheadofthe
straightedgetofillinallthelowspotsandmaintainaplanesurface.Formostslabwork,screedingis
usuallyatwopersonjobbecauseofthesizeoftheslab.2)TampingorJitterbuggingThehandtamperor
jitterbugisusedtoforcethelargeparticlesofcoarseaggregateslightlybelowthesurfacetoenablethe
cementmasontopassadarbyoverthesurfacewithoutdislodginganylargeaggregate.Aftertheconcrete
hasbeenstruckofforrodded(and,insomecases,tamped),itissmoothedwithadarbytolevelanyraised
spotsandfilldepressions.Longhandledfloatsofeitherwoodormetal(calledbullfloats)aresometimes
usedinsteadofdarbiestosmoothandlevelthesurface.Thehandtampershouldbeusedsparinglyand,in
mostcases,notatall.Ifused,itshouldbeusedonlyonconcretehavingalowslump(1inchorless)
tocompacttheconcreteintoadensemass.Jitterbugsaresometimesusedonindustrialfloorconstruction
becausetheconcreteforthistypeofworkusuallyhasaverylowslump,withthemixbeingquitestiffand
perhapsdifficulttowork.CentralPublicWorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhiPage31
32. 32.3)FinishingWhenthebleedwaterandwatersheenhaveleftthesurfaceoftheconcrete,finishing
maybegin.Finishingmaytakeoneormoreofseveralforms,dependingonthetypeof
surfacedesired.Finishingoperationsmustnotbeoverdone,orwaterunderthesurfacewillbebroughttothe
top.Whenthishappens,athinlayerofcementisalsobroughtupandlater,aftercuring,thethinlayer
becomesascalethatwillpowderoffwithusage.Finishingcanbedonebyhandorbyrotatingpower
driventrowelsorfloats.Thesizeofthejobdeterminesthechoice,basedoneconomy.Thetypeoftoolused
forfinishingaffectsthesmoothnessoftheconcrete.Awoodfloatputsaslightlyroughsurfaceonthe
concrete.Asteel(orothermetal)trowelorfloatproducesasmoothfinish.Extraroughsurfacesaregivento
theconcretebyrunningastiffbristledbroomacrossthetop.4)FloatingMostsidewalksanddrivewaysare
givenaslightlyroughenedsurfacebyfinishingwithafloat.Floatsmaybesmall,handheldtools,withthe
workdonewhilekneelingonaboard,ortheymaybeonlonghandlesforworkingfromtheedge.showsa
workerusingalonghandledfloat,andshowstheconstructiondetailsformakingafloat.Whenworking
fromakneelingboard,theconcretemustbestiffenoughtosupporttheboardandtheworkersweight
withoutdeforming.Thiswillbewithintwotofivehoursfromthetimethesurfacewaterhasleftthe
concrete,dependingonthetypeofroof.Aroofincludestheroofcover(theupperlayer,which
protectsagainstrain,snow,andwind)orroofing,thesheathingtowhichitisfastened,andthe
framing(rafters)thatsupporttheothercomponents.Becauseofitsexposure,roofingusuallyhasalimited
life.Itismadetobereadilyreplaceable.Roofingmaybemadeofmanywidelydiversifiedmaterials,
amongwhicharethefollowing:CentralPublicWorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhiPage32
33. 33.1)WoodTheseareusuallyintheformofshingles(uniformmachinecut)orshakesthatarehandcut.
TheyareseeninManyareasofthecountry.2)MetaloraluminiumSimulatesotherkindsofroofing.3)
Slatethismaybethenaturalproductorrigidmanufacturedslabs,oftencementasbestos,thoughtheseare
onthedeclinesincethecontroversyoverasbestos.4)Builtupcoversofasphaltortarimpregnatedfelts,
withamoppingofhottarorasphalttheseareplacedbetweenthepliesandamoppingoftarorasphalt
overall.Tarfeltroofsusuallyhavethetopcoveredwithembeddedgravelorcrushedslag.5)Roll
roofingWhich,asthenameimplies,ismarketedin?Rollscontainingapproximately108ft2.Eachrollis
usually36incheswideandmaybeplainorhaveacoatingofcoloredMineralgranules.Thebaseisaheavy
asphaltimpregnatedfelt.CentralPublicWorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhiPage33
34. 34.6)AsphaltshinglesTheseareusuallyintheformOfstripswithtwo,three,orfourtabsperunit.These
shinglesIsasphaltwiththesurfaceexposedtotheweatherheavily?Coatedwithmineralgranules.Because
oftheirfireresistance,Cost,anddurability,asphaltshinglesarethemostpopularroofingmaterialfor
homes.Asphaltshinglesareavailableinawiderangeofcolours,includingblackandwhite._Glassfibre
shinglesThesearemadepartlyofaglassfibremat(whichiswaterproof)andpartlyofasphalt.Like
asphaltshingles,glassfibreshinglescomewithselfsealingtabsandcarryaClassAfireresistance
warranty.Forthedoityourself,theymaybeofspecialinterestbecausetheyarelightweight,about220
poundspersquare(100ft2ofroofing).RoofsTheslopeoftheroofisfrequentlyafactorinthechoiceof
roofingmaterialsandmethodusedtoputtheminplace.Thelowerthepitchoftheroof,thegreaterthe
chanceofwindgettingundertheshinglesandtearingthemout.Interlockingcedarshinglesresistthiswind
pryingbetterthanstandardasphaltshingles.Forroofswithlessthana4inchslopeperfoot,donotuse
standardasphalt.Downto2inches,useselfsealingasphalt.Rollroofingcanbeusedwithpitchesdownto
2incheswhenlapped2inches.ForverylowpitchedSlopes,themanufacturersofasphaltshingles
recommendthattheroofbeplannedforsomeothertypeofcovering.Aluminiumstriproofingvirtually
eliminatestheproblemofwindprying,butthesestripsarenoisy.Mosthomeownersobjecttothenoise
duringarainstorm.Evenonporches,thenoiseisoftenannoyingtothoseinsidethehouse.Spacedroofing

boardsaresometimesusedwithcedarshingles.Thisisusuallydoneasaneconomymeasureandbecause
thecedarshinglesaddconsiderablytothestrengthoftheroof.Thespacedroofingboardsreducethe
insulatingqualities.RollRoofingRollroofingisaneconomicalcoverespeciallysuitedForroofswithlow
pitches.Itisalsosometimesusedforvalleyflashinginsteadofmetal.Ithasabaseofheavyasphalt
impregnatedfeltwithadditionalcoatingsofasphaltthataredustedtoCentralPublicWorksDepartment,I
PBhawan,NewDelhiPage34
35. 35.preventadhesionintheroll.Theweathersurfacemaybeplainorcoveredwithfinemineralgranules.
Manydifferentcoloursareavailable.Oneedgeofthesheetisleftplain(nogranules)wherethelap
cementIsapplied.Forbestresults,thesheathingmustbetight,preferably16tongueandgroove,
orplywood.Ifthesheathingissmooth.Theseasphaltshingleshaveathreedimensionallook.Asphalt
shinglesarethemostpopular.CEMENTSECONDSHEETFIRSTSHEETMethodofcementingand
lappingthefirstandsecondStripsofrollroofing.Roofing(withnocuppedboardsorotherprotuberance),
theslatesurfacedrollroofingwillwithstandasurprisingamountofabrasionfromfoottraffic,althoughitis
notgenerallyrecommendedforthatpurpose.Windstormsarethemostrelentlessenemyofrollroofing.If
thewindgetsunderalooseedge,almostcertainlyasectionwillbeblownoff.BuiltUpRoof(BUR)Abuilt
uproofisconstructedofsheathingpaper,abondedbasesheet,perforatedfelt,asphalt,andsurface
aggregates.Thesheathingpapercomesin36inchwiderollsandhasapproximately432ft2perroll.Itis
arosinsizepaperandisusedtopreventasphaltleakagetothewooddeck.Thebasesheetisaheavy
asphaltsaturatedfeltthatisplacedoverthesheathingpaper.Itisavailablein1,11/2,and2squaresper
roll.Theperforatedfeltisoneoftheprimarypartsofabuiltuproof.Itissaturatedwithasphaltandhastiny
perforationsthroughoutthesheet.Theperforationspreventairentrapmentbetweenthelayersof
felt.CentralPublicWorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhiPage35
36. 36.Theperforatedfeltis36incheswideandweighsapproximately15lbspersquare.Asphaltisalsooneof
thebasicingredientsofabuiltuproof.Therearemanydifferentgradesofasphalt,butthemost
commonarelowmelt,mediummelt,highmelt,andextrahighmeltSHEATHINGPAPERBASE
SHEETPERFORATEDFELTASPHALTAGGREGATESectionalplanofabuiltuproofPriortothe
applicationofthebuiltuproof,thedeckshouldbeInspectedforsoundness.Woodboarddecksshouldbe
constructedof3/4inchseasonedlumberorplywood.AnyknotholesCentralPublicWorksDepartment,IP
Bhawan,NewDelhiPage36
37. 37.largerthanoneinchshouldbecoveredwithsheetmetal.Ifplywoodisusedasaroofdeckitshouldbe
placedwiththelengthatrightanglestotheraftersandbeatleast1/2inchinthickness.Thefirststepinthe
applicationofabuiltuproofistheplacingofsheathingpaperandbasesheet.Thesheathingpapershould
belappedin2inchesandsecuredwithjustenoughnailstoholditinplace.Thebasesheetisthenplaced
with2inchsidelapsand6inchendlaps.Thebasesheetshouldbesecuredwith1/2inchdiameterhead
galvanizedroofingnailsplaced12inchesoncenterontheexposedlap.Nailsshouldalsobeplaceddown
thecenterofthebasesheet.Thenailsshouldbeplacedintwoparallelrows,12inchesapart.Thebasesheet
isthencoatedwithauniformlayerofhotasphalt.Whiletheasphaltisstillhot,alayerofroofingfeltis
placedandmoppedwiththehotasphalt.Eachsucceedinglayerofroofingfeltisplacedandmoppedina
similarmannerwithasphalt.Eachsheetshouldbelapped19inches,leaving17inchesexposed.Oncethe
roofingfeltisplaced,agravelstopisinstalledaroundthedeckperimeter.Twocoatedlayersoffeltshould
extend6inchespasttheroofdeckingwherethegravelstopistobeinstalled.Whentheotherpliesare
placed,thefirsttwolayersarefoldedovertheotherlayersandmoppedinplace.Thegravelstopisthen
placedinan1/8inchthickbedofflashingcementandsecurelynailedevery6inches.Theendsofthe
gravelstopshouldbelapped6inchesandpackedinflashingcement.AGGREGATEGRAVEL
STOPASPHALTROOFCEMENTNAILS3"O.C.Thegravelstop.Afterthegravelstopisplaced,the
roofisfloodedwithhotasphaltandthesurfaceaggregateisembeddedinthefloodcoat.Theaggregates
shouldbehard,dry,opaque,andfreeofanydustorforeignmatter.Thesizeoftheaggregatesshouldrange
from1/4inchRoofingto5/8inch.Whentheaggregateispiledontheroof,itshouldbeplacedonaspot
thathasbeenmoppedwithasphalt.Thistechniqueensuresproperadhesioninallareasoftheroof.Central
PublicWorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhiPage37
38. 38.7.PROJECTMONITORING:PROJECTMONITORINGSYSTEMThisisdonetocontinuouslytrack
theperformanceoftheprojectprogress,costsandconditioncontribution.Correctiveactionscanbetaken
whenrequiredandprovidesdata.ThefollowingthreereportsaremadeforthetrackingMonthlyprogress
reportJobcostreportProjectperformancereport.8.QUALITY:CentralPublicWorksDepartment,IP
Bhawan,NewDelhiPage38
39. 39.ThetechnicalauditofworksdonebyCPWDusedtobedoneinhouserightfromitsinception.The
functionsofQualityAssuranceandTechnicalAuditofworkswereshiftedtoCVCintheyear1964.On
therecommendationofRanganathanCommittee,theQualityAssurancefunctionswereagainshiftedto

CPWDintheyear1979.TheimplementationofQualityAssuranceinthefieldwillrequirecloseco
operationamongthethreeagencies,namely(a)fieldengineers(b)theconstructionagency,and(c)the
QualityAssuranceteamatCirclelevelforstrictcomplianceofQualityAssuranceProcedureformingpart
ofagreement.QualityControlSystemOfTheDepartmentMultilevelQualitycheckshavebeencreatedin
CPWDasdetailedbelow:FieldlevelThedirectresponsibilityforensuringproperqualityofworkasper
approvedspecificationsforachievingtheintendedperformanceandstructural,functionalandaesthetical
parameters,andthedesiredlifeofthebuilding/installation/structurerestswiththeconstructionteamof
ExecutiveEngineer,AssistantEngineerandJuniorEngineer.QualityControlteamatCircleLevelTokeep
awatchontheeffectiveness/adequacyofQualityAssurancemeasuresatsite,aQualityAssuranceteam
withSEofthecircleasitsheadandcomprisingofoneAE.ThefunctionsoftheQualityAssuranceteamat
CirclelevelaretocheckthecomplianceofQualityAssurancesystembythefieldunits,tolocatethe
lapse/deficiencyintheimplementationoftheQualityAssurancePlan,andtoguidethefieldengineersin
qualityrelatedaspectsofthework.CentralPublicWorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhiPage39
40. 40.CoreWingatDirectorateLevelThisCoreWingcarriesoutthefollowingmainfunctionstoensure
systematicandcomprehensiveAssuranceofqualityintheworks:QualityAssuranceofworksunderthe
SpecialDG(S&P),(TD),ADG(Border)andEngineerinChief(CPWD),Delhi.Carryout
comprehensiveexamination&technicalauditofworks.Tocarryoutinvestigationsandenquirieswith
regardtoqualityrelatedaspects.QualityAssuranceunitsintheRegionsQualityAssuranceworksin
variousRegionsarebeinglookedafterbytheRegionalQAunitsheadedbytheSuperintendingEngineer
(TLQA)orDirectorWorksoftheRegion.CONTRACTSPECIFICATIONSANDQUALITY
ASSURANCE(CSQ)TheCSQunitofCPWDisresponsibleforContractrelatedmattersandquality
assurancefunctions.TheunitheadedbyaChiefEngineerislocatedinNirmanBhawanandhas5separate
cellsheadedbysuperintendingengineerstolookafterspecificareas.Thespecificareasare1.Contract&
Manual2.StandardsandSpecificationsCentralPublicWorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhiPage40
41. 41.3.QualityAssurance4.TechnoLegalmatters5.TechnologyApplication&StandardsUnit.Theunit
isalsoresponsibleforenlistmentofclass1contractorsinCPWDbesidesformulatingrulesandregulations
forenlistmentofcontractorsbydifferentauthorities.Allcontractrelatedissues,technolegalissues
referredtoDGWbyfieldunitsorbyotherorganisationsaredealtbythisunit.Theresponsibilityof
bringingoutschedulesandspecificationsalsorestswiththeCSQunit.10.CONCLUSION:CentralPublic
WorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhiPage41
42. 42.ItwasawonderfullearningexperienceatCPWDoffice,IPBhawan,NewDelhi110002forSixWeeks.
Igainedalotofinsightregardingalmosteveryaspectofsite.Iwasgivenexposureinalmostallthe
departmentsatthesite,butIhadlikedtohighlighttheareasofsafety,qualitymanagement,material
managementandexecution.Ihopethisexperiencewillsurelyhelpmeinmyfutureandalsoinshapingmy
career.CentralPublicWorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhiPage42
43. 43.CentralPublicWorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhiPage43
44. 44.CentralPublicWorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhiPage44
45. 45.CentralPublicWorksDepartment,IPBhawan,NewDelhiPage45
Recommended
Morefromthisauthor

ClassroomManagementFundamentals

FlippingtheClassroom

iBooksAuthorforTeachers:Fundamentals

IndustrialTrainingReport1
RohithGrandhi
91,762

internshipreportonbuildingconstruction
EsmaelAragaw
40,385

SummerinternshipreportL&T
UmedPaliwal
53,905

PROJECTREPORTONROADCONSTRUCTION
GLAUniversity
8,776

Anshulpwdtrainingreport
AnshulShakya
9,411

Fullsummertrainingreport
wadhwa.ritika8
27,225

roadconstructionproject
nishantsingh
21,127

Summerinternshipprojectreport
ManishSingh
81,102

Practicaltrainingreport
NicolaiSidek
20,199

RoadConstruction
DanishMohd
6,006

BuildingConstruction
WildenHow
19,848

Internshipreport
SajjadAshraf
27,713

VikalpSummerTrainingreport
VikalpAwasthi
9,604

projectonconstructionofhousereport.
HagiSahib
49,961

Buildingconstructionreport(1)
SohShing
16,502

GreenEnergy
AlokMishra
662

PptsummerpresentationonfinishingOfPoliceStationConstructionSite
AlokMishra
4,687
ENGLISH
English
Franais
Espaol
Portugus(Brasil)
Deutsch
English
Espanol
Portugues
Franais
Deutsche
About
Dev&API

Blog
Terms
Privacy
Copyright
Support

LinkedInCorporation2015

ShareClipboard

Email

Enteremailaddresses
Addamessage

From
Send

Emailsentsuccessfully..
Facebook
Twitter
LinkedIn
Google+
Link
SharethisdocumentEmbedthisdocumentLikethisdocumentYouhavelikedthisdocumentSavethisdocument