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Mekanika Kekuatan Material

Defleksi Batang Dengan Beban


Terdistribusi Merata

Dr. Arhami, S.T, M.T,

JTM UNSYIAH

Kurva Defleksi

Example:

Misalkan suatu konstruksi batang ditumpu sederhana AB


dengan panjang L mendapat beban terdistribusi merata
sebesar w per satuan panjang, seperti yang ditunjukkan
pada Gambar 1.a.

Tentukan: a). Persamaan kurva defleksi


b). Defleksi maksimum max
c). Sudut kemiringan A dan B Pada tumpuan
A dan B. (Kekakuan fleksural = EI)

DBB
wL

RA

RB

wx
Mx

RB

Solution:
Dari geometri gambar dan penjumlahan momen bisa
diketahui reaksi pada A:

MA

L
wL ( ) RB ( L) 0
2
L
wL ( ) RB ( L)
2
wL L
( ) RB
L 2
wL
RB
2

Fy

RA

RA
RA
RA

wL RB

wL
wL
0
2
wL
wL
2
wL
2

Misalkan suatu penampang X pada jarak x dari B. Kita bisa


cari momen bending pada penampang ini:

MX

x
RB ( x) wx ( ) M X 0
2
x
M X RB ( x) wx ( )
2
wLx wx 2
MX
2
2

(1)

Dengan demikian, momen bending pada satu titik X:

d2y
EI 2
dx

MX

d2y
EI 2
dx

wLx
2

wx 2
2

(2)

Dengan mengintegrasikan persamaan ini satu kali, maka akan


diperoleh:

dy
EI
dx

wLx 2
4

wx 3
6

C1

dimana C1 adalah konstanta integrasi pertama.

(3)

Kondisi batas:

Kita tahu bahwa x = L / 2, maka dy/dx = 0.


Substitusikan harga-harga kondisi batas ini ke persamaan
(3) di atas:

dy
EI
dx
0

wLx
wx
C1
4
6
2
wL L
w L
4 2
6 2
wL3
16

wL3
48

C1

C1

C1

wL3
24

Substitusikan harga C1 ke persamaan (3):

dy
EI
dx
dy
EI
dx
dy
dx

wLx
4
2
wLx
4
x

wx
C1
6
3
3
wx wL
6
24
2
3
1 wLx
wx
EI
4
6

wL
24

(4)

Kemiringan maksimum akan terjadi pada A dan B. Jadi kemiringan


maksimum, substitusikan x = 0 ke persamaan (4).

dy
dx

1 wLx 2
EI
4
1 wL 0
EI
4

wx 3
6
2

w0
6

wL3
24
3

wL3
24

wL3
24EI

Tanda negatif artinya tangen A dengan sudut AB adalah negatif


atau berlawanan jarum jam.
3

Karena simetri maka:


A

wL
24EI

Dengan mengintegrasikan persamaan (3) di atas sekali


lagi, maka diperoleh persamaan defleksi batang:

wLx 3 wx 4
EI y
12
24
3
4
wLx
wx
EI y
12
24

C1 x C2
3

wL
x C2
24

(5)

Kondisi batas:
Kita tahu bahwa pada x = 0 maka y = 0. Dengan mensubstitusikan
harga-harga ini ke persamaan (5), kita peroleh C2 = 0.

EI y

wLx
12

wx
24

wL x
24

Persamaan defleksi pada sembarang bagian pada batang AB.

1 wLx 3
EI 12

wx 4
24

wL3 x
24

(6)

Defleksi maksimum terdapat pada titik tengah batang. Dengan


mensubstitusikan harga x = L/2 ke persamaan (6) defleksi
maksimal:

1 wL L
EI 12 2

ymax( x

L / 2)

w L
24 2

1 wL4
EI 96

wL
24

wL4 wL4
384 48

L
2
4

ymax

5wL
384EI

Tanda negatif menunjukkan defleksi mempunyai arah ke bawah

L= 6 m = 6 x 103 mm

ymax

5wL4
384EI

5wL4
384EI

Mekanika Kekuatan Material


PUNTIRAN
(Torsion)

Dr. Arhami, S.T, M.T,

JTM UNSYIAH

Objective:
Setelah mengikuti materi kuliah puntiran ini, mahasiswa
diharapkan;
Dapat memahami prinsip-prinsip puntiran.
Mampu memecahkan persoalan-persoalan elemen
mesin yang menerima beban puntir.

Torsion refers to the twisting of a straight bar


when it is loaded by moments (or torques)
that tend to produce rotation about the
longitudinal axis of the bar.

Many machine parts are loaded in torsion, either to


transmit power (like a driveshaft or an axle shaft in a
vehicle) or to support a dynamic load (like a coil spring
or a torsion bar).

Power transmission parts are typically circular solid


shafts or circular hollow shafts because these shapes are
easy to manufacture and balance, and because the
outermost material carries most of the stress.

Torsi

Poros yang mengalami torsi.

Regangan dan Tegangan geser akibat torsi.

=0

=0

Regangan dan Tegangan geser bernilai


maksimum pada daerah terluar poros, dan
bernilai 0 pada sumbu poros.

Deformations of a circular bar in


pure torsion.

Since every cross section of the bar is identical, and


since every cross section is subjected to the same
internal torque T, we say that the bar is in pure torsion.

Area a

Shear Strains at the Outer Surface

The magnitude of the shear strain at the outer surface of


the bar, denoted max
'

max

bb
ab

where max is measured in radians, bb is the distance through


which point b moves, and ab is the length of the element
(equal to dx).With r denoting the radius of the bar, we can
express the distance bb as rd , where d also is measured
in radians. Thus, the preceding equation becomes
max

rd
dx

We will denote d /dx by the symbol and refer to it as the


rate of twist, or the angle of twist per unit length:

d
dx

we can now write the equation for the shear strain at the
outer surface

max

rd
dx

r
4

In the special case of pure torsion, the rate of twist is


equal to the total angle of twist divided by the length L,
that is, = /L. Therefore, for pure torsion only, we obtain
max

r
L

For interior elements with an interior cylinder of radius r


are also in pure shear with the corresponding shear
strains given by the equation
max

max

Outer Surface

Inner Surface

Circular Tubes

in which r1 and r2 are


the inner and outer radii,
respectively, of the tube.

The magnitudes of the shear stresses can be determined


from the strains by using the stress-strain relation for the
material of the bar. If the material is linearly elastic, we
can use Hookes law in shear

in which G is the shear modulus of elasticity and is the


shear strain in radians. Combining this equation with the
equations for the shear strains (Eq. 4 and 6), we get;

in which max is the shear stress at the outer surface of the


bar (radius r), is the shear stress at an interior point (radius
r), and is the rate of twist. (In these equations,
has
units of radians per unit of length.)

The Torsion Formula

To determine this resultant, we consider an element of


area dA located at radial distance from the axis of the
bar (Fig. 3-9). The shear force acting on this element
is equal to dA, where is the shear stress at radius r.

The resultant moment (equal to the torque T ) is the


summation over the entire cross-sectional area of all
such elemental moments:

IP is the polar moment of inertia of the circular cross section.

For a circle of radius r and diameter d, the polar


moment of inertia is

An expression for the maximum shear stress can be


obtained by rearranging Torsion equation, as follows:

Typical units used with the torsion formula are as


follows.
In SI, the torque T is usually expressed in newton meters
(Nm), the radius r in meters (m), the polar moment of
inertia IP in meters to the fourth power (m4), and the shear
stress in pascals (Pa).
If USCS units are used, T is often expressed in pound-feet
(lb-ft) or pound-inches (lb-in.), r in inches (in.), IP in inches
to the fourth power (in.4), and in pounds per square inch
(psi).

Substituting r = d/2 and IP = d4/32 into the torsion


formula, we get the following equation for the maximum
stress:

The shear stress at distance

from the center of the bar is

Reference

James M. Gere. 2004. Mechanics of Material. 6th Edition.


Thomson Learning, Inc.

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