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Mao Zedong

Maoredirects here. For other uses, see Mao (disam- dented elevation of Mao's personality cult.* [1] In 1972,
biguation).
Mao welcomed U.S. president Richard Nixon in Beijing,
signalling a policy of opening China, which was furthered
under the rule of Deng Xiaoping (19781992). Mao
This is a Chinese name; the family name is Mao.
suered a series of heart attacks in 1976, dying in that
September, aged 82. He was succeeded as Paramount
Mao Zedong ( * i/ma zd, dz-/), also Leader by Hua Guofeng (19761978), who was quickly
transliterated as Mao Tse-tung and commonly re- sidelined and replaced by Xiaoping.
ferred to as Chairman Mao (December 26, 1893
September 9, 1976), was a Chinese Communist A controversial gure, Mao is regarded as one of *the
revolutionary and the founding father of the People's most important individuals in modern world history. [2]
credit him with driving imperialism out of
Republic of China, which he governed as Chairman of Supporters
*
China,
[3]
modernising
China and building it into a world
the Communist Party of China from its establishment
power,
promoting
the
status
of women, improving eduin 1949 until his death in 1976. His MarxistLeninist
cation
and
health
care,
and
increasing
life expectancy as
theories, military strategies, and political policies are
China's
population
grew
from
around
550
million to over
collectively known as MarxismLeninismMaoism or
*
900
million
during
the
period
of
his
leadership.
[4]* [5]
Mao Zedong Thought.
He is also known as a theorist, military strategist, poet
Born the son of a wealthy farmer in Shaoshan, Hunan, and visionary.* [6] In contrast, critics consider him a
Mao adopted a Chinese nationalist and anti-imperialist dictator comparable to Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin
outlook in early life, particularly inuenced by the events who severely damaged traditional Chinese culture, as well
of the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 and May Fourth Move- as a perpetrator of systematic human rights abuses who
ment of 1919. Mao converted to MarxismLeninism was responsible for an estimated 40 to 70 million deaths
while working at Peking University and became a found- through starvation, forced labour and executions, ranking member of the Communist Party of China (CPC), ing his tenure as the top incidence of democide in human
leading the Autumn Harvest Uprising in 1927. During history.* [7]* [8]* [9]
the Chinese Civil War between the Kuomintang (KMT)
and the CPC, Mao helped to found the Red Army, led
the Jiangxi Soviet's radical land policies and ultimately
became head of the CPC during the Long March. Al- 1 Early life
though the CPC temporarily allied with the KMT under
the United Front during the Second Sino-Japanese War Main article: Early life of Mao Zedong
(193745), after Japan's defeat China's civil war resumed
and in 1949 Mao's forces defeated the Nationalists who
withdrew to Taiwan.

1.1 Youth and the Xinhai Revolution:


18931911

On October 1, 1949, Mao proclaimed the foundation of


the People's Republic of China (PRC), a one-party state
controlled by the CPC. In the following years Mao solidied his control through land reform campaigns against
landlords, and perceived enemies of the state he termed
as "counter-revolutionaries". In 1957 he launched a
campaign known as the Great Leap Forward that aimed
to rapidly transform China's economy from an agrarian
economy to an industrial one, which led to a widespread
famine whose death toll is estimated at between 18 and
45 million. In 1966, he initiated the Great Proletarian
Cultural Revolution, a program to remove counterrevolutionaryelements of Chinese society that lasted
10 years and which was marked by violent class struggle,
widespread destruction of cultural artifacts and unprece-

Mao Zedong was born on December 26, 1893 in


Shaoshan village, Hunan Province, China.* [10] His father, Mao Yichang, was a formerly impoverished peasant who had become one of the wealthiest farmers in
Shaoshan. Growing up in rural Hunan, Mao Zedong described his father as a stern disciplinarian, who would
beat him and his three siblings, the boys Zemin and
Zetan, and an adopted girl, Zejian.* [11] Mao's mother,
Wen Qimei, was a devout Buddhist who tried to temper her husband's strict attitude.* [12] Zedong too became
a Buddhist, but abandoned this faith in his mid-teenage
years.* [12] At age 8, Mao was sent to Shaoshan Primary
School. Learning the value systems of Confucianism,
1

2
he later admitted that he didn't enjoy the classical Chinese texts preaching Confucian morals, instead favouring
popular novels like Romance of the Three Kingdoms and
Water Margin.* [13] At age 13, Mao nished primary education, and his father had him married to the 17-year-old
Luo Yigu, uniting their land-owning families. Mao refused to recognise her as his wife, becoming a erce critic
of arranged marriage and temporarily moving away. Luo
was locally disgraced and died in 1910.* [14]

EARLY LIFE

army as a private soldier, but was not involved in ghting. The northern provinces remained loyal to the emperor, and hoping to avoid a civil war, Sunproclaimed
provisional presidentby his supporterscompromised
with the monarchist general Yuan Shikai. The monarchy
would be abolished, creating the Republic of China, but
the monarchist Yuan would become president. The revolution over, Mao resigned from the army in 1912, after six months of being a soldier.* [28] Around this time,
Mao discovered socialism from a newspaper article; proceeding to read pamphlets by Jiang Kanghu, the student
founder of the Chinese Socialist Party, Mao remained interested yet unconvinced by the idea.* [29]

1.2 Fourth Normal School of Changsha:


191219

Mao's childhood home in Shaoshan, in 2010, by which time it


had become a tourist destination.

Working on his father's farm, Mao read voraciously,* [15]


developing a political consciousnessfrom Zheng
Guanying's booklet which lamented the deterioration
of Chinese power and argued for the adoption of
representative democracy.* [16] Interested in history,
Mao was inspired by the military prowess and nationalistic fervour of George Washington and Napoleon Bonaparte.* [17] His political views were shaped by Gelaohuiled protests which erupted following a famine in Hunanese capital Changsha; Mao supported the protesters'
demands, but the armed forces suppressed the dissenters
and executed their leaders.* [18] The famine spread to
Shaoshan, where starving peasants seized his father's
grain; disapproving of their actions as morally wrong,
Mao nevertheless claimed sympathy for their situation.* [19] At age 16, Mao moved to a higher primary
school in nearby Dongshan,* [20] where he was bullied
for his peasant background.* [21]

Over the next few years, Mao enrolled and dropped out of
a police academy, a soap-production school, a law school,
an economics school, and the government-run Changsha
Middle School.* [30] Studying independently, he spent
much time in Changsha's library, reading core works of
classical liberalism such as Adam Smith's The Wealth of
Nations and Montesquieu's The Spirit of the Laws, as well
as the works of western scientists and philosophers such
as Darwin, Mill, Rousseau, and Spencer.* [31] Viewing
himself as an intellectual, years later he admitted that at
this time he thought himself better than working people.* [32] Inspired by Friedrich Paulsen, the liberal emphasis on individualism led Mao to believe that strong individuals were not bound by moral codes but should strive
for the greater good; that the end justies the means.* [33]
Seeing no use in his son's intellectual pursuits, Mao's father cut o his allowance, forcing him to move into a hostel for the destitute.* [34]
Desiring to become a teacher, Mao enrolled at the Fourth
Normal School of Changsha, which soon merged with
the First Normal School of Changsha, widely seen as the
best school in Hunan.* [35] Befriending Mao, professor
Yang Changji urged him to read a radical newspaper,
New Youth (Xin qingnian), the creation of his friend Chen
Duxiu, a dean at Peking University. Although a Chinese
nationalist, Chen argued that China must look to the west
to cleanse itself of superstition and autocracy.* [36] Mao
published his rst article in New Youth in April 1917,
instructing readers to increase their physical strength to
serve the revolution.* [37] He joined the Society for the
Study of Wang Fuzhi (Chuan-shan Hseh-she), a revolutionary group founded by Changsha literati who wished
to emulate the philosopher Wang Fuzhi.* [38]

In 1911, Mao began middle school in Changsha.* [22]


Revolutionary sentiment was strong in the city, with
widespread animosity towards Emperor Puyi's absolute
monarchy and many advocating republicanism. The republicans' gurehead was Sun Yat-sen, an Americaneducated Christian who led the Tongmenghui society.* [23] In Changsha, Mao was inuenced by Sun's
newspaper, The People's Independence (Minli bao),* [24]
and called for Sun to become president in a school essay.* [25] As a symbol of rebellion against the Manchu
monarch, Mao and a friend cut o their queue pigtails, a In his rst school year, Mao befriended an older student,
sign of subservience to the emperor.* [26]
Xiao Zisheng; together they went on a walking tour of
Inspired by Sun's republicanism, the army rose up across Hunan, begging and writing literary couplets to obtain
southern China, sparking the Xinhai Revolution. Chang- food.* [39] A popular student, in 1915 Mao was elected
sha's governor ed, leaving the city in republican con- secretary of the Students Society. Forging an Associatrol.* [27] Supporting the revolution, Mao joined the rebel tion for Student Self-Government, he led protests against

2.2

New Culture and political protests, 191920

3
under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin had seized power.
Lenin was an advocate of the socio-political theory of
Marxism, rst developed by the German sociologists Karl
Marx and Friedrich Engels, and Li's articles brought an
understanding of Marxism to the Chinese revolutionary
movement.* [48] Becoming more and more radical,
Mao was inuenced by Peter Kropotkin's anarchism but
joined Li's Study Group and developed rapidly toward
Marxismduring the winter of 1919.* [49]
Paid a low wage, Mao lived in a cramped room with
seven other Hunanese students, but believed that Beijing's
beauty oeredvivid and living compensation.* [50] At
the university, Mao was widely snubbed by other students
due to his rural Hunanese accent and lowly position. By
joining the university's Philosophy and Journalism Societies, he attended lectures and seminars by the likes of
Chen Duxiu, Hu Shi, and Qian Xuantong.* [51] Mao's
time in Beijing ended in the spring of 1919, when he travelled to Shanghai with friends departing for France,* [52]
before returning to Shaoshan, where his mother was terminally ill; she died in October 1919, with her husband
dying in January 1920.* [53]

Mao in 1913

school rules.* [40] In spring 1917, he was elected to command the students' volunteer army, set up to defend the
school from marauding soldiers.* [41] Increasingly interested in the techniques of war, he took a keen interest in
World War I, and also began to develop a sense of solidarity with workers.* [42] Mao undertook feats of physical endurance with Xiao Zisheng and Cai Hesen, and with
other young revolutionaries they formed the Renovation
of the People Study Society in April 1918 to debate Chen
Duxiu's ideas. Desiring personal and societal transformation, the Society gained 7080 members, many of whom
would later join the Communist Party.* [43] Mao graduated in June 1919, being ranked third in the year.* [44]

Early Revolutionary Activity

Main article: Early revolutionary activity of Mao Zedong

2.1

Beijing, Anarchism, and Marxism:


191719

2.2 New Culture and political protests,


191920
On May 4, 1919, students in Beijing gathered at the Gate
of Heavenly Peace to protest against the Chinese government's weak resistance to Japanese expansion in China.
Patriots had been outraged at the inuence given to Japan
in the Twenty-One Demands in 1915, the complicity of
Duan Qiruis Beiyang Government, and the betrayal
of China at the Treaty of Versailles by allowing Japan
to receive territories in Shandong which had been surrendered by Germany. These demonstrations ignited the
nation-wide May Fourth Movement and fueled the New
Culture Movement which blamed Chinas diplomatic
defeats on social and cultural backwardness.* [54]
In Changsha, Mao had begun teaching history at the Xiuye Primary School* [55] and organizing protests against
the pro-Duan Governor of Hunan Province, Zhang
Jingyao, popularly known as Zhang the Venomous
due to his corrupt and violent rule.* [56] In late May,
Mao co-founded the Hunanese Student Association with
He Shuheng and Deng Zhongxia, organizing a student
strike for June and in July 1919 began production of
a weekly radical magazine, Xiang River Review (Xiangjiang pinglun). Using vernacular language that would
be understandable to the majority of China's populace,
he advocated the need for aGreat Union of the Popular
Masses, strengthened trade unions able to wage nonviolent revolution; his ideas were not Marxist, but heavily
inuenced by Kropotkin's concept of mutual aid.* [57]

Mao moved to Beijing, where his mentor Yang Changji


had taken a job at Peking University.* [45] Yang thought
Mao exceptionallyintelligent and handsome,* [46] securing him a job as assistant to the university librarian Li
Dazhao, an early Chinese Communist.* [47] Li authored Zhang banned the Student Association, but Mao contina series of New Youth articles on the October Revolution ued publishing after assuming editorship of liberal magin Russia, during which the Communist Bolshevik Party azine New Hunan (Xin Hunan) and oering articles in

EARLY REVOLUTIONARY ACTIVITY

Students in Beijing rallied during the May Fourth Movement.

popular local newspaper Justice (Ta Kung Po). Several


of these articles advocated feminist views, calling for the
liberation of women in Chinese society; Mao was inuenced by his forced arranged-marriage.* [58] In December 1919, Mao helped organise a general strike in Hunan, securing some concessions, but Mao and other student leaders felt threatened by Zhang, and Mao returned
to Beijing, visiting the terminally ill Yang Changji.* [59]
Mao found that his articles had achieved a level of fame
among the revolutionary movement, and set about soliciting support in overthrowing Zhang.* [60] Coming across
newly translated Marxist literature by Thomas Kirkup,
Karl Kautsky, and Marx and Engelsnotably The Communist Manifestohe came under their increasing inuence, but was still eclectic in his views.* [61]
Mao visited Tianjin, Jinan, and Qufu,* [62] before moving to Shanghai, where he worked as a laundryman and
met Chen Duxiu, noting that Chen's adoption of Marxism deeply impressed me at what was probably a critical period in my life. In Shanghai, Mao met an old
teacher of his, Yi Peiji, a revolutionary and member of
the Kuomintang (KMT), or Chinese Nationalist Party,
which was gaining increasing support and inuence. Yi
introduced Mao to General Tan Yankai, a senior KMT
member who held the loyalty of troops stationed along
the Hunanese border with Guangdong. Tan was plotting
to overthrow Zhang, and Mao aided him by organizing
the Changsha students. In June 1920, Tan led his troops
into Changsha, while Zhang ed. In the subsequent reorganization of the provincial administration, Mao was
appointed headmaster of the junior section of the First
Normal School. Now receiving a large income, he married Yang Kaihui in the winter of 1920.* [63]

2.3

Founding the Communist Party of


China: 192122

The Communist Party of China was founded by Chen


Duxiu and Li Dazhao in the French concession of Shanghai in 1921 as a study society and informal network. Mao
set up a Changsha branch, also establishing a branch of

Location of the rst Congress of the Chinese Communist Party in


July 1921, in Xintiandi, former French Concession, Shanghai.

the Socialist Youth Corps. Opening a bookstore under


the control of his new Cultural Book Society, its purpose
was to propagate revolutionary literature throughout Hunan.* [64] Helping to organise workers' strikes in the winter of 192021,* [65] he was involved in the movement
for Hunan autonomy, hoping that a Hunanese constitution
would increase civil liberties in the province, making his
revolutionary activity easier; although the movement was
successful, in later life, he denied any involvement.* [66]
By 1921, small Marxist groups existed in Shanghai, Beijing, Changsha, Wuhan, Canton and Jinan, and it was decided to hold a central meeting, which began in Shanghai on July 23, 1921. The rst session of the National
Congress of the Communist Party of China was attended
by 13 delegates, Mao included, and met in a girls' school
that was closed for the summer. After the authorities
sent a police spy to the congress, the delegates moved
to a boat on South Lake near Chiahsing to escape detection. Although Soviet and Comintern delegates attended, the rst congress ignored Lenin's advice to accept a temporary alliance between the Communists and
thebourgeois democratswho also advocated national
revolution; instead they stuck to the orthodox Marxist belief that only the urban proletariat could lead a socialist
revolution.* [67]
Now party secretary for Hunan, Mao was stationed in
Changsha, from which he went on a Communist recruitment drive.* [68] In August 1921, he founded the SelfStudy University, through which readers could gain ac-

2.4

Collaboration with the Kuomintang: 192227

cess to revolutionary literature, housed in the premises


of the Society for the Study of Wang Fuzhi.* [68] Taking
part in the YMCA mass education movement to ght illiteracy, he opened a Changsha branch, though replaced
the usual textbooks with revolutionary tracts in order to
spread Marxism among the students.* [69] He continued
organizing the labour movement to strike against the administration of Hunan Governor Zhao Hengti, particularly following the execution of two anarchists.* [70] In
July 1922, the Second Congress of the Communist Party
took place in Shanghai, though Mao lost the address and
couldn't attend. Adopting Lenin's advice, the delegates
agreed to an alliance with the bourgeois democrats
of the KMT for the good of the national revolution
. Communist Party members joined the KMT, hoping
to push its politics leftward.* [71] Mao enthusiastically
agreed with this decision, arguing for an alliance across
China's socio-economic classes; a vocal anti-imperialist,
in his writings he lambasted the governments of Japan,
UK and US, describing the latter as the most murderous of hangmen.* [72] Mao's strategy for the successful
and famous Anyuan coal mines strikes (contrary to later
Party historians) depended on both proletarianand
bourgeoisstrategies. The success depended on innovative organizing by Liu Shaoqi and Li Lisan who not
only mobilised the miners, but formed schools and co- Mao the revolutionary in 1927.
operatives. They also engaged local intellectuals, gentry,
military ocers, merchants, Red Gang dragon heads and
church clergy in support.* [73]

2.4

Collaboration with the Kuomintang:


192227

At the Third Congress of the Communist Party in Shanghai in June 1923, the delegates rearmed their commitment to working with the KMT against the Beiyang government and imperialists. Supporting this position, Mao
was elected to the Party Committee, taking up residence
in Shanghai. * [74] Attending the First KMT Congress,
held in Guangzhou in early 1924, Mao was elected an
alternate member of the KMT Central Executive Committee, and put forward four resolutions to decentralise
power to urban and rural bureaus. His enthusiastic support for the KMT earned him the suspicion of some Communists.* [75] In late 1924, Mao returned to Shaoshan to
recuperate from an illness. Discovering that the peasantry were increasingly restless due to the upheaval of the
past decade, some had seized land from wealthy landowners to found communes; this convinced him of the revolutionary potential of the peasantry, an idea advocated
by the KMT but not the Communists.* [76] As a result, he was appointed to run the KMT's Peasant Movement Training Institute, also becoming Director of its
Propaganda Department and editing its Political Weekly
(Zhengzhi zhoubao) newsletter.* [77]* [78] Through the
Peasant Movement Training Institute, Mao took an active role in organizing the revolutionary Hunanese peas-

Mao making speeches to the masses

ants and preparing them for militant activity, taking them


through military training exercises and getting them to
study various left-wing texts.* [79] In the winter of 1925,
Mao ed to Canton after his revolutionary activities attracted the attention of Zhao's regional authorities.* [80]
The Communists controlled the left wing of the KMT,
struggling for power with the party's right wing. When
party leader Sun Yat-sen died in May 1925, he was
succeeded by a rightist, Chiang Kai-shek, who initiated moves to marginalise the position of the Communists.* [81] Mao nevertheless supported Chiang's decision
to overthrow the Beiyang government and their foreign
imperialist allies using the National Revolutionary Army,
who embarked on the Northern Expedition in 1926.* [82]

3 CIVIL WAR

In the wake of this expedition, peasants rose up, appropriating the land of the wealthy landowners, whom were
in many cases killed. Such uprisings angered senior KMT
gures, who were themselves landowners, emphasizing
the growing class and ideological divide within the revolutionary movement.* [83]
Revolution is not a dinner party, nor an essay, nor a
painting, nor a piece of embroidery; it cannot be so rened, so leisurely and gentle, so temperate, kind, courteous, restrained and magnanimous. A revolution is an
insurrection, an act of violence by which one class overthrows another.
Mao, February 1927.* [84]

Flag of the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army

In March 1927, Mao appeared at the Third Plenum of


the KMT Central Executive Committee in Wuhan, which
sought to strip General Chiang of his power by appointing
Wang Jingwei leader. There, Mao played an active role
in the discussions regarding the peasant issue, defending
a set of Regulations for the Repression of Local Bullies and Bad Gentry, which advocated the death penalty
or life imprisonment for anyone found guilty of counterrevolutionary activity, arguing that in a revolutionary situation, peaceful methods cannot suce.* [85]* [86]
In April 1927, Mao was appointed to the KMT's vemember Central Land Committee, urging peasants to
refuse to pay rent. Mao led another group to put together
aDraft Resolution on the Land Question, which called
for the conscation of land belonging tolocal bullies and
bad gentry, corrupt ocials, militarists and all counterrevolutionary elements in the villages. Proceeding to
carry out a Land Survey, he stated that anyone owning over 30 mou (four and a half acres), constituting 13%
of the population, were uniformly counter-revolutionary.
He accepted that there was great variation in revolutionary enthusiasm across the country, and that a exible policy of land redistribution was necessary.* [87] Presenting
his conclusions at the Enlarged Land Committee meeting, many expressed reservations, some believing that it
went too far, and others not far enough. Ultimately, his
suggestions were only partially implemented.* [88]

across China. Ignoring the orders of the Wuhan-based


KMT government, he marched on Shanghai, a city controlled by Communist militias. Although the Communists welcomed Chiang's arrival, he turned on them, massacring 5000 with the aid of the Green Gang.* [86]* [89]
Chiang's army then marched on Wuhan, but was prevented from taking the city by Communist General Ye
Ting and his troops.* [90] Chiang's allies also attacked
Communists; in Beijing, 19 leading Communists were
killed by Zhang Zuolin, while in Changsha, He Jian's
forces machine gunned hundreds of peasant militiamen.* [91]* [92] That May, tens of thousands of Communists and their sympathisers were killed by nationalists,
with the CPC losing approximately 15,000 of its 25,000
members.* [92]

Civil War

Main articles: Chinese Civil War and Chinese Revolution (1949)

3.1

The Nanchang and Autumn Harvest


Uprisings: 1927

Fresh from the success of the Northern Expedition to


overthrow the warlords, Chiang turned on the Communists, who by now numbered in the tens of thousands

"'Eagles cleave the air,


Fish glide in the limpid deep;
Under freezing skies a million
creatures contend in freedom.
Brooding over this immensity,
I ask, on this boundless land
Who rules over man's destiny?"
Excerpt from Mao's
poem Changsha, September 1927.* [93]
The CPC continued supporting the Wuhan KMT government, a position Mao initially supported,* [92] but
he had changed his mind by the time of the CPC's
Fifth Congress, deciding to stake all hope on the peasant militia.* [94] The question was rendered moot when
the Wuhan government expelled all Communists from the
KMT on July 15.* [94] The CPC founded the Workers'
and Peasants' Red Army of China, better known as the
"Red Army", to battle Chiang. A battalion led by General Zhu De was ordered to take the city of Nanchang on
August 1, 1927 in what became known as the Nanchang
Uprising; initially successful, they were forced into retreat after ve days, marching south to Shantou, and from
there being driven into the wilderness of Fujian.* [94] Appointed commander-in-chief of the Red Army, Mao led
four regiments against Changsha in the Autumn Harvest
Uprising, hoping to spark peasant uprisings across Hu-

3.3

Jiangxi Soviet Republic of China: 19291934

nan. On the eve of the attack, Mao composed a poem


the earliest of his to survivetitledChangsha. His plan
was to attack the KMT-held city from three directions on
September 9, but the Fourth Regiment deserted to the
KMT cause, attacking the Third Regiment. Mao's army
made it to Changsha, but could not take it; by September
15, he accepted defeat, with 1000 survivors marching east
to the Jinggang Mountains of Jiangxi.* [93]* [95]

7
formation of Workers' councils, the conscation of all
land without exemption, and the rejection of the KMT.
Mao's response was to ignore them.* [98] Setting up base
in Jinggangshan City, an area of the Jinggang Mountains,
Mao united ve villages as a self-governing state, supporting the conscation of land from rich landlords, who were
re-educatedand sometimes executed. He ensured that
no massacres took place in the region, pursuing a more
lenient approach than that advocated by the Central Committee.* [99] Proclaiming that Even the lame, the deaf
and the blind could all come in useful for the revolutionary struggle, he boosted the army's numbers,* [100] incorporating two groups of bandits into his army, building
a force of around 1,800 troops.* [101] He laid down rules
for his soldiers: prompt obedience to orders, all conscations were to be turned over to the government, and
nothing was to be conscated from poorer peasants. In
doing so, he molded his men into a disciplined, ecient
ghting force.* [100]

In their biography of Mao, Mao: The Unknown Story,


Jung Chang and Jon Halliday dispute this version of
events.* [96] Chang and Halliday claim that the uprising
was in fact sabotaged by Mao to allow him to snare a force
of Nationalist mutineers from Nanchang who were crossing over to the CPC, prevent them from defecting to any
other CPC leader, and enhance his own personal power
within the CPC. They claim that Mao's three-day delay
in seeing the other leaders of the Hunan uprising, scheduled for August 15 but delayed by Mao until August 18,
was to allow Mao to check that the mutineers would still
be passing close by and that if Mao had not had the op- When the enemy advances, we retreat.
portunity of adding this force to his own forces within the When the enemy rests, we harass him.
CPC he would not have gone to south Hunan.* [97]
When the enemy avoids a battle, we attack.
Chang and Halliday also claim that Mao lobbied to nar- When the enemy retreats, we advance.
row down the uprising and talked the other leaders (including Russian diplomats at the Soviet consulate in
Changsha who, Chang and Halliday claim, had been controlling much of the CPC activity) into striking only at
Changsha. This, they say, was in order to allow Mao
to also gain control of a force of 1,700 peasant rebels
and defectors from the Nationalist army who were near
Changsha. Chang and Halliday point out that once Mao
had gained control of these men, he then moved to a position 100 km east of Changsha at Wenjiashi and was there
on September 11, the uprising's launch date, far from
his troops, and that on September 14, before the troops
had reached Changsha or met heavy resistance, Mao ordered them to abandon the assault on Changsha and converge on his position. Chang and Halliday report a view
sent to Moscow by the secretary of the Soviet Consulate
in Changsha that the retreat was the most despicable
treachery and cowardice.* [97]
Chang and Halliday allege that Mao later fabricated the
version of events in order to hide the fact that far from
leading a peasant uprising, he hijacked it for his own personal ends, sabotaged the organisation, and departed with
the new troops before the attack on Changsha had begun.* [97]

3.2

Mao's advice in
1928.* [102]* [103]

combating

the

Kuomintang,

In spring 1928, the Central Committee ordered Mao's


troops to southern Hunan, hoping to spark peasant uprisings. Mao was skeptical, but complied. Reaching Hunan, they were attacked by the KMT and ed after heavy
losses. Meanwhile, KMT troops had invaded Jinggangshan, leaving them without a base.* [104] Wandering the
countryside, Mao's forces came across a CPC regiment
led by General Zhu De and Lin Biao; they united, attempting to retake Jinggangshan. Initially successful, the
KMT counter-attacked, pushing the CPC back; over the
next few weeks, they fought an entrenched guerrilla war
in the mountains.* [102]* [105] Central Committee again
ordered Mao to march to south Hunan, but he refused, remaining at his base. Contrastingly, Zhu complied, leading his armies away; the KMT attacked Mao's base, and
although his troops fended them o for 25 days, Mao left
the camp at night to nd reinforcements. Reuniting with
the decimated Zhu's army, they returned to Jinggangshan
and retook the base. Joined by a defecting KMT regiment
and Peng Dehuai's Fifth Red Army, the mountainous area
was unable to grow enough crops to feed everyone, leading to food shortages throughout the winter.* [106]* [107]

Base in Jinggangshan: 19271928

3.3 Jiangxi Soviet Republic of China:


19291934
Hiding in Shanghai, the CPC Central Committee expelled Mao from their ranks and from the Hunan Provincial Committee, punishment for his military opportunism, for his focus on rural activity, and for being too
lenient with bad gentry. They nevertheless adopted
three policies he had long championed: the immediate

In January 1929, Mao and Zhu evacuated the base and


took their armies south, to the area around Tonggu and
Xinfeng in Jiangxi, which they consolidated as a new
base.* [108] Together having 2,000 men, with a further

3 CIVIL WAR
China, an independent Communist-governed state. Although proclaimed Chairman of the Council of People's
Commissars, Mao's power was diminished, with control
of the Red Army being allocated to Zhou Enlai; Mao
meanwhile recovered from tuberculosis.* [122]* [123]

Mao with his third wife, He Zizhen, 1928

800 provided by Peng, the evacuation led to a drop in


morale, and many troops became disobedient and began
thieving; this worried Li Lisan and the Central Committee, who saw Mao's army as lumpenproletariat, unable
to share in proletariat class consciousness.* [109]* [110]
In keeping with orthodox Marxist thought, Li believed
that only the urban proletariat could lead a successful
revolution, and saw little need for Mao's peasant guerrillas; he ordered Mao to disband his army into units to
be sent out to spread the revolutionary message. Mao
replied that while concurring with Li's theoretical position, he would not disband his army or abandon his
base.* [110]* [111] Both Li and Mao saw the Chinese revolution as the key to world revolution, believing that a
CPC victory would spark the overthrow of global imperialism and capitalism. In this, they disagreed with the ofcial line of the Soviet government and Comintern. Ofcials in Moscow desired greater control over the CPC,
removing Li from power by calling him to Russia for an
inquest into his errors.* [112]* [113]* [114] They replaced
him with Soviet-educated Chinese Communists, known
as the "28 Bolsheviks", two of whom, Bo Gu and Zhang
Wentian, took control of the Central Committee. Mao
disagreed with the new leadership, believing they grasped
little of the Chinese situation, and soon emerged as their
key rival.* [113]* [115]
In February 1930, Mao created the Southwest Jiangxi
Provincial Soviet Government in the region under
his control,* [116] in November suering emotional
trauma after his wife and sister were captured and beheaded by KMT general He Jian.* [107]* [113]* [117]
He then married He Zizhen, an 18-year-old revolutionary who bore him ve children over the following
nine years.* [114]* [118] Facing internal problems, members of the Jiangxi Soviet accused him of being too
moderate, and hence anti-revolutionary. In December,
they tried to overthrow Mao, resulting in the Futian
incident; putting down the rebels, Mao's loyalists tortured many and executed between 2000 and 3000 dissenters.* [119]* [120]* [121] Seeing it as a secure area,
the CPC Central Committee moved to Jiangxi, which in
November was proclaimed to be the Soviet Republic of

Mao in 1931

Attempting to defeat the Communists, the KMT armies


adopted a policy of encirclement and annihilation; outnumbered, Mao responded with guerrilla tactics inuenced by the works of ancient military strategists like Sun
Tzu, but Zhou and the new leadership replaced this approach with a policy of open confrontation and conventional warfare. In doing so the Red Army successfully
defeated the rst and second encirclements.* [124]* [125]
Angered at his armies' failure, Chiang Kai-shek personally arrived to lead the operation; also facing setbacks, he
retreated to deal with the further Japanese incursions into
China.* [122]* [126] As a result of the KMT's change of
focus to the defence of China against Japanese expansionism, the Red Army expanded its area of control, eventually encompassing a population of 3 million.* [125] Mao
proceeded with his land reform program, in November
1931 announcing the start of aland verication project
which was expanded in June 1933, also orchestrating education programs and implementing measures to increase
female political participation.* [127] Viewing the Communists as a greater threat than the Japanese, Chiang returned to Jiangxi, initiating the fth encirclement campaign, involving the construction of a concrete and barbed
wirewall of rearound the state, accompanied by aerial
bombardment, to which Zhou's tactics proved ineective.
Trapped inside, morale among the Red Army dropped as
food and medicine became scarce, and the leadership decided to evacuate.* [128]

3.5

3.4

Alliance with the Kuomintang: 19351940

The Long March: 19341935

On October 14, 1934, the Red Army broke through


the KMT line on the Jiangxi Soviet's south-west corner at Xinfeng with 85,000 soldiers and 15,000 party
cadres and embarked on the "Long March". In order to
make the escape, many of the wounded and the ill, as
well as women and children, were left behind, defended
by a group of guerrilla ghters whom the KMT massacred.* [129]* [130] The 100,000 who escaped headed
to southern Hunan, rst crossing the Xiang River after
heavy ghting,* [130]* [131] and then the Wu River, in
Guizhou where they took Zunyi in January 1935. Temporarily resting in the city, they held a conference; here,
Mao was elected to a position of leadership, becoming
Chairman of the Politburo, and de facto leader of both
Party and Red Army, in part because his candidacy was
supported by Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin. Insisting that
they operate as a guerrilla force, he laid out a destination: the Shenshi Soviet in Shaanxi, Northern China,
from where the Communists could focus on ghting the
Japanese. Mao believed that in focusing on the antiimperialist struggle, the Communists would earn the trust
of the Chinese people, who in turn would renounce the
KMT.* [132]
From Zunyi, Mao led his troops to Loushan Pass, where
they faced armed opposition but successfully crossed
the river. Chiang ew into the area to lead his armies
against Mao, but the Communists outmanoeuvred him
and crossed the Jinsha River.* [133] Faced with the more
dicult task of crossing the Tatu River, they managed it by ghting a battle over the Luding Bridge in
May, taking Luding.* [134] Marching through the mountain ranges around Ma'anshan,* [135] in Moukung, Western Szechuan they encountered the 50,000-strong CPC
Fourth Front Army of Zhang Guotao, together proceeding to Maoerhkai and then Gansu. However, Zhang
and Mao disagreed over what to do; the latter wished
to proceed to Shaanxi, while Zhang wanted to ee east
to Tibet or Sikkim, far from the KMT threat. It was
agreed that they would go their separate ways, with Zhu
De joining Zhang.* [136] Mao's forces proceeded north,
through hundreds of miles of Grasslands, an area of quagmire where they were attacked by Manchu tribesman
and where many soldiers succumbed to famine and disease.* [137]* [138] Finally reaching Shaanxi, they fought
o both the KMT and an Islamic cavalry militia before crossing over the Min Mountains and Mount Liupan and reaching the Shenshi Soviet; only 7-8000 had
survived.* [138]* [139] The Long March cemented Mao's
status as the dominant gure in the party. In November
1935, he was named chairman of the Military Commission. From this point onward, Mao was the Communist
Party's undisputed leader, even though he would not become party chairman until 1943.* [140]

9
false by Jung Chang. During the decade spent researching the book, Mao: The Unknown Story,* [141] for instance, Chang found evidence that there was no battle
at Luding and that the CPC crossed the bridge unopposed. Chang interviewed an eye witness to the crossing
of the Dadu (Tatu) River at Luding, Mrs Zhu De, then
93 years old, who recalled no deaths, except for two people who fell from the bridge at Luding while repairing it.
Chang also points out the contradictions in the version
of events as told by the CPC, which said the bridge was
taken by a suicide attack by 22 men, but that these men
were also present at a ceremony following the crossing of
the bridge.* [142]
Chang and Halliday also dispute the Communist Party of
China's ocial version by claiming that far from the Long
March being a masterful piece of strategy by the CPC,
it was in fact devised by Chiang Kai-shek, leader of the
KMT. Chiang's aim was to give the CPC an easy route
to follow through warlord controlled areas. Hemmed in
by Nationalist troops on three sides, the CPC was forced
to follow the route dictated by the KMT. The aim of this
was to allow KMT forces to follow the reds into warlord
controlled areas such as Sichuan and win over warlords
scared of the sudden arrival of the Communist force. The
only glitch in this plan came when Mao refused to follow
the easy route into Sichuan where he was to meet up with
a red army much larger than his own and led by a more senior CPC member, Chang Kuo Tao. Mao recognised the
threat Chang posed to his rising position in the CPC and
doubled back to give himself time to further cement his
political power, causing the needless deaths of thousands
of his own troops.* [142]
Chang and Halliday also claim that Mao and other top
CPC leaders did not walk the Long March, but were carried on litters Mao himself told his sta that being carried on the Long March gave him much time to read
with the litter bearers' knees being worn to the bone when
forced to carry Mao up mountains.* [142]

3.5 Alliance with the Kuomintang: 1935


1940

Main article: Second Sino-Japanese War


Arriving at the Yan'an Soviet during October 1935,
Mao's troops settled in Pao An. Remaining there
till spring 1936, they developed links with local
communities, redistributed and farmed the land,
oered medical treatment and began literacy programs.* [138]* [143]* [144] Mao now commanded
15,000 soldiers, boosted by the arrival of He Long's men
from Hunan and the armies of Zhu Den and Zhang Guotao, returning from Tibet.* [143] In February 1936 they
established the North West Anti-Japanese Red Army
University in Yan'an, through which they trained increasMany if not most of the events as later described by ing numbers of new recruits.* [145] In January 1937 they
Mao and which the CPC claims are true are seen as began the anti-Japanese expedition, sending groups

10

3 CIVIL WAR

Mao in 1938, writing On Protracted War.


In an eort to defeat the Japanese, Mao (left) agreed to collaborate with Chiang (right).

of guerrilla ghters into Japanese-controlled territory to


undertake sporadic attacks,* [146]* [147] while in May
1937, a Communist Conference was held in Yan'an
to discuss the situation.* [148] Western reporters also
arrived in the Border Region(as the Soviet had been
renamed); most notable were Edgar Snow, who used
his experiences as a basis for Red Star Over China, and
Agnes Smedley, whose accounts brought international
attention to Mao's cause.* [149]
On the Long March, Mao's wife He Zizen had been injured from a shrapnel wound to the head, and so traveled
to Moscow for medical treatment; Mao proceeded to divorce her and marry an actress, Jiang Qing.* [118]* [150]
Mao moved into a cave-house and spent much of his
time reading, tending his garden and theorizing.* [151]
He came to believe that the Red Army alone was unable to defeat the Japanese, and that a Communist-led
government of national defenceshould be formed with
the KMT and other bourgeois nationalistelements to
achieve this goal.* [152] Although despising Chiang Kaishek as a traitor to the nation,* [153] on May 5 he
telegrammed the Military Council of the Nanking National Government proposing a military alliance, a course
of action advocated by Stalin.* [154] Although Chiang intended to ignore Mao's message and continue the civil
war, he was arrested by one of his own generals, Zhang
Xueliang, in Xi'an, leading to the Xi'an Incident; Zhang
forced Chiang to discuss the issue with the Communists,
resulting in the formation of a United Front with concessions on both sides on December 25, 1937.* [155]

In August 1940, the Red Army initiated the Hundred


Regiments Campaign, in which 400,000 troops attacked the Japanese simultaneously in ve provinces;
a military success, it resulted in the death of 20,000
Japanese, the disruption of railways and the loss of a
coal mine.* [158]* [160] From his base in Yan'an, Mao
authored several texts for his troops, including Philosophy of Revolution, which oered an introduction to
the Marxist theory of knowledge, Protracted Warfare,
which dealt with guerilla and mobile military tactics, and
New Democracy, which laid forward ideas for China's future.* [161]

3.6 Resuming civil war: 19401949


In 1944, the Americans sent a special diplomatic envoy, called the Dixie Mission, to the Communist Party
of China. According to Edwin Moise, in Modern China:
A History 2nd Edition:
Most of the Americans were favourably
impressed. The CPC seemed less corrupt,
more unied, and more vigorous in its resistance to Japan than the KMT. United States
iers shot down over North China ... conrmed
to their superiors that the CPC was both strong
and popular over a broad area. In the end, the
contacts with the USA developed with the CPC
led to very little.
After the end of World War II, the U.S. continued their
military assistance to Chiang Kai-shek and his KMT
government forces against the People's Liberation Army
(PLA) led by Mao Zedong in the civil war for control
of China. Likewise, the Soviet Union gave quasi-covert
support to Mao by their occupation of north east China,
which allowed the PLA to move in en masse and took
large supplies of arms left by the Japanese's Kwantung
Army.

The Japanese had taken both Shanghai and Nanking


(Nanjing)resulting in the Nanking Massacre, an atrocity Mao never spoke of all his lifepushing the Kuomintang government inland to Chungking.* [156] The
Japanese's brutality led increasing numbers of Chinese
joining the ght, with the Red Army growing from
50,000 to 500,000.* [157]* [158] In August 1938, the Red
Army formed the New Fourth Army and the Eighth
Route Army, which were nominally under the com- Mao, to enhance the Red Army's military operations
mand of Chiang's National Revolutionary Army.* [159] named his close associate, then General Zhu De to be

11
its Commander-in-Chief under his supervision and control as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China
that has jurisdiction over the said army through the party's
Central Military Commission headed by future Premier
Zhou En-Lai
In 1948, under direct orders from Mao, the People's Liberation Army starved out the Kuomintang forces occupying the city of Changchun. At least 160,000 civilians are
believed to have perished during the siege, which lasted
from June until October. PLA lieutenant colonel Zhang
Zhenglu, who documented the siege in his book White
Snow, Red Blood, compared it to Hiroshima: The casualties were about the same. Hiroshima took nine seconds; Changchun took ve months.* [162] On January
21, 1949, Kuomintang forces suered great losses in
decisive battles against Mao's forces.* [163] In the early
morning of December 10, 1949, PLA troops laid siege
to Chongqing and Chengdu on mainland China, and Chiang Kai-shek ed from the mainland to Formosa (Taiwan).* [163]* [164]

Liberation Army, China's armed forces into the war in


Korea and ght against the United Nations forces and
the South Korean armies led by the U.S. as well as to
reinforce the armed forces of North Korea, the Korean
People's Army, which had been in full retreat. Historical
records showed that Mao directed the PVA campaigns in
the Korean War to the minute details as Chairman of the
ruling CPC's Central Military Commission that oversees
the country's armed forces. Because he was the Chairman of the CPC's CMC, he was also the Supreme Commander in Chief of the PLA aside from being the Chairman of the People's Republic and Chairman of the ruling CPC. The PVA was under the overall command of
then newly installed Premier Zhou Enlai and with General Peng Dehuai as eld commander and political commissar as well.* [168]

Leadership of China

Mao Zedong declares the founding of the modern People's Republic of China, October 1, 1949.

The People's Republic of China was established on October 1, 1949. It was the culmination of over two decades
of civil and international wars. Mao famously announced:
We (the Chinese people) have stood up.* [165]

Mao with his fourth wife, Jiang Qing, called Madame Mao,
1946

Along with land reform, during which signicant numbers of landlords and well-to-do peasants were beaten
to death at mass meetings organised by the Communist
Party as land was taken from them and given to poorer
peasants,* [169] there was also the Campaign to Suppress
Counter-revolutionaries,* [170] which involved public executions targeting mainly former Kuomintang ocials,
businessmen accused of disturbingthe market, former employees of Western companies and intellectuals
whose loyalty was suspect.* [171] The U.S. State department in 1976 estimated that there may have been a million killed in the land reform, and 800,000 killed in the
counter-revolutionary campaign.* [172]

Mao took up residence in Zhongnanhai, a compound next


to the Forbidden City in Beijing, and there he ordered
the construction of an indoor swimming pool and other
buildings. Mao's physician Li Zhisui described him as
conducting business either in bed or by the side of the
pool, preferring not to wear formal clothes unless absolutely necessary.* [166] Li's book, The Private Life of
Chairman Mao, is regarded as controversial, especially Mao himself claimed that a total of 700,000 people
by those sympathetic to Mao.* [167]
were killed in attacks on counter-revolutionariesdurIn October 1950, Mao made the decision to send the ing the years 195052.* [173] However, because there
People's Volunteer Army, a special unit of the People's was a policy to select at least one landlord, and usu-

12

4 LEADERSHIP OF CHINA

ally several, in virtually every village for public execution,* [174] the number of deaths range between 2 million* [174]* [175] and 5 million.* [176]* [177] In addition,
at least 1.5 million people,* [178] perhaps as many as 4 to
6 million,* [179] were sent to reform through labour
camps where many perished.* [179] Mao played a personal role in organizing the mass repressions and established a system of execution quotas,* [180] which were
often exceeded.* [170] He defended these killings as necessary for the securing of power.* [181]

industrial plants were built and agricultural production


eventually fell to a point where industry was beginning
to produce enough capital that China no longer needed
the USSR's support. The success of the First-Five Year
Plan was to encourage Mao to instigate the Second FiveYear Plan in 1958. Mao also launched a phase of rapid
collectivization. The CPC introduced price controls as
well as a Chinese character simplication aimed at increasing literacy. Large-scale industrialization projects
were also undertaken.

Starting in 1951, Mao initiated two successive movements in an eort to rid urban areas of corruption by targeting wealthy capitalists and political opponents, known
as the three-anti/ve-anti campaigns. Whereas the threeanti campaign was a focused purge of government, industrial and party ocials, the ve-anti campaign set
its sights slightly broader, targeting capitalist elements in
general.* [182] Workers denounced their bosses, spouses
turned on their spouses, and children informed on their
parents; the victims were often humiliated at struggle sessions, a method designed to intimidate and terrify people
to the maximum. Mao insisted that minor oenders be
criticised and reformed or sent to labour camps, while
the worst among them should be shot. These campaigns
took several hundred thousand additional lives, the vast
majority via suicide.* [183]

Programs pursued during this time include the Hundred


Flowers Campaign, in which Mao indicated his supposed willingness to consider dierent opinions about
how China should be governed. Given the freedom to express themselves, liberal and intellectual Chinese began
opposing the Communist Party and questioning its leadership. This was initially tolerated and encouraged. After
a few months, Mao's government reversed its policy and
persecuted those, totalling perhaps 500,000, who criticised, as well as those who were merely alleged to have
criticised, the party in what is called the Anti-Rightist
Movement. Authors such as Jung Chang have alleged that
the Hundred Flowers Campaign was merely a ruse to root
out dangerousthinking.* [185]
Li Zhisui, Mao's physician, suggested that Mao had initially seen the policy as a way of weakening those within
his party who opposed him and was surprised by the extent of criticism and the fact that it began to be directed
at his own leadership.* [186] It was only then that he used
it as a method of identifying and subsequently persecuting those critical of his government. The Hundred Flowers movement led to the condemnation, silencing, and
death of many citizens, also linked to Mao's Anti-Rightist
Movement, with death tolls possibly in the millions.

In Shanghai, suicide by jumping from tall buildings became so commonplace that residents avoided walking on
the pavement near skyscrapers for fear that suicides might
land on them.* [184] Some biographers have pointed out
that driving those perceived as enemies to suicide was a
common tactic during the Mao-era. For example, in his
biography of Mao, Philip Short notes that in the Yan'an
Rectication Movement, Mao gave explicit instructions
that no cadre is to be killed, but in practice allowed
security chief Kang Sheng to drive opponents to suicide
and that this pattern was repeated throughout his lead- 4.1
ership of the People's Republic.* [7]

Great Leap Forward

Mao with Nikita Khrushchev and Ho Chi Minh during a state


dinner in Beijing, 1959
Mao at Joseph Stalin's 70th birthday celebration in Moscow, December 1949

Following the consolidation of power, Mao launched the


First Five-Year Plan (195358). The plan aimed to end
Chinese dependence upon agriculture in order to become
a world power. With the Soviet Union's assistance, new

In January 1958, Mao launched the second Five-Year


Plan, known as the Great Leap Forward, a plan intended
as an alternative model for economic growth to the Soviet model focusing on heavy industry that was advocated by others in the party. Under this economic program, the relatively small agricultural collectives which

4.1

Great Leap Forward

13

had been formed to date were rapidly merged into far


larger people's communes, and many of the peasants were
ordered to work on massive infrastructure projects and on
the production of iron and steel. Some private food production was banned; livestock and farm implements were
brought under collective ownership.
Under the Great Leap Forward, Mao and other party
leaders ordered the implementation of a variety of unproven and unscientic new agricultural techniques by
the new communes. Combined with the diversion of
labour to steel production and infrastructure projects,
these projects combined with cyclical natural disasters
led to an approximately 15% drop in grain production in
1959 followed by a further 10% decline in 1960 and no
recovery in 1961.* [187]
In an eort to win favour with their superiors and avoid
being purged, each layer in the party hierarchy exaggerated the amount of grain produced under them. Based
upon the fabricated success, party cadres were ordered
to requisition a disproportionately high amount of the
true harvest for state use, primarily in the cities and urban areas but also for export. The net result, which
was compounded in some areas by drought and in others by oods, left rural peasants with little food for themselves and many millions starved to death in the largest
famine known as the Great Chinese Famine. This famine
was a direct cause of the death of some 30 million Chinese peasants between 1959 and 1962.* [188] Further,
many children who became emaciated and malnourished
during years of hardship and struggle for survival died
shortly after the Great Leap Forward came to an end in
1962.* [187]
The extent of Mao's knowledge of the severity of the situation has been disputed. Mao's physician believed that
he may have been unaware of the extent of the famine,
partly due to a reluctance to criticise his policies and decisions and the willingness of his sta to exaggerate or outright fake reports regarding food production.* [189] Upon
learning of the extent of the starvation, Mao vowed to
stop eating meat, an action followed by his sta.* [190]
Hong Kong-based historian Frank Diktter,* [191] challenged the notion that Mao did not know about the famine
throughout the country until it was too late:
The idea that the state mistakenly took too
much grain from the countryside because it assumed that the harvest was much larger than
it was is largely a mythat most partially true
for the autumn of 1958 only. In most cases
the party knew very well that it was starving
its own people to death. At a secret meeting
in the Jinjiang Hotel in Shanghai dated March
25, 1959, Mao specically ordered the party to
procure up to one third of all the grain, much
more than had ever been the case. At the meeting he announced thatTo distribute resources
evenly will only ruin the Great Leap Forward.

In the beginning, commune members were able to eat for free


at the commune canteens. This changed when food production
slowed to a halt.

When there is not enough to eat, people starve


to death. It is better to let half of the people die so that the other half can eat their ll.
*
[192]* [193]
Professor Emeritus Thomas P. Bernstein of the Columbia
University oered his view on Mao's statement on starvation in the March 25, 1959 meeting:
Some scholars believe that this shows Mao
s readiness to accept mass death on an immense
scale. My own view is that this is an instance
of Maos use of hyperbole, another being his
casual acceptance of death of half the population during a nuclear war. In other contexts,
Mao did not in fact accept mass death. Zhous
Chronology shows that in October 1958, Mao
expressed real concern that 40,000 people in
Yunnan had starved to death (p. 173). Shortly
after the March 25 meeting, he worried about
25.2 million people who were at risk of starvation.* [194] But from late summer on, Mao essentially forgot about this issue, until, as noted,
the Xinyang Incidentcame to light in October 1960.* [195]
In the article Mao Zedong and the Famine of 1959
1960: A Study in Wilfulness, published in 2006 in The
China Quarterly, Professor Thomas P. Bernstein also discussed Mao's change of attitudes during dierent phases
of the Great Leap Forward:
In late autumn 1958, Mao Zedong strongly
condemned widespread practices of the Great

14

4 LEADERSHIP OF CHINA
Leap Forward (GLF) such as subjecting peasants to exhausting labour without adequate
food and rest, which had resulted in epidemics,
starvation and deaths. At that time Mao explicitly recognized that anti-rightist pressures
on ocialdom were a major cause of production at the expense of livelihood.While he
was not willing to acknowledge that only abandonment of the GLF could solve these problems, he did strongly demand that they be addressed. After the July 1959 clash at Lushan
with Peng Dehuai, Mao revived the GLF in the
context of a new, extremely harsh anti-rightist
campaign, which he relentlessly promoted into
the spring of 1960 together with the radical
policies that he previously condemned. Not
until spring 1960 did Mao again express concern about abnormal deaths and other abuses,
but he failed to apply the pressure needed to
stop them. Given what he had already learned
about the costs to the peasants of GLF extremism, the Chairman should have known that the
revival of GLF radicalism would exact a similar or even bigger price. Instead, he wilfully
ignored the lessons of the rst radical phase for
the sake of achieving extreme ideological and
developmental goals.* [194]

In Hungry Ghosts: Mao's Secret Famine, Jasper Becker


notes that Mao was dismissive of reports he received
of food shortages in the countryside and refused to
change course, believing that peasants were lying and that
rightists and kulaks were hoarding grain. He refused to
open state granaries,* [196] and instead launched a series
ofanti-grain concealmentdrives that resulted in numerous purges and suicides.* [197] Other violent campaigns
followed in which party leaders went from village to village in search of hidden food reserves, and not only grain,
as Mao issued quotas for pigs, chickens, ducks and eggs.
Many peasants accused of hiding food were tortured and
beaten to death.* [198]

smelting conditions could not be achieved. According to


Zhang Rongmei, a geometry teacher in rural Shanghai
during the Great Leap Forward:
We took all the furniture, pots, and pans
we had in our house, and all our neighbours did
likewise. We put everything in a big re and
melted down all the metal.
The worst of the famine was steered towards enemies of
the state.* [199] As Jasper Becker explains:
The most vulnerable section of China's
population, around ve per cent, were those
whom Mao called 'enemies of the people'.
Anyone who had in previous campaigns of repression been labeled a 'black element' was
given the lowest priority in the allocation of
food. Landlords, rich peasants, former members of the nationalist regime, religious leaders, rightists, counter-revolutionaries and the
families of such individuals died in the greatest
numbers.* [200]
At a large Communist Party conference in Beijing in
January 1962, called the Conference of the Seven
Thousand, State Chairman Liu Shaoqi denounced
the Great Leap Forward as responsible for widespread
famine.* [201] The overwhelming majority of delegates
expressed agreement, but Defense Minister Lin Biao
staunchly defended Mao.* [201] A brief period of liberalization followed while Mao and Lin plotted a comeback.* [201] Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping rescued the
economy by disbanding the people's communes, introducing elements of private control of peasant smallholdings and importing grain from Canada and Australia to
mitigate the worst eects of famine.

Whatever the case, the Great Leap Forward caused Mao


to lose esteem among many of the top party cadres and
was eventually forced to abandon the policy in 1962,
while losing some political power to moderate leaders,
perhaps most notably Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping in
the process. However, Mao, supported by national propaganda, claimed that he was only partly to blame for the
famine in China. As a result, he was able to remain Chairman of the Communist Party, with the Presidency transferred to Liu Shaoqi.
Mao with Henry Kissinger and Zhou Enlai; Beijing, 1972.
The Great Leap Forward was a tragedy for the vast majority of the Chinese. Although the steel quotas were ofcially reached, almost all of the supposed steel made in 4.2 Consequences
the countryside was iron, as it had been made from assorted scrap metal in home-made furnaces with no reli- At the Lushan Conference in July/August 1959, several
able source of fuel such as coal. This meant that proper ministers expressed concern that the Great Leap Forward

4.3

Split from Soviet Union

15

had not proved as successful as planned. The most direct


of these was Minister of Defence and Korean War veteran General Peng Dehuai. Following Peng's criticism
of the Great Leap Forward, Mao orchestrated a purge of
Peng and his supporters, stiing criticism of the Great
Leap policies. Senior ocials who reported the truth
of the famine to Mao were branded as right opportunists.* [202] A campaign against right-wing opportunism was launched and resulted in party members and
ordinary peasants being sent to prison labor camps where
many would subsequently die in the famine. Years later
the CPC would conclude that as many as six million people were wrongly punished in the campaign.* [203]
The number of deaths by starvation during the Great Leap
Forward is deeply controversial. Until the mid-1980s,
when ocial census gures were nally published by the
Chinese Government, little was known about the scale
of the disaster in the Chinese countryside, as the handful of Western observers allowed access during this time
had been restricted to model villages where they were deceived into believing that the Great Leap Forward had
been a great success. There was also an assumption that
the ow of individual reports of starvation that had been
reaching the West, primarily through Hong Kong and Taiwan, must have been localised or exaggerated as China
was continuing to claim record harvests and was a net exporter of grain through the period. Because Mao wanted
to pay back early to the Soviets debts totalling 1.973 billion yuan from 1960 to 1962,* [204] exports increased
by 50%, and fellow Communist regimes in North Korea,
North Vietnam and Albania were provided grain free of
charge.* [196]
Censuses were carried out in China in 1953, 1964 and
1982. The rst attempt to analyse this data to estimate
the number of famine deaths was carried out by American demographer Dr. Judith Banister and published in
1984. Given the lengthy gaps between the censuses and
doubts over the reliability of the data, an accurate gure
is dicult to ascertain. Nevertheless, Banister concluded
that the ocial data implied that around 15 million excess
deaths incurred in China during 195861, and that based
on her modelling of Chinese demographics during the
period and taking account of assumed under-reporting
during the famine years, the gure was around 30 million. The ocial statistic is 20 million deaths, as given by
Hu Yaobang.* [205] Yang Jisheng, a former Xinhua News
Agency reporter who had privileged access and connections available to no other scholars, estimates a death toll
of 36 million.* [204] Frank Diktter estimates that there
were at least 45 million premature deaths attributable to
the Great Leap Forward from 1958 to 1962.* [206] Various other sources have put the gure at between 20 and
46 million.* [207]

US President Gerald Ford watches as Henry Kissinger shakes


hands with Mao Zedong during their visit to China, December
2, 1975

4.3 Split from Soviet Union


Main article: Sino-Soviet split
On the international front, the period was dominated by
the further isolation of China. The Sino-Soviet split resulted in Nikita Khrushchev's withdrawal of all Soviet
technical experts and aid from the country. The split concerned the leadership of world Communism. The USSR
had a network of Communist parties it supported; China
now created its own rival network to battle it out for local
control of the left in numerous countries.* [208] Lorenz
M. Lthi argues:
The Sino-Soviet split was one of the key
events of the Cold War, equal in importance
to the construction of the Berlin Wall, the
Cuban Missile Crisis, the Second Vietnam
War, and Sino-American rapprochement. The
split helped to determine the framework of the
Second Cold War in general, and inuenced
the course of the Second Vietnam War in particular.* [209]
The split resulted from Nikita Khrushchev's more moderate Soviet leadership after the death of Stalin in March
1953. Only Albania openly sided with China, thereby
forming an alliance between the two countries which
would last until after Mao's death in 1976. Warned that
the Soviets had nuclear weapons, Mao minimized the
threat. Becker says that, Mao believed that the bomb
was a 'paper tiger', declaring to Khrushchev that it would
not matter if China lost 300 million people in a nuclear
war: the other half of the population would survive to
ensure victory.* [210]
Stalin had established himself as the successor of correctMarxist thought well before Mao controlled the
Communist Party of China, and therefore Mao never
challenged the suitability of any Stalinist doctrine (at least
while Stalin was alive). Upon the death of Stalin, Mao

16
believed (perhaps because of seniority) that the leadership of thecorrectMarxist doctrine would fall to him.
The resulting tension between Khrushchev (at the head
of a politically and militarily superior government), and
Mao (believing he had a superior understanding of Marxist ideology) eroded the previous patron-client relationship between the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
and the CPC. In China, the formerly favourable Soviets
were now denounced as revisionistsand listed alongside American imperialismas movements to oppose.
Partly surrounded by hostile American military bases (in
South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan), China was now confronted with a new Soviet threat from the north and west.
Both the internal crisis and the external threat called for
extraordinary statesmanship from Mao, but as China entered the new decade the statesmen of the People's Republic were in hostile confrontation with each other.

4 LEADERSHIP OF CHINA
The Cultural Revolution led to the destruction of much
of China's traditional cultural heritage and the imprisonment of a huge number of Chinese citizens, as well as
creating general economic and social chaos in the country. Millions of lives were ruined during this period, as
the Cultural Revolution pierced into every part of Chinese life, depicted by such Chinese lms as To Live, The
Blue Kite and Farewell My Concubine. It is estimated that
hundreds of thousands, perhaps millions, perished in the
violence of the Cultural Revolution.* [207]

When Mao was informed of such losses, particularly that


people had been driven to suicide, he is alleged to have
commented: People who try to commit suicide don't
attempt to save them! . . . China is such a populous
nation, it is not as if we cannot do without a few people.
*
[214] The authorities allowed the Red Guards to abuse
and kill opponents of the regime. Said Xie Fuzhi, national
police chief: Don't say it is wrong of them to beat up
bad persons: if in anger they beat someone to death, then
so be it.* [215] As a result, in August and September
4.4 Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution 1966, there were a reported 1,772 people murdered by
the Red Guards in Beijing alone.* [216]
During the early 1960s, Mao became concerned with the
nature of post-1959 China. He saw that the revolution It was during this period that Mao chose Lin Biao, who
and Great Leap Forward had replaced the old elite with seemed to echo all of Mao's ideas, to become his succesa new one. He was concerned that those in power were sor. Lin was later ocially named as Mao's successor.
becoming estranged from the people they were supposed By 1971, however, a divide between the two men became
to serve. Mao believed that a revolution of culture would apparent. Ocial history in China states that Lin was
unseat and unsettle theruling classand keep China in a planning a military coup or an assassination attempt on
state ofperpetual revolutionthat, theoretically, would Mao. Lin Biao died in a plane crash over the air space of
serve the interests of the majority, not a tiny and priv- Mongolia, presumably on his way to ee China, probably
ileged elite.* [211] Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping, then anticipating his arrest. The CPC declared that Lin was
the State Chairman and General Secretary, respectively, planning to depose Mao, and posthumously expelled Lin
had favoured the idea that Mao should be removed from from the party. At this time, Mao lost trust in many of the
actual power but maintain his ceremonial and symbolic top CPC gures. The highest-ranking Soviet Bloc intelrole, with the party upholding all of his positive contri- ligence defector, Lt. Gen. Ion Mihai Pacepa described
butions to the revolution. They attempted to marginalise his conversation with Nicolae Ceauescu who told him
Mao by taking control of economic policy and asserting about a plot to kill Mao*Zedong with the help of Lin Biao
themselves politically as well. Many claim that Mao re- organised by the KGB. [217]
sponded to Liu and Deng's movements by launching the Despite being considered a feminist gure by some and a
Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in 1966. Some supporter of women's rights, documents released by the
scholars, such as Mobo Gao, claim the case for this is US Department of State in 2008 show that Mao declared
perhaps overstated.* [212] Others, such as Frank Dikt- women to be anonsensein 1973, in conversation with
ter, hold that Mao launched the Cultural Revolution to Kissinger, joking thatChina is a very poor country. We
wreak revenge on those who had dared to challenge him don't have much. What we have in excess is women...
over the Great Leap Forward.* [213]
Let them go to your place. They will create disasters.
*
Believing that certain liberal bourgeois elements of soci- That way you can lessen our burdens. [218] When Mao
by saying
ety continued to threaten the socialist framework, groups oered 10 million women, Kissinger replied
*
[219]
Mao and
that
Mao
was
improving
his
oer.
of young people known as the Red Guards struggled
Kissinger
then
agreed
that
their
comments
on
women
be
against authorities at all levels of society and even set up
removed
from
public
records,
prompted
by
a
Chinese
oftheir own tribunals. Chaos reigned in much of the naMao's comments might incur public
tion, and millions were persecuted, including a famous cial who feared that
*
[220]
anger
if
released.
philosopher, Chen Yuen. During the Cultural Revolution, nearly all of the schools and universities in China
were closed and the young intellectuals living in cities
were ordered to the countryside to be re-educatedby
the peasants, where they performed hard manual labour
and other work.

17
4.4.1

Mango fever

half a million people greeted the replicas when they arrived in Chengdu. Badges and wall posters featuring the
mangoes and Mao were produced in the millions.* [223]
The fruit was shared among all institutions that had been
a part of the propaganda team, and large processions were
organised in support of the zhengui lipin (precious gift
), as the mangoes were known as.* [226] One dentist in a
small village compared a mango to a sweet potato; he was
put on trial for malicious slander and executed.* [225]

On August 4 1968, Mao was presented with some


mangoes by the Pakistani foreign minister, Syed Sharifuddin Pirzada, in an apparent diplomatic gesture.* [221]
Mao called the mangoes aspiritual time bomb* [222]
and shortly afterwards, Mao had his aide divide them up
and send them to Mao Zedong Propaganda Teams across
Beijing, starting with one started at Tsinghua University
on August 5.* [223] On August 7, an article was published It has been claimed that Mao used the mangoes to exin the People's Daily saying:
press support for the workers who would go to whatever
lengths necessary to end the factional ghting among students, and a prime example of Mao's strategy of symIn the afternoon of the fth, when the great
bolic support.* [224] Even up until early 1969, partichappy news of Chairman Mao giving mangoes
ipants of Mao Zedong Thought study classes in Beijing
to the Capital Worker and Peasant Mao Zewould return with mass-produces mango facsimiles and
dong Thought Propaganda Team reached the
still gain media attention in the provinces.* [226]
Tsinghua University campus, people immediately gathered around the gift given by the
Great Leader Chairman Mao. They cried out
4.4.2 End of the Cultural Revolution
enthusiastically and sand with wild abandonment. Tears swelled up in their eyes, and they
In 1969, Mao declared the Cultural Revolution to be over,
again and again sincerely wished that our most
although various historians in and outside of China mark
beloved Great Leader lived then thousand years
the end of the Cultural Revolution as a whole or in
without bounds ... They all made phone calls to
part in 1976, following the demise of Mao.* [227] In
their own work units to spread this happy news;
the last years of his life, Mao was faced with declining
and they also organised all kinds of celebratory
health due to either Parkinson's disease* [228] or, accordactivities all night long, and arrived at [the naing to his physician, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,* [229]
tional leadership compound] Zhongnanhai deas well as lung ailments due to smoking and heart trouspite the rain to report the good news, and to
ble.* [230] Some also attributed Mao's decline in health to
express their loyalty to the Great Leader Chairthe betrayal of Lin Biao. Mao remained passive as varman Mao.* [223]
ious factions within the Communist Party mobilised for
the power struggle anticipated after his death.
Subsequent articles were also written by government ofcials to propagandise receiving the mangoes,* [224] and This period is often looked at in ocial circles in China
another poem in the People's Daily said: Seeing that and in the West as a great stagnation or even of revermany peoplean estimated 100
golden mango/Was as if seeing the great leader Chairman sal for China. While
*
million
did
suer,
[231]
some scholars, such as Lee
Mao ... Again and again touching that golden mango/the
Feigon
and
Mobo
Gao,
claim
there were many great ad*
golden mango was so warm. [225] Few people at this
vances,
and
in
some
sectors
the
Chinese economy contime in China had ever seen a mango before, and a mango
*
tinued
to
outperform
the
west.
[232]
They hold that the
was seen as a fruit of extreme rarity, like Mushrooms
Cultural
Revolution
period
laid
the
foundation
for the
*
of Immortality. [225]
spectacular growth that continues in China. During the
One of the mangoes was sent to the Beijing Textile Fac- Cultural Revolution, China exploded its rst H-Bomb
tory,* [223] whose revolutionary committee organised a (1967), launched the Dong Fang Hong satellite (Janrally in the mangoes' honour.* [224] Workers read out uary 30, 1970), commissioned its rst nuclear submarines
quotations from Mao and celebrated the gift. Altars were and made various advances in science and technology.
erected to prominently display the fruit; when the mango Healthcare was free, and living standards in the countrypeel began to rot after a few days, the fruit was peeled and side continued to improve.* [232]
boiled in a pot of water. Workers then led by and each
was given a spoonful of mango water. The revolutionary
committee also made a wax replica of the mango, and displayed this as a centrepiece in the factory. There followed 5 State visits
several months ofmango fever, as the fruit became a
focus of a boundless loyaltycampaign for Chairman During his leadership, Mao traveled outside China on
Mao. More replica mangoes were created and the repli- only two occasions, both state visits to the Soviet Union.
cas were sent on tour around Beijing and elsewhere in When Mao stepped down as head of state in April 1959,
China. Many revolutionary committees visited the man- further state visits and travels abroad were undertaken by
goes in Beijing from outlying provinces; approximately president Liu Shaoqi rather than Mao personally.

18

LEGACY

Death and aftermath

Further information: Mausoleum of Mao Zedong


Mao was a heavy smoker* [233] during most of his
adult life, and it became a state secret that he suffered from multiple lung and heart ailments during his
later years.* [230] There are unconrmed reports that
he possibly had Parkinson's disease* [228] in addition to
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as Lou Gehrig's
disease.* [229]
Mao's last public appearanceand the last known photograph of him alivewas on May 27, 1976, when he met
the visiting Pakistani Prime Minister Zulkar Ali Bhutto
during the latter's one-day visit to Beijing.* [141] Mao
suered two major heart attacks in 1976, one in March
and another in July, before a third struck on September
5, rendering him an invalid. Mao Zedong died nearly
four days later just after midnight, at 00:10, on September 9, 1976, at age 82. The Communist Party of China
delayed the announcement of his death until 16:00 later A large portrait of Mao by Zhang Zhenshi at Tiananmen
that day, when a radio message broadcast across the nation announced the news of Mao's passing while appealing for party unity.* [234]
what can one say?"
Mao's embalmed, CPC-ag-draped body lay in state at Chen Yun, a leading Communist Party ocial under
the Great Hall of the People for one week.* [235] Dur- Mao and Deng Xiaoping.* [240]
ing this period, one million people (none of them foreign
diplomats,* [235] and the majority crying openly or otherwise displaying some kind of sadness)* [236] and many Mao remains a controversial gure and there is little
foreign dignitaries (300,000750,000) led past Mao to agreement over his legacy both in China and abroad. Suppay their nal respects. Chairman Mao's ocial portrait porters generally credit him with and praise him for havwas hung on the wall, with a banner reading: Carry ing unied China and for ending the previous decades
on the cause left by Chairman Mao and carry on the of civil war. He is also credited for having improved
cause of proletarian revolution to the end, until Septem- the status of women in China and for improving literacy
ber 17.* [235] On September 17, Chairman Mao's body and education. His policies caused the deaths of tens of
was taken in a minibus from the Great Hall of the peo- millions of people during his 27-year reign, more than
ple to Maojiawan to the 305 Hospital that Liu Zhisui any other Twentieth Century leader, however supporters
directed, and Mao's internal organs were preserved in point out that in spite of this, life expectancy improved
during his reign. His supporters claim that he rapidly informaldehyde.* [235]
dustrialised China; however, others have claimed that his
On September 18, a somber cacophony of guns, sirens, policies such as theGreat Leap Forwardand theGreat
whistles and horns all across China was spontaneously Proletarian Cultural Revolution, were impediments to
blown in observance of a three-minute silence, which ev- industrialisation and modernisation. His supporters claim
erybody except those performing essential tasks was or- that his policies laid the groundwork for China's later rise
dered to observe.* [237] After that, a band in Tiananmen to become an economic superpower, while others claim
Square, packed with and surrounded by millions of peo- that his policies delayed economic development and that
ple, played "The Internationale". The nal service on that China's economy only underwent its rapid growth after
day was concluded by Hua Guofeng's 20-minute-long eu- Mao's policies had been widely abandoned. Mao's revlogy atop Tiananmen Gate.* [238] Mao's body was later olutionary tactics continue to be used by insurgents, and
permanently interred in a mausoleum in Beijing.* [239]
his political ideology continues to be embraced by many
Communist organizations around the world.
In mainland China, Mao is still revered by many supporters of the Communist Party and respected by the majority of the general population as the "Founding Father of
Had Mao died in 1956, his achievements would have modern China, credited for givingthe Chinese people
been immortal. Had he died in 1966, he would still have dignity and self-respect.* [241] Mobo Gao in his 2008
been a great man but awed. But he died in 1976. Alas, book The Battle for China's Past: Mao and the Cultural

Legacy

19
Revolution, credits Mao for raising the average life expectancy from 35 in 1949 to 63 by 1975, bringingunity
and stability to a country that had been plagued by civil
wars and foreign invasions, and laying the foundation
for China tobecome the equal of the great global powers.* [242] Gao also lauds Mao for carrying out massive
land reform, promoting the status of women, improving
popular literacy, and positively transform(ing) Chinese
society beyond recognition.* [242]
However, Mao has many Chinese critics, both those who
live inside and outside China. Opposition to Mao is subject to restriction and censorship in mainland China, but
is especially strong elsewhere, where he is often reviled
as a brutish ideologue. In the West, his name is generally associated with tyranny and his economic theories
are widely discreditedthough to some political activists
he remains a symbol against capitalism, imperialism and
western inuence. Even in China, key pillars of his economic theory have been largely dismantled by market reformers like Deng Xiaoping and Zhao Ziyang, who succeeded him as leaders of the Communist Party.

regard Mao as a national hero. In 2008, China opened


the Mao Zedong Square to visitors in his home town of
central Hunan Province to mark the 115th anniversary of
his birth.* [243]
There continue to be disagreements on Mao's legacy.
Former Party ocial Su Shachi, has opined that he
was a great historical criminal, but he was also a great
force for good.* [241] In a similar vein, journalist Liu
Binyan has described Mao as both monster and a genius.* [241] Some historians argue that Mao Zedong
was one of the great tyrants of the twentieth century, and a dictator comparable to Adolf Hitler and
Joseph Stalin,* [244]* [245] with a death toll surpassing
both.* [7]* [9] In The Black Book of Communism, Jean
Louis Margolin writes that Mao Zedong was so powerful that he was often known as the Red Emperor ...
the violence he erected into a whole system far exceeds
any national tradition of violence that we might nd in
China.* [246] Mao was frequently likened to China's
First Emperor Qin Shi Huang, notorious for burying alive
hundreds of scholars, and personally enjoyed the comparison.* [247] During a speech to party cadre in 1958,
Mao said he had far outdone Qin Shi Huang in his policy against intellectuals: He buried 460 scholars alive;
we have buried forty-six thousand scholars alive ... You
[intellectuals] revile us for being Qin Shi Huangs. You
are wrong. We have surpassed Qin Shi Huang a hundredfold.* [248] As a result of such tactics, critics have
pointed out that:
The People's Republic of China under Mao
exhibited the oppressive tendencies that were
discernible in all the major absolutist regimes
of the twentieth century. There are obvious
parallels between Mao's China, Nazi Germany
and Soviet Russia. Each of these regimes
witnessed deliberately ordered mass 'cleansing'
and extermination.* [245]

Statue of young Mao in Changsha, the capital of Hunan

Others, such as Philip Short, reject such comparisons


in Mao: A Life, arguing that whereas the deaths caused
by Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia were largely systematic and deliberate, the overwhelming majority of
the deaths under Mao were unintended consequences of
famine.* [249] Short noted that landlord class were not exterminated as a people due to Mao's belief in redemption
through thought reform.* [249] He instead compared Mao
with 19th-century Chinese reformers who challenged
China's traditional beliefs in the era of China's clashes
with Western colonial powers. Short argues, Mao's
tragedy and his grandeur were that he remained to the
end in thrall to his own revolutionary dreams ... He freed
China from the straitjacket of its Confucian past, but the
bright Red future he promised turned out to be a sterile
purgatory.* [249]

Though the Chinese Communist Party, which Mao led


to power, has rejected in practice the economic fundamentals of much of Mao's ideology, it retains for itself
many of the powers established under Mao's reign: it
controls the Chinese army, police, courts and media and
does not permit multi-party elections at the national or
local level, except in Hong Kong. Thus it is dicult to
gauge the true extent of support for the Chinese Communist Party and Mao's legacy within mainland China. For Mao's English interpreter Sidney Rittenberg wrote in his
its part, the Chinese government continues to ocially memoir The Man Who Stayed Behind that whilst Mao

20
was a great leader in history, he was also a great
criminal because, not that he wanted to, not that he intended to, but in fact, his wild fantasies led to the deaths
of tens of millions of people.* [250] Li Rui, Mao's personal secretary, goes further and claims he was dismissive
of the suering and death caused by his policies:Mao's
way of thinking and governing was terrifying. He put no
value on human life. The deaths of others meant nothing
to him.* [251]

Sculptures in front of the Mausoleum of Mao Zedong, Beijing

In their 832-page biography, Mao: The Unknown Story,


Jung Chang and Jon Halliday take a very critical view of
Mao's life and inuence. For example, they note that Mao
was well aware that his policies would be responsible for
the deaths of millions; While discussing labour-intensive
projects such as waterworks and making steel, Mao said
to his inner circle in November 1958: Working like
this, with all these projects, half of China may well have
to die. If not half, one-third, or one-tenth50 million
die.* [252]

LEGACY

Jasper Becker notes,archive material gathered by Diktter ... conrms that far from being ignorant or misled
about the famine, the Chinese leadership were kept informed about it all the time. And he exposes the extent
of the violence used against the peasants":* [254]
Mass killings are not usually associated
with Mao and the Great Leap Forward, and
China continues to benet from a more
favourable comparison with Cambodia or the
Soviet Union. But as fresh and abundant
archival evidence shows, coercion, terror and
systematic violence were the foundation of the
Great Leap, and between 1958 to 1962, by a
rough approximation, some 6 to 8 per cent of
those who died were tortured to death or summarily killedamounting to at least 3 million
victims.
Countless others were deliberately deprived of
food and consequently starved to death. Many
more vanished because they were too old, weak
or sick to workand hence unable to earn their
keep. People were killed selectively because
they had the wrong class background, because
they dragged their feet, because they spoke
out or simply because they were not liked, for
whatever reason, by the man who wielded the
ladle in the canteen.
Diktter argues that CPC leadersgloried violence and
were inured to massive loss of life. And all of them shared
an ideology in which the end justied the means. In 1962,
having lost millions of people in his province, Li Jingquan
compared the Great Leap Forward to the Long March
in which only one in ten had made it to the end: 'We
are not weak, we are stronger, we have kept the backbone.'"* [255]

Thomas Bernstein of Columbia University argues that this


Regarding the large-scale irrigation projects, Diktter
quotation is taken out of context, claiming:
stresses that, in spite of Mao being in a good position
to see the human cost, they continued unabated for sevThe Chinese original, however, is not quite
eral years, and ultimately claimed the lives of hundreds of
as shocking. In the speech, Mao talks about
thousands of exhausted villagers. He also notes thatIn a
massive earthmoving irrigation projects and
chilling precursor of Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge,
numerous big industrial ones, all requiring huge
villagers in Qingshui and Gansu called these projects the
numbers of people. If the projects, he said, are
'killing elds'.* [256]
all undertaken simultaneouslyhalf of China's
population unquestionably will die; and if it's
The United States placed a trade embargo on the People's
not half, it'll be a third or ten percent, a death
Republic as a result of its involvement in the Korean War,
toll of 50 million people.Mao then pointed to
lasting until Richard Nixon decided that developing relathe example of Guangxi provincial Party sections with the PRC would be useful in dealing with the
retary, Chn Mnyun () who had been
Soviet Union.
dismissed in 1957 for failing to prevent famine
The television series Biography stated: "[Mao] turned
in the previous year, adding: If with a death
China from a feudal backwater into one of the most powtoll of 50 million you didn't lose your jobs,
erful countries in the World ... The Chinese system he
I at least should lose mine; whether I should
overthrew was backward and corrupt; few would argue
lose my head would also be in question. Anhui
the fact that he dragged China into the 20th century. But
wants to do so much, which is quite all right,
at a cost in human lives that is staggering.* [241]
but make it a principle to have no deaths.
*
[253]
In the book China in the 21st Century: What Everyone

21
regarded as a genius. As an example, the Communist
Party of Nepal (Maoist) followed Mao's examples of
guerilla warfare to considerable political and military success even in the 21st century. Mao's major contribution
to the military science is his theory of People's War, with
not only guerrilla warfare but more importantly, Mobile
Warfare methodologies. Mao had successfully applied
Mobile Warfare in the Korean War, and was able to encircle, push back and then halt the UN forces in Korea,
despite the clear superiority of UN repower. Mao also
gave the impression that he might even welcome a nuclear
war.* [259]

Mao greets United States President Richard Nixon during his visit
to China in 1972

Needs to Know published in 2010, Professor Jerey N.


Wasserstrom of the University of California, Irvine compares Chinas relationship to Mao Zedong to American
s remembrance of Andrew Jackson: both countries regard the leaders in a positive light, despite their respective roles in devastating policies. Jackson forcibly moved
Native Americans, resulting in thousands of deaths, while
Mao was at the helm during the violent years of the Cultural Revolution and the Great Leap Forward:* [257]
Though admittedly far from perfect, the
comparison is based on the fact that Jackson
is remembered both as someone who played
a signicant role in the development of a
political organization (the Democratic Party)
that still has many partisans, and as someone
responsible for brutal policies toward Native
Americans that are now referred to as genocidal.
Both men are thought of as having done
terrible things yet this does not necessarily prevent them from being used as positive symbols.
And Jackson still appears on $20 bills, even
though Americans tend to view as heinous the
institution of slavery (of which he was a passionate defender) and the early 19th-century
military campaigns against Native Americans
(in which he took part).
At times Jackson, for all his aws, is
invoked as representing an egalitarian strain
within the American democratic tradition, a
self-made man of the people who rose to
power via straight talk and was not allied with
moneyed interests. Mao stands for something
roughly similar.* [258]

Statue of Mao in Lijiang

Let us imagine how many people would


die if war breaks out. There are 2.7 billion
people in the world, and a third could be lost.
If it is a little higher, it could be half ... I say
that if the worst came to the worst and onehalf dies, there will still be one-half left, but
imperialism would be razed to the ground and
the whole world would become socialist. After
a few years there would be 2.7 billion people
again* [260]

But historians dispute the sincerity of Mao's words.


Robert Service says that Mao was deadly serious,
*
[261] while Frank Diktter claims thatHe was blung
...
the sabre-rattling was to show that he, not Khrushchev,
Mao's military writings continue to have a large amount
was
the more determined revolutionary.* [260]
of inuence both among those who seek to create an insurgency and those who seek to crush one, especially in Mao's poems and writings are frequently cited by both
manners of guerilla warfare, at which Mao is popularly Chinese and non-Chinese. The ocial Chinese transla-

22
tion of President Barack Obama's inauguration speech
used a famous line from one of Mao's poems.* [262]
Republican senator John McCain misattributed a campaign quote to Mao several times during his 2008 presidential election bid, saying Remember the words of
Chairman Mao: 'It's always darkest before it's totally
black.'"
The ideology of Maoism has inuenced many Communists, mainly in the Third World, including revolutionary movements such as Cambodia's Khmer Rouge,* [263]
Peru's Shining Path, and the Nepalese revolutionary
movement. Under the inuence of Mao's agrarian socialism and Cultural Revolution, Cambodia's Pol Pot conceived of his disastrous Year Zero policies which purged
the nation of its teachers, artists and intellectuals and
emptied its cities, resulting in the Cambodian Genocide.* [264]

LEGACY

7.1 Public image


Mao gave contradicting statements on the subject of
personality cults.
In 1955, as a response to the
Khrushchev Report that criticised Joseph Stalin, Mao
stated that personality cults are poisonous ideological
survivals of the old society, and rearmed China's commitment to collective leadership.* [267] But at the 1958
Party congress in Chengdu, Mao expressed support for
the personality cults of people whom he labelled as genuinely worthy gures; not those that expressed blind
worship.* [268]
In 1962, Mao proposed the Socialist Education Movement (SEM) in an attempt to educate the peasants to resist
the temptationsof feudalism and the sprouts of capitalism that he saw re-emerging in the countryside from
Liu's economic reforms. Large quantities of politicised
art were produced and circulated with Mao at the centre. Numerous posters, badges and musical compositions
referenced Mao in the phraseChairman Mao is the red
sun in our hearts(, Mo
Zhx Sh Wmen Xnzhng De Hng Tiyng)* [269] and
a Savior of the people(, Rnmn De
D Jixng).* [269]

The Revolutionary Communist Party, USA also claims


MarxismLeninism-Maoism as its ideology, as do other
Communist Parties around the world which are part of
the Revolutionary Internationalist Movement. China itself has moved sharply away from Maoism since Mao's
death, and most people outside of China who describe
themselves as Maoist regard the Deng Xiaoping reforms
to be a betrayal of Maoism, in line with Mao's view of
In October 1966, Mao's Quotations from Chairman Mao
"Capitalist roaders" within the Communist Party.
Tse-tung, which was known as the Little Red Book was
As the Chinese government instituted free market eco- published. Party members were encouraged to carry a
nomic reforms starting in the late 1970s and as later Chi- copy with them and possession was almost mandatory as
nese leaders took power, less recognition was given to the a criterion for membership. Over the years, Mao's image
status of Mao. This accompanied a decline in state recog- became displayed almost everywhere, present in homes,
nition of Mao in later years in contrast to previous years oces and shops. His quotations were typographically
when the state organised numerous events and seminars emphasised by putting them in boldface or red type in
commemorating Mao's 100th birthday. Nevertheless, the even the most obscure writings. Music from the peChinese government has never ocially repudiated the riod emphasised Mao's stature, as did children's rhymes.
tactics of Mao. Deng Xiaoping, who was opposed to the The phraseLong Live Chairman Mao for ten thousand
Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, has to years" was commonly heard during the era.* [270]
a certain extent rejected Mao's legacy, famously saying
that Mao was 70% right and 30% wrong.

In the mid-1990s, Mao Zedong's picture began to appear


on all new renminbi () currency from the People's Republic of China. This was ocially instituted
as an anti-counterfeiting measure as Mao's face is widely
recognised in contrast to the generic gures that appear
in older currency. On March 13, 2006, a story in the
A line to enter Mao Zedong Mausoleum
People's Daily reported that a proposal had been made
to print the portraits of Sun Yat-sen and Deng Xiaoping.* [265]
Mao also has a presence in China and around the world in
In 2006, the government in Shanghai issued a new set of
popular culture, where his face adorns everything from Thigh school history textbooks which omit Mao, with the
shirts to coee cups. Mao's granddaughter, Kong Dongexception of a single mention in a section on etiquette.
mei, defended the phenomenon, stating thatit shows his
Students in Shanghai now only learn about Mao in junior
inuence, that he exists in people's consciousness and has
high school.* [266]
inuenced several generations of Chinese people's way
of life. Just like Che Guevara's image, his has become
a symbol of revolutionary culture.* [250] Since 1950,
over 40 million people have visited Mao's birthplace in
Shaoshan, Hunan.* [271]

8.3

Siblings

Genealogy

8.1

Ancestors

His ancestors were:


Mo Ychng (, born Xiangtan October 15,
1870, died Shaoshan January 23, 1920), father,
courtesy name Mo Shnshng ( ) or also
known as Mao Jen-sheng
Wn Qmi(, born Xiangxiang 1867, died
October 5, 1919), mother. She was illiterate and
a devout Buddhist. She was a descendant of Wen
Tianxiang.
Mo np ( , born May 22, 1846, died
November 23, 1904), paternal grandfather
ne Lu (), paternal grandmother (given name
not recorded)* [272]
Mo Zrn (), paternal great-grandfather

8.2

Wives

23

8.3 Siblings
He had several siblings:
Mao Zemin ( , 18951943), younger
brother, executed by a warlord
Mao Zetan (, 19051935), younger brother,
executed by the KMT
Mao Zejian (, 19051929), adopted sister,
executed by the KMT
Mao Zedong's parents altogether had ve sons
and two daughters. Two of the sons and both
daughters died young, leaving the three brothers Mao Zedong, Mao Zemin, and Mao Zetan. Like all three of Mao Zedong's wives,
Mao Zemin and Mao Zetan were communists.
Like Yang Kaihui, both Zemin and Zetan were
killed in warfare during Mao Zedong's lifetime.
Note that the character z () appears in all of the siblings' given names. This is a common Chinese naming
convention.
From the next generation, Zemin's son, Mao Yuanxin,
was raised by Mao Zedong's family. He became Mao
Zedong's liaison with the Politburo in 1975. In Li Zhisui's
The Private Life of Chairman Mao, Mao Yuanxin played
a role in the nal power-struggles.* [273]

8.4 Children
Mao Zedong had a total of ten children,* [274] including:
Mao Anying (, 19221950): son to Yang,
married to Li Sq (), who was born Li
Sngln (), killed in action during the Korean
War
Mao with Jiang Qing and daughter Li Na, 1940s

Mao Zedong had four wives who gave birth to a total of


10 children. These were:
1. Luo Yixiu (, October 20, 1889 1910) of
Shaoshan: married 1907 to 1910
2. Yang Kaihui (, 19011930) of Changsha:
married 1921 to 1927, executed by the KMT in
1930; mother to Mao Anying, Mao Anqing, and
Mao Anlong
3. He Zizhen (, 19101984) of Jiangxi: married May 1928 to 1939; mother to Mao Anhong, Li
Min, and four other children
4. Jiang Qing ( , 19141991), married 1939 to
Mao's death; mother to Li Na

Mao Anqing (, 19232007): son to Yang,


married to Shao Hua (), grandson Mao Xinyu
(), great-grandson Mao Dongdong
Mao Anlong (19271931): son to Yang, died during
the Chinese Civil War
Mao Anhong (19321935?): son to He, left to
Mao's younger brother Zetan and then to one of
Zetan's guards when he went o to war, was never
heard of again
Li Min (, b. 1936): daughter to He, married
to Kng Lnghu (), son Kng Jnng (
), daughter Kng Dngmi ()
Li Na (, Pinyin: L N, b. 1940): daughter to
Jiang (whose birth given name was Li, a name also
used by Mao while evading the KMT), married to
Wng Jngqng (), son Wng Xiozh (
)

24

10

WRITINGS AND CALLIGRAPHY

Mao's rst and second daughters were left to local villagers because it was too dangerous to raise them while
ghting the Kuomintang and later the Japanese. Their
youngest daughter (born in early 1938 in Moscow after
Mao separated) and one other child (born 1933) died in
infancy. Two English researchers who retraced the entire
Long March route in 20022003* [275] located a woman
whom they believe might well be one of the missing children abandoned by Mao to peasants in 1935. Ed Jocelyn
and Andrew McEwen hope a member of the Mao family
will respond to requests for a DNA test.* [276]

bring about prosperity and gain international respectfor


China, beingneither a saint nor a demon.* [286] They
noted that in early life, he strived to bea strong, wilful,
and purposeful hero, not bound by any moral chains, and
that he passionately desired fame and power.* [287]
Carter noted that throughout his life, Mao had the ability
to gain people's trust, and that as such he gathered around
himan extraordinarily wide range of friendsin his early
years.* [288]

Through his ten children, Mao became grandfather to


twelve grandchildren, many of whom he never knew.
He has many great-grandchildren alive today. One of
his granddaughters is businesswoman Kong Dongmei,
one of the richest people in China and mother to three
of Mao's great-grandchildren.* [277] His grandson Mao
Xinyu (Kong's half-brother), father of two, is a general
in the Chinese army,* [278] and is often ridiculed for his
weight within China.* [279]

10 Writings and calligraphy

Personal life

Mao's private life was very secretive at the time of his


rule. However, after Mao's death, Li Zhisui, his personal
physician, published The Private Life of Chairman Mao,
a memoir which mentions some aspects of Mao's private life, such as chain-smoking cigarettes, rare bathing
or dental habits, laziness, addiction to sleeping pills and
large number of sexual partners.* [280] Some scholars
and some other people who also personally knew and
worked with Mao, however, have disputed the accuracy
of these characterisations.* [281]

Mao's calligraphy: a bronze plaque of a poem by Li Bai.


(Chinese:

Mao was a prolic writer of political and philosophical


literature.* [289] He is the attributed author of Quotations
from Chairman Mao Tse-tung, known in the West as the
Little Red Bookand in Cultural Revolution China as
the Red Treasure Book(): this is a collection
of short extracts from his speeches and articles, edited by
Lin Biao and ordered topically. Mao wrote several other
Having grown up in Hunan, Mao spoke Mandarin with a philosophical treatises, both before and after he assumed
marked Hunanese accent.* [282] Ross Terrill noted Mao power. These include:
was a son of the soil ... rural and unsophisticatedin
origins,* [283] while Clare Hollingworth asserted he was
On Guerrilla Warfare (); 1937
proud of his peasant ways and manners, having a
strong Hunanese accent and providing earthycom On Practice (); 1937
ments on sexual matters.* [282] Lee Feigon noted that
Mao's earthinessmeant that he remained connected
On Contradiction (); 1937
to everyday Chinese life.* [284]
On Protracted War (); 1938
Biographer Peter Carter described Mao as having an
attractive personalitywho could for much of the time
be a moderate and balanced man, but noted that he
could also be ruthless, and showed no mercy to his opponents.* [120] This description was echoed by Sinologist
Stuart Schram, who emphasised Mao's ruthlessness, but
who also noted that he showed no sign of taking pleasure
in torture or killing in the revolutionary cause.* [117] Lee
Feigon considered Mao draconian and authoritarian
when threatened, but opined that he was not the kind
of villain that his mentor Stalin was.* [285] Alexander Pantsov and Steven I. Levine claimed that Mao was
a man of complex moods, who tried his best to

In Memory of Norman Bethune ();


1939
On New Democracy (); 1940
Talks at the Yan'an Forum on Literature and Art (
); 1942
Serve the People (); 1944
The Foolish Old Man Who Removed the Mountains
(); 1945

25
On the Correct Handling of the Contradictions rst actor ever to have portrayed Mao, in a 1978 drama
Among the People ( Dielianhua and later again in a 1980 lm Cross the Dadu
); 1957
River;* [295] Gu Yue, who had portrayed Mao 84 times
on screen throughout his 27-year career and had won the
the Hundred Flowers Awards in 1990
Mao was also a skilled Chinese calligrapher with a highly Best Actor* title at
*
and
1993;
[296]
[297]
Liu Ye, who played a young Mao
personal style. In China, Mao was considered a masin
The
Founding
of
a
Party (2011);* [298] Tang Guo*
ter calligrapher during his lifetime. [290] His calligraphy can be seen today throughout mainland China.* [291] qiang, who has frequently portrayed Mao in more reHis work gave rise to a new form of Chinese calligraphy cent times, in the lms The Long March (1996) and The
calledMao-styleor Maoti, which has gained increasing Founding of a Republic (2009), and the* television sepopularity since his death. There currently exist various ries Huang Yanpei (2010), among others. [299] Mao is a
competitions specialising in Mao-style calligraphy.* [292] principal character in American composer John Adams'
opera Nixon in China (1987). The Beatles' song Revolutionrefers to Mao: "...but if you go carrying pictures
of Chairman Mao you ain't going to make it with anyone
10.1 Literary works
anyhow...";* [300] John Lennon expressed regret over including these lines in the song in 1972.* [301]
Main article: Poetry of Mao Zedong
As did most Chinese intellectuals of his generation,

12 Mao and Tibet


See also: Sinicization of Tibet

Mao's calligraphy of his poem Qingyuanchun Changsha

Mao's education began with Chinese classical literature.


Mao told Edgar Snow in 1936 that he had started the
study of the Confucian Analects and the Four Books at
a village school when he was eight, but that the books he
most enjoyed reading were Water Margin, Journey to the
West, the Romance of the Three Kingdoms and Dream of
the Red Chamber.* [293] Mao published poems in classical forms starting in his youth and his abilities as a poet
contributed to his image in China after he came to power
in 1949. His style was inuenced by the great Tang dynasty poets Li Bai and Li He.* [294]
Some of his most well-known poems are Changsha
(1925), The Double Ninth (1929.10), Loushan Pass
(1935), The Long March (1935), Snow (1936), The PLA
Captures Nanjing (1949), Reply to Li Shuyi (1957.05.11)
and Ode to the Plum Blossom (1961.12).

11

Portrayal in lm and television

Mao has been portrayed in lm and television numerous times. Some notable actors include: Han Shi, the

After Mao Zedong won the Chinese civil war in 1949,


his goal became the unication of the ve nationalitiesunder the big family, the People's Republic of
China, and under a single political system, the Communist Party of China.* [302] Aware of Mao's vision,
the Tibetan government in Lhasa sent a representative,
Ngabo, to Chamdo, Kham, a strategically high valued
town near the border. Ngabo had orders to hold the position while reinforcements were coming from the Lhasa
and ght o the Chinese.* [303] On October 16, 1950,
news came that the People's Liberation Army was advancing towards Chamdo and had also taken another
strategic town named, Riwoche, which could block the
route to Lhasa.* [304] With new orders, Ngabo and his
men retreated to a monastery where the People's Liberation Army nally surrounded and captured them,* [305]
though they were treated with respect.* [305] Ngabo
wrote to Lhasa suggesting a peaceful surrender instead
of war.* [306] During the negotiation, the Chinese negotiator laid the cards straight on the table, It is up to
you to choose whether Tibet would be liberated peacefully or by force. It is only a matter of sending a telegram
to the PLA group to recommence their march to Lhasa.
*
[307] Ngabo accepted Mao's "Seventeen-Point Agreement", which constituted Tibet as part of the People's Republic China, in return for which Tibet would be granted
autonomy.* [308] In the face of discouraging lack of support from the rest of the world, the Dalai Lama on August
1951, sent a telegram to Mao accepting the SeventeenPoint Agreement.* [309] However the delegates signing
the agreement were forced to do so and the Tibetan's
Government's seal used was forged.* [310]

26

13

14

See also

Chairman Mao badge


Mao's Great Famine
Mao Tse-tung: Ruler of Red China
Mao suit

14
14.1

References
Citations

REFERENCES

[11] Schram 1966, pp. 1920; Terrill 1980, pp. 45, 15;
Feigon 2002, pp. 1314; Pantsov & Levine 2012, pp. 13
17.
[12] Schram 1966, p. 20; Terrill 1980, p. 11; Pantsov &
Levine 2012, pp. 14, 17.
[13] Schram 1966, pp. 2021; Terrill 1980, p. 8; Pantsov &
Levine 2012, pp. 15, 20
[14] Terrill 1980, p. 12; Feigon 2002, p. 23, Pantsov & Levine
2012, pp. 2528
[15] Feigon 2002, p. 15; Terrill 1980, pp. 1011
[16] Schram 1966, p. 23; Terrill 1980, pp. 1213; Pantsov &
Levine 2012, p. 21

[1]Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our


Party Since the Founding of the . People's Republic of
China,(Adopted by the Sixth Plenary Session of the
Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of
China on June 27, 1981 Resolution on CPC History (1949
81). (Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1981). p. 32.

[17] Schram 1966, p. 25; Terrill 1980, pp. 2021; Pantsov &
Levine 2012, p. 29

[2] Mao Zedong. The Oxford Companion to Politics of


the World. Archived from the original on March 21, 2006.
Retrieved August 23, 2008.

[20] Schram 1966, p. 22; Feigon 2002, p. 15; Terrill 1980, p.


18; Pantsov & Levine 2012, p. 28

[3] Chinese Leader Mao Zedong / Part I. Retrieved 2


April 2015.
[4] The Cambridge Illustrated History of China, by Patricia
Buckley Ebrey, Cambridge University Press, 2010, ISBN
0-521-12433-6, pp. 327
[5] Atlas of World History, by Patrick Karl O'Brien, Oxford University Press US, 2002, ISBN 0-19-521921-X,
pp 254, link
[6] Short 2001, p. 630 "Mao had an extraordinary mix of
talents: he was visionary, statesman, political and military
strategist of cunning intellect, a philosopher and poet."

[18] Schram 1966, p. 22; Terrill 1980, p. 13; Pantsov &


Levine 2012, pp. 1718
[19] Terrill 1980, p. 14; Pantsov & Levine 2012, p. 18

[21] Schram 1966, p. 26; Terrill 1980, p. 19; Pantsov &


Levine 2012, pp. 2830
[22] Schram 1966, p. 26; Terrill 1980, pp. 2223; Pantsov &
Levine 2012, p. 30
[23] Carter 1976, pp. 1819; Pantsov & Levine 2012, pp. 32
34
[24] Schram 1966, p. 27;Terrill 1980, p. 22; Pantsov & Levine
2012, p. 33
[25] Schram 1966, pp. 2627; Terrill 1980, pp. 2224;
Pantsov & Levine 2012, p. 33
[26] Schram 1966, p. 26; Terrill 1980, p. 23; Pantsov &
Levine 2012, p. 33

[7] Short 2001, p. 631


[8] Rummel, R. J. China's Bloody Century: Genocide and
Mass Murder Since 1900 Transaction Publishers, 1991.
ISBN 0-88738-417-X p. 205: In light of recent evidence,
Rummel has increased Mao's democide toll to 77 million; Daniel Jonah Goldhagen. Worse Than War: Genocide, Eliminationism, and the Ongoing Assault on Humanity. PublicAairs, 2009. ISBN 1-58648-769-8 p. 53: "...
the Chinese communists' murdering of a mind-boggling
number of people, perhaps between 50 million and 70
million Chinese, and an additional 1.2 million Tibetans.
[9] Fenby, J (2008). Modern China: The Fall and Rise of
a Great Power, 1850 to the Present. Ecco Press. p. 351.
ISBN 0-06-166116-3. Mao's responsibility for the extinction of anywhere from 40 to 70 million lives brands him as
a mass killer greater than Hitler or Stalin, his indierence
to the suering and the loss of humans breathtaking
[10] Schram 1966, p. 19; Hollingworth 1985, p. 15; Pantsov
& Levine 2012, p. 11.

[27] Schram 1966, pp. 3032; Pantsov & Levine 2012, pp.
3235
[28] Schram 1966, p. 34; Pantsov & Levine 2012, pp. 3435
[29] Schram 1966, pp. 3435; Terrill 1980, pp. 2324
[30] Schram 1966, pp. 3536; Terrill 1980, pp. 22, 25;
Pantsov & Levine 2012, p. 35.
[31] Schram 1966, p. 36; Terrill 1980, p. 26; Pantsov &
Levine 2012, pp. 3536.
[32] Pantsov & Levine 2012, pp. 3637.
[33] Pantsov & Levine 2012, pp. 4041.
[34] Carter 1976, p. 26; Pantsov & Levine 2012, p. 36.
[35] Schram 1966, pp. 3637; Terrill 1980, p. 27; Pantsov &
Levine 2012, p. 37.
[36] Schram 1966, pp. 3839

14.1

Citations

[37] Schram 1966, p. 41; Terrill 1980, p. 32; Pantsov &


Levine 2012, p. 42.
[38] Schram 1966, pp. 4041; Terrill 1980, pp. 3031.
[39] Pantsov & Levine 2012, p. 43; see also Hsiao Yu (Xiao
Yu, alias of Xiao Zisheng). Mao Tse-Tung and I Were
Beggars. (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press,
1959).
[40] Schram 1966, pp. 4243; Terrill 1980, p. 32; Pantsov &
Levine 2012, p. 48.
[41] Schram 1966, p. 43; Terrill 1980, p. 32; Pantsov &
Levine 2012, pp. 4950.
[42] Pantsov & Levine 2012, pp. 4950.
[43] Schram 1966, p. 44; Terrill 1980, p. 33; Pantsov &
Levine 2012, pp. 5052.
[44] Schram 1966, p. 45; Terrill 1980, p. 34; Pantsov &
Levine 2012, p. 52.

27

[67] Schram 1966, pp. 6466.


[68] Schram 1966, p. 68
[69] Schram 1966, pp. 6869
[70] Schram 1966, p. 69.
[71] Schram 1966, pp. 6970
[72] Schram 1966, pp. 7374; Feigon 2002, p. 33
[73] Elizabeth J. Perry,Anyuan: Mining China's Revolutionary Tradition,The Asia-Pacic Journal 11.1 (January 14, 2013), reprinting Ch 2 of Elizabeth J. Perry.
Anyuan: Mining China's Revolutionary Tradition. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012. ISBN 978-0520-27189-0.
[74] Schram 1966, pp. 7476
[75] Schram 1966, pp. 7682
[76] Schram 1966, p. 78.

[45] Schram 1966, p. 48; Pantsov & Levine 2012, pp. 47,
5657.

[77] Schram 1966, pp. 85, 87;

[46] Feigon 2002, p. 18; Pantsov & Levine 2012, p. 39.

[78] Feigon 2002, p. 36

[47] Schram 1966, p. 48; Pantsov & Levine 2012, p. 59.

[79] Schram 1966, pp. 82, 9091

[48] Schram 1966, p. 47; Pantsov & Levine 2012, pp. 5962.

[80] Schram 1966, p. 83

[49] Schram 1966, pp. 4849; Pantsov & Levine 2012, pp.
6264.

[81] Schram 1966, pp. 84,89.

[50] Schram 1966, p. 48; Pantsov & Levine 2012, pp. 5758.
[51] Schram 1966, p. 48; Pantsov & Levine 2012, pp. 62, 66.
[52] Schram 1966, pp. 5052; Pantsov & Levine 2012, p. 66.
[53] Pantsov & Levine 2012, pp. 6667.
[54] Pantsov & Levine 2012, pp. 6870.

[82] Schram 1966, pp. 87, 9293; Feigon 2002, p. 39


[83] Schram 1966, p. 95
[84] Mao Zedong on War and Revolution. Quotations from
Mao Zedong on War and Revolution. Columbia University. Retrieved November 12, 2011.; Feigon 2002, p. 41
[85] Schram 1966, p. 98
[86] Feigon 2002, p. 42

[55] Pantsov & Levine 2012, p. 68.


[87] Schram 1966, pp. 99100
[56] Pantsov & Levine 2012, p. 76.
[88] Schram 1966, p. 100
[57] Schram 1966, pp. 5354; Pantsov & Levine 2012, pp.
7176.

[89] Schram 1966, p. 106; Carter 1976, pp. 6162

[58] Schram 1966, p. 55; Pantsov & Levine 2012, pp. 7677.

[90] Schram 1966, p. 112

[59] Schram 1966, pp. 5556; Pantsov & Levine 2012, p. 79.

[91] Schram 1966, pp. 106109, 112113

[60] Pantsov & Levine 2012, p. 80.

[92] Carter 1976, p. 62

[61] Pantsov & Levine 2012, pp. 8183.

[93] Carter 1976, p. 64

[62] Pantsov & Levine 2012, p. 84.

[94] Carter 1976, p. 63

[63] Schram 1966, pp. 5657.

[95] Schram 1966, pp. 122125; Feigon 2002, pp. 4647

[64] Schram 1966, p. 63; Feigon 2002, pp. 23, 28

[96] Jung Chang and Jon Halliday, Mao: The Unknown Story,
Random House 2005.

[65] Schram 1966, p. 64


[66] Schram 1966, pp. 6364; Feigon 2002, pp. 2324, 28,
30

[97] Chang, Halliday; Mao, Chapt.5


[98] Schram 1966, p. 125; Carter 1976, p. 68

28

14

REFERENCES

[99] Schram 1966, p. 130; Carter 1976, pp. 6768; Feigon [134] Schram 1966, pp. 184186; Carter 1976, pp. 8890;
2002, p. 48
Feigon 2002, pp. 5960
[100] Carter 1976, p. 69

[135] Carter 1976, pp. 9091

[101] Schram 1966, pp. 126127; Carter 1976, pp. 6667

[136] Schram 1966, p. 186; Carter 1976, pp. 9192; Feigon


2002, p. 60

[102] Carter 1976, p. 70


[103] Schram 1966, p. 159; Feigon 2002, p. 47
[104] Schram 1966, p. 131; Carter 1976, pp. 6869
[105] Schram 1966, pp. 128, 132
[106] Schram 1966, pp. 133137; Carter 1976, pp. 7071
[107] Feigon 2002, p. 50.
[108] Schram 1966, p. 138; Carter 1976, pp. 7172

[137] Schram 1966, pp. 187188; Carter 1976, pp. 9293


[138] Feigon 2002, p. 61
[139] Schram 1966, p. 188; Carter 1976, p. 93
[140] Barnouin, Barbara and Yu Changgen. Zhou Enlai: A
Political Life. Hong Kong: Chinese University of Hong
Kong, 2006. ISBN 962-996-280-2. Retrieved March 12,
2011. p.62

[109] Schram 1966, pp. 138, 141

[141] Chang, Jung and Jon Halliday, Mao: The Unknown Story,
Jonathan Cape 2005

[110] Carter 1976, p. 72

[142] Chang, Halliday; Mao, Ch. 13

[111] Schram 1966, p. 139

[143] Schram 1966, p. 193

[112] Schram 1966, pp. 146149

[144] Carter 1976, pp. 9496

[113] Carter 1976, p. 75

[145] Schram 1966, pp. 206207

[114] Feigon 2002, p. 51

[146] Schram 1966, p. 20

[115] Schram 1966, pp. 149151

[147] Carter 1976, p. 101

[116] Schram 1966, p. 149

[148] Schram 1966, p. 202

[117] Schram 1966, p. 153

[149] Schram 1966, pp. 209210

[118] Schram 1966, p. 208

[150] Carter 1976, p. 95

[119] Schram 1966, p. 152

[151] Carter 1976, pp. 9596

[120] Carter 1976, p. 76

[152] Schram 1966, p. 194

[121] Feigon 2002, pp. 5153

[153] Schram 1966, p. 196

[122] Carter 1976, p. 77

[154] Schram 1966, p. 197

[123] Schram 1966, pp. 154155; Feigon 2002, pp. 5455

[155] Schram 1966, pp. 198200; Carter 1976, pp. 9899;


Feigon 2002, pp. 6465

[124] Schram 1966, pp. 155161


[125] Carter 1976, p. 78

[156] Schram 1966, p. 211; Carter 1976, pp. 100101

[126] Schram 1966, pp. 161165; Feigon 2002, pp. 5354

[157] Schram 1966, p. 205

[127] Schram 1966, pp. 166168; Feigon 2002, p. 55

[158] Carter 1976, p. 105

[128] Schram 1966, pp. 175177; Carter 1976, pp. 8081; [159] Schram 1966, p. 204; Feigon 2002, p. 66
Feigon 2002, pp. 5657
[160] Schram 1966, p. 217
[129] Schram 1966, p. 180; Carter 1976, pp. 8182
[130] Feigon 2002, p. 57
[131] Schram 1966, pp. 180181; Carter 1976, p. 83

[161] Schram 1966, pp. 211216; Carter 1976, pp. 10110


[162] Jacobs, Andrew (October 2, 2009). China Is Wordless
on Traumas of Communists' Rise. The New York Times.
Retrieved October 2, 2009.

[132] Schram 1966, p. 181; Carter 1976, pp. 8486; Feigon


[163] Robert Palestini (2011). Going Back to the Future: A
2002, p. 58
Leadership Journey for Educators. R&L Education. p.
[133] Schram 1966, p. 183; Carter 1976, pp. 8687
170. ISBN 978-1-60709-586-6.

14.1

Citations

29

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China: History and Culture. Routledge. p. 79. ISBN
[180] Changyu, Li. Mao's Killing Quotas.Human Rights
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olutions: A Brief History with Documents. New York:
Palgrave Macmillan. p. 125. ISBN 0-312-25626-4. The [181] Brown, Jeremy. Terrible Honeymoon: Struggling with
the Problem of Terror in Early 1950s China.
phrase is often mistakenly said to have been delivered during the speech from the Gate of Heavenly Peace, but was
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tory, (Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard Univerof the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference,
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then repeated on several occasions
[166] Li 1994, p. xi

[183] Short 2001, p. 437

[167] See for example, DeBorja, Q.M. and Xu L. Dong (eds) [184] High Tide of Terror. Time. March 5, 1956. Retrieved
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[186] Li 1994, pp. 198, 200, 468469
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[188] Smil, V. (1999). China's great famine: 40 years later
340341. ISBN 1-58487-126-1.
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[169] Short 2001, pp. 436437
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[170] Kuisong 2008
[189] Li 1994, pp. 2834, 295
[171] Steven W. Mosher. China Misperceived: American Illusions and Chinese Reality. Basic Books, 1992. ISBN 0- [190] Li 1994, p. 340
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[191] Diktter, Frank (December 15, 2010). Mao's Great
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[192] Famine 2. web.mac.com. Archived from the original
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[194] Thomas P., Bernstein (June 2006).
Mao Zewere subjected to control.": see Kuisong 2008.
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[197] Becker 1998, p. 86
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[200] Becker 1998, p. 103
[177] Feigon 2002, p. 96:By 1952 they had extended land reform throughout the countryside, but in the process some- [201] Chang & Halliday 2005, pp. 568, 579
where between two and ve million landlords had been
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killed.
[178] Short 2001, p. 436

[203] Valentino 2004, p. 127

30

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31

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[242] Gao 2008, p. 81

[244] MacFarquhar 2006, p. 471: "Together with Joseph Stalin [265] Portraits of Sun Yat-sen, Deng Xiaoping proposed
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tory as one of the great tyrants of the twentieth century"
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(Second Edition) by Kenneth Lieberthal. W.W. Norton
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23, 2008. This remark of Mao seems to have elements of


truth but it is false. He confuses the worship of truth with a
personality cult, despite there being an essential dierence
between them. But this remark played a role in helping
to promote the personality cult that gradually arose in the
CCP.

32

14

REFERENCES

[269] Chapter 5: Mao Badges Visual Imagery and Inscrip- [288] Carter 1976, p. 42
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[277] Kong Dongmei on China's rich list:

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Yang Kaihui was Chairman Mao's second wife. Both he
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[280] Li, 1994.
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[282] Hollingworth 1985, pp. 2930


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[307] Schaik 2011, p. 214


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33

15

Further reading

Anita M. Andrew; John A. Rapp (1 January 2000).


Autocracy and China's Rebel Founding Emperors:
Comparing Chairman Mao and Ming Taizu. Rowman & Littleeld. pp. 110. ISBN 978-0-84769580-5.
Carter, Peter (1976). Mao. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0192731401.
Chang, Jung; Halliday, Jon (2005). Mao: The Unknown Story. London: Jonathan Cape. ISBN 9780-224-07126-0.
Davin, Delia (2013). Mao: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford UP. ISBN 9780191654039.
Diktter, Frank (2010). Mao's Great Famine: The
History of China's Most Devastating Catastrophe,
195862. London: Walker & Company. ISBN 08027-7768-6.
Feigon, Lee (2002). Mao: A Reinterpretation.
Chicago: Ivan R. Dee. ISBN 978-1-56663-458-8.
Gao, Mobo (2008). The Battle for China's Past:
Mao and the Cultural Revolution. London: Pluto
Press. ISBN 978-0-7453-2780-8.
Hollingworth, Clare (1985). Mao and the Men
Against Him. London: Jonathan Cape. ISBN 9780224017602.
Li, Zhisui (1994). The Private Life of Chairman
Mao: The Memoirs of Mao's Personal Physician.
London: Random House. ISBN 978-0679764434.

Becker, Jasper (1998). Hungry Ghosts: Mao's Secret


Famine. Holt Paperbacks. ISBN 0-8050-5668-8.
Valentino, Benjamin A. (2004). Final Solutions:
Mass Killing and Genocide in the Twentieth Century.
Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-3965-5.
Chirot, Daniel (1996). Modern tyrants: the power
and prevalence of evil in our age. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-02777-3.
Spence, Jonathan (1999). Mao Zedong. Penguin
Lives. New York: Viking Press. ISBN 978-0-67088669-2. OCLC 41641238. Lay summary (February 6, 2000).
Kuisong, Yang (March 2008). Reconsidering
the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries
(PDF). The China Quarterly (193): 102121.
Biography(2005). Mao Tse Tung: China's Peasant Emperor (Television production). A&E Network. ASIN B000AABKXG. Retrieved January
18, 2013.
Schoppa, R. Keith. Twentieth Century China: A History in Documents. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2004.
Walder, Andrew G. China under Mao: A Revolution
Derailed (Harvard University Press, 2015) 413 pp.
online review

16 External links
16.1 General

MacFarquhar, Roderick; Schoenhals, Michael


(2006). Mao's Last Revolution. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674027480.

Asia Source biography

Pantsov, Alexander V.; Levine, Steven I. (2012).


Mao: The Real Story. New York and London: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4516-5447-9.

CNN prole

Schaik, Sam (2011). Tibet: A History. New Haven:


Yale University Press Publications. ISBN 978-0300-15404-7.
Schram, Stuart (1966). Mao Tse-Tung. London: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-14-020840-5.
Short, Philip (2001). Mao: A Life. Owl Books.
ISBN 978-0-8050-6638-8.
Terrill, Ross (1980). Mao: A Biography. Simon and
Schuster., which is superseded by Ross Terrill. Mao:
A Biography. (Stanford, CA: Stanford University
Press, 1999. ISBN 0-8047-2921-2 (pbk. alk. paper).

ChineseMao.com: Extensive resources about Mao


Zedong

Collected Works of Mao at the Maoist Internationalist Movement


Collected Works of Mao Tse-tung (19171949)
Joint Publications Research Service
Mao quotations
Mao Zedong Reference Archive at marxists.org
Oxford Companion to World Politics: Mao Zedong
Spartacus Educational biography
Bio of Mao at the ocial Communist Party of China
web site

34

16.2

16

Commentary

Discusses the life, military inuence and writings of


Chairman Mao ZeDong.
What Maoism Has Contributed
China must confront dark past, says Mao condant
Mao was cruel but also laid the ground for today's
China
Comrade Mao 44 Chinese posters of the 1950s
70s
On the Role of Mao Zedong
Propaganda paintings showing Mao as the great
leader of China
Remembering Mao's Victims
Mao Tse Tung: Leader, Killer, Icon
Mao's Great Leap to Famine
Finding the Facts About Mao's Victims
Remembering China's Great Helmsman
Did Mao Really Kill Millions in the Great Leap Forward?

EXTERNAL LINKS

35

17
17.1

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Duncan.france, Tckma, Acerperi, Lapsed Pacist, Hbdragon88, Damicatz, Bluemoose, Isnow, Rchamberlain, Chronicidal, Jonnabuz, Wayward, Jon Harald Sby, Essjay, Mimiian, Nema Fakei, Stefanomione, Jksusi, PeregrineAY, Thomasmschaefer, Stevey7788, Mandarax, Algormortis, Matilda, Ashmoo, Graham87, Brazzy, Magister Mathematicae, Kalmia, Descendall, MC MasterChef, Kbdank71, FreplySpang,
Athelwulf, Dpr, Fox Mccloud, BorgHunter, Josh Parris, Sjakkalle, Rjwilmsi, Angusmclellan, Joe Decker, Koavf, Diadem, Ikh, JHMM13,
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John Z, Hottentot, Kerowyn, JYOuyang, NekoDaemon, Scipantheist, RexNL, Alexjohnc3, Jrtayloriv, Str1977, Mpradeep, TeaDrinker,
Brendan642, Trapper, Shahram, McDogm, Mimithebrain, Homo stannous, Valentinian, CJLL Wright, Nicholasink, Chobot, Deyyaz, Benlisquare, Conscript, DVdm, Guliolopez, JesseGarrett, Volunteer Marek, Pogle, Wick98, Gwernol, Elfguy, Krawunsel, Roboto de Ajvol,
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Nlu, Tobeyjaggle, Fallout boy, FF2010, Sandstein, Calcwatch, Zzuuzz, Homagetocatalonia, Gtdp, Yahoo, Silverhorse, Barryob, SFGiants,
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Allens, Katieh5584, Kungfuadam, Jonathan.s.kt, Biscuit Krumonski, RG2, Trubye, NeilN, GrinBot~enwiki, Wallie, Babij, DVD R W,
Kimdino, Luk, Eirelover@earthlink.net, Pyro19, Sardanaphalus, Roland Longbow, Sarah, Neier, Mattpauls, Aegeus, BonsaiViking, SmackBot, Pwt898, Esradekan, Sprocket, Postbagboy, InverseHypercube, Am, Royalguard11, Olorin28, Hydrogen Iodide, DMorpheus, Unyoyega, Pgk, Blue520, The Great Veritas, Lds, Mscuthbert, Yiyu Shen, SigmaX54, Timeshifter, CTSCo, ZerodEgo, Hankpin, Warfvinge,
Aivazovsky, Geo B, Niro5, Number 8, Facial, Marktreut, Gilliam, Hmains, Skizzik, GwydionM, A Sunshade Lust, Cowman109, Chris
the speller, Atticuslai, Kurykh, Audacity, Dahn, SynergyBlades, Persian Poet Gal, Jacobswain, Sandycx, Johngagon, Tosqueira, Master
of Puppets, Miquonranger03, OrangeDog, Greatgavini, Silly rabbit, Roscelese, Juansheng, SchftyThree, George Church, RayAYang,
Klichka, Basalisk, Neo-Jay, Jerome Charles Potts, Gutworth, Jonolumb, Dustimagic, Vietlong, Dboydjr, CMacMillan, DHN-bot~enwiki,
Alon, Colonies Chris, Hongooi, Adamjamesbromley, Darth Panda, A. B., Gracenotes, Blueshirts, FredStrauss, John Reaves, George Ho,
Newmanbe, Camillus McElhinney, Muboshgu, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Adam block, MManning, Cripipper, Chlewbot, OrphanBot,
Onorem, Nixeagle, Snowmanradio, RebelAt, OOODDD, Perfectganesh, Rimoll, Rrburke, GRuban, Kittybrewster, RedHillian, Edivorce,
SundarBot, Grover cleveland, Khoikhoi, Auno3, Downwards, Bowlhover, Nakon, Jackohare, Valenciano, PointyOintment, MichaelBillington, RaCha'ar, RolandR, Dreadstar, RandomP, Maxwahrhaftig, ShaunES, Derek R Bullamore, A.J.A., Foxhunt king, Weregerbil, Only,
Camilton, Kozlovesred, Viking880, Nmpenguin, Pilotguy, Kukini, Skinnyweed, The Fwanksta, Ricky@36, WayKurat, Ged UK, Ceoil,
Ohconfucius, Zeorymer, Murph24, SashatoBot, Liquidtenmillion, Nishkid64, B34ny, ArglebargleIV, Rory096, Rklawton, Giovanni33,
Kuru, Calvados~enwiki, John, Stevenmc, Scientizzle, Buchanan-Hermit, Wmblade, Ong elvin, Heimstern, Luthinya, SilkTork, CPMcE,
Jawz, Tscher 10, Disposition, Tktktk, Jeness, Shadowlynk, JorisvS, Coredesat, Reuvenk, Wickethewok, Vanished user 56po34it12ke,
Syferus, Paracite, GregLondon, Mr. Lefty, PseudoSudo, Speedboy Salesman, JHunterJ, Shamrox, AstroGod, Agathoclea, MTN~enwiki,
Noah Salzman, Martinp23, SimonATL, Mr Stephen, Noverow~enwiki, Samwingkit, TastyPoutine, AdultSwim, Midnightblueowl, Ryulong, Tmfox, KurtRaschke, MTSbot~enwiki, Eastfrisian, Majin Takeru, Richman271, KJS77, Tawkerbot, Quaeler, Asklepiades, Iridescent,

36

17

TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

WGee, Joseph Solis in Australia, Shoeofdeath, Andreas Rejbrand, Seclipse21, J Di, Igoldste, MJO, HongQiGong, RugerMK1, Mishatx,
Belgium EO, Freelance Intellectual, Ewulp, Mr Chuckles, Cyber Innity, Az1568, Anger22, Adam sk, Abjs, Tawkerbot2, Rm1854,
WilliamDParker, Berox, Timrem, Dothiwhoareyou, Aristotle1990, Harold f, Eastlaw, P-Chan, Alexthe5th, JustinFromAus, JForget, Unreal128, CmdrObot, Muzilon, Wafulz, Bad2101, Vints, Aherunar, Alex Shih, Ded77, Rawling, Jim101, Picaroon, KyraVixen, Nczempin,
Nunquam Dormio, Charvex, GHe, Ryanjo, Donaldd23, Evilgohan2, E smith2000, Heydoc2007, Andkore, 346Gordon, Dept of Alchemy,
AndrewHowse, Dogman15, C33, Cydebot, Centralk, Future Perfect at Sunrise, Chemicalist, Reywas92, MC10, Steel, Turboduded, MKil,
Cricketgirl, Gogo Dodo, R-41, Bornsommer, Ttiotsw, ST47, QRX, Chasingsol, Lugnuts, Pascal.Tesson, DanielMohanSahu, Willowalker,
Tawkerbot4, Bob19841984, Lu Xun, Biblbroks, Asiaticus, After Midnight, Omicronpersei8, Hillshum, TAIWAN, Aldis90, Mamalujo,
Mathpianist93, RandomOrca2, Keyi, , Vanished user ois9h3jfujw4f, Thijs!bot, Epbr123, Daa89563, Biruitorul, Kaberf, Timeoin,
Clownsarescary, Hervegirod, HappyInGeneral, Varavour, Dhg~enwiki, SeNeKa, Lopakhin, Bobtheuglyhobo, Mojo Hand, Staberinde, RevolverOcelotX, Fluxbot, Marek69, Tapir Terric, 25162995, Maximilian Schnherr, Drewboy64, PHaze, Tellyaddict, Keelm, Inner Earth,
Entenman, The Proesor, Grayshi, Sturm55, Binarybits, MinnesotanConfederacy, Wikidenizen, Niohe, Natalie Erin, Folic Acid, PottersWood, Escarbot, NjtoTX, Lights out!, Danielfolsom, PhiLiP, Mentisto, El Jogg, AntiVandalBot, RobotG, Azzarr, Wadofwhatyoulove,
Onyx65, America1, Luna Santin, Guy Macon, Macmedic892, Seaphoto, Opelio, QuiteUnusual, Brian0324, Downtown deadbeat, Joel55, Dr
who1975, PCPP, Truenorth1, Penser, Smartse, Yerkschmerk, Modernist, Dylan Lake, Superzohar, Credema, North Shoreman, Jbeckwith,
Gdo01, XtoF, AubreyEllenShomo, Dybdal~enwiki, Cmos, Caper13, Fennessy, JAnDbot, Husond, MER-C, Epeeeche, Bigar, Ughugh,
Cyclonius, Tonysowl, Charleyramm, Colotfox, Coreydragon, Chrisrtait, Vl'hurg, Lssah 88, LittleOldMe, SiobhanHansa, Yahel Guhan,
SStracksman, Jimmy-barnes, Fookoyt, Magioladitis, Connormah, Exerda, ZPM, Canjth, Bongwarrior, VoABot II, Aznman, No substitute
for you, DCTT, Hullaballoo Wolfowitz, Svelty skye, Testewart, JamesBWatson, Careless hx, Re-evaluation, Vito Genovese, SineWave, Animatedlooney28, The Enlightened, Jim Douglas, Vikrant A Phadkay, Jatkins, Kevinmon, Awark04, WODUP, Kyuunensoshou, Kriegae,
Sfu, Wwoo22, Avicennasis, Hemulen~enwiki, Cgingold, WeeWillieWiki, Mtl1969, Clygeric, Sojournerpaul, Loonymonkey, TheLetterM,
Nat, Cerpintaxt12, Xsuite, Gallicrow, Spellmaster, ArmadilloFromHell, Morriss003, TehBrandon, DerHexer, Thedudedude, Edward321,
Redbuster, Tango Alpha Foxtrot, Lijnema, WLU, FighterJetPilot16, .V., Zeroman2, Patstuart, Elmer92413, Edton, Iamback~enwiki,
SPD, Revcph1958, Quesotiotyo, Gwern, Gjd001, Jacob Peters, MartinBot, NochnoiDozor, PAK Man, Intesvensk, Vozas, Deathbypapercutz, Axlq, Kevinsam, Whiteside, Rettetast, Ultraviolet scissor ame, Ekotekk, 000pete1983, Jay Litman, JaxisMaximus, R'n'B, Autocratique, Kateshortforbob, CommonsDelinker, ASDFGH, Wbrice83186, Moogin, 123w456t, Thewallowmaker, Pomte, EdBever, Erkan Yilmaz, RockMFR, BGOATDoughnut, Iamahistorian, Huguet 9255, J.delanoy, Captain panda, Pharaoh of the Wizards, Kimse, AuthenticM,
Jgchao, DrKay, Trusilver, Faaraan123, Gigity68, KazakhPol, Bbmccue, Arrivisto, R1es, Hans Dunkelberg, Sjhill, Uncle Dick, HistoryOne, Jonas.bergstrom, Indiealtphreak, Extransit, General Idea, Yialanliu, The High Magus, Nobuts, Hodja Nasreddin, Sinohits, Icseaturtles,
Gzkn, Textangel, Shawn in Montreal, DMcM, Notreallydavid, Balthazarduju, Anetheron589, RaGnaRoK SepHr0tH, SuperHiro, Berserkerz Crit, Plasticup, Schopenhauar, Alexb102072, Tjistin, Richard D. LeCour, NewEnglandYankee, Kchiu, Cyblue, DadaNeem, Me2good,
Mawai, Tascha96, Melinda wang, Juliancolton, Mighty Antar, Ibanez shred, Web Nerds, Juicyfruity, Men without hats, Jacob Robertson,
Tiwonk, Bonadea, Tengg, Andy Marchbanks, JavierMC, Uglyguy2006, Tonnyy, Martial75, Amandafagan, Chs8178, Shutupandrun07,
PhilFriesen, Mokgen, Big slick69, Wolf2p, Nigel Ish, Lights, HamatoKameko, JohnSavery, Deor, Ygeng, Hgkk, VolkovBot, Alex.bikfalvi,
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Biplabpal2000, Thou art a n3wb!, LaNicoya, Kyle, Hqb, Anonymous Dissident, Primpella, Captain Wikify, 053bss, Qxz, C.J. Grin,
Viridiavus~enwiki, Steven J. Anderson, Melsaran, JhsBot, Ihavenoidea0918, Wikieditor12, Brian Eisley, Strula, Jackfork, LeaveSleaves,
PDFbot, Foolyo, Bearian, AnonymousUser1111, Jigglypuscool, Onore Baka Sama, PaladinWhite, Geo3gh, Leijerholt, Chibiheart, Mysteryman135, The true laughing man, Happyme22, Khsparkie, Universewik, Woosa2007, Richwil, Kittyns89, Linkgmr, Falcon8765, Enviroboy, Ya super mum, Stanley.v.campbell, Sylent, Wink wank, Khanyboy2, Nn777nn, Chopinlist, Alcmaeonid, Truthanado, Qworty,
Wavehunter, Dancing faun, AlleborgoBot, ScottCheloha, Mohonu, Ermite~enwiki, Liveangle, Enkoujin, EmxBot, Yodawg123456789,
Choichi8, Srijon, Xjess4everx, SieBot, Calliopejen1, Spartan, Suklaa, Tiddly Tom, Work permit, SheepNotGoats, Krawi, Mbz1, Dawn
Bard, Viskonsas, Matthew Yeager, Alexb1828, Triwbe, Jackcnd, Vanished user 82345ijgeke4tg, Letter 7, GlassCobra, Mak8907, Keilana,
Toddst1, Flyer22 Reborn, Tiptoety, Oda Mari, Arbor to SJ, Momo san, Monegasque, Mimihitam, Jlfarlow, Drczar, Mattmeskill, Oxymoron83, Aspects, Bagatelle, KoshVorlon, Lightmouse, Ashish Krishna, Boromir123, PalaceGuard008, Ahangar-e-Gaz, ThomasLB, Donkey1233, Greenharpoon, Vanished user ewsn2348tui2f8n2o2utjfeoi210r39jf, Gomeying, Dcattell, Sean.hoyland, SuperSaiyaMan, Mtaylor848, TaerkastUA, WikiLaurent, Vjajay911, Hans yulun lai, Kalidasa 777, Iamwisesun, Denisarona, Ahuitzotl, Richard David Ramsey,
Wikijsmak, Explicit, ImageRemovalBot, Peltimikko, RS1900, WikipedianMarlith, Gcapitalg, Lenerd, Spicyj, Church, Tee Meng, Kelvinite, ClueBot, RobertLunaIII, James Luftan, NickCT, Suncheng125, GorillaWarfare, Snigbrook, Justin W Smith, Fyyer, Wikievil666,
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Mild Bill Hiccup, Joao Xavier, CounterVandalismBot, Niceguyedc, Blanchardb, Orthoepy, Dylan620, RafaAzevedo, Lawwithal, Declan
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Ismouton, BabelStone, Cst17, MrOllie, Download, Wyvernoid, CarsracBot, Drabj, Glane23, Michaelwuzthere, Fottry55i6, Debresser,
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17.2

Images

37

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SD5bot, Khazar2, Chingchonglingling, Kneesshookfgs, Stumink, MadGuy7023, JYBot, Creativeminds34, Dexbot, Dissident93, Ballisticizer, Webclient101, Charles Essie, Mogism, Martinillo, Retrospector87, Clidog, , William Plant, Cerabot~enwiki, Aristoxenos,
Zxmfu87, JasonMacker, Connor Flys, Lugia2453, Isarra (HG), MarshalRight, Oxycut, Kayat941183, Frosty, Jemappelleungarcon, Happyseeu, Quickbest5t6, Lawbaw99, ColaXtra, Snippy the heavily-templated snail, 16cheungk1, 16yange1, Rajmaan, ThePigOfJustice, Junvfr,
Bignate1030, Cirolchou, Fycafterpro, Lomicmenes, Concord2002, Epicgenius, Jamminmud, Smallkupo, User 69, Thorandre99, Marxistfounder, 15mnguyen, Halvor12321, Pedomannen123, Hander12345, Franois Robere, Irminatz, Ikseevon, Zerromus, 859ant, Duane E.
Tressler, Madeintibet59, XanthamNide, Chimaru98, Ugog Nizdast, Scarabola, Vycl1994, Jiataozhang, Finnusertop, Conovalo, MrLinkinPark333, AddWittyNameHere, Liz, Param Mudgal, Elaqueate, Royalcourtier, Crow, Suuran88, SausageRoll OmletteFace, Metuselth,
MBINISIDLERS, Jel2of4, Rcehy, Jordan-Hooper-AOAPJM, Simmy666, Zhang junn, Hoihoihoiioh, KingRaym, Nyashinski, Oldhand
12, Zozs, SbLiAcTyEcRleAkaBicycle, Monkbot, John Tan 708, Zumoarirodoka, Kevinhuogermanprefect, Vieque, Mike liturous, Tracy
CAstro, , Iamjyc, KainYa12, Julsjsjsh, Coltbrand, Chocolate6665, Drewzox, Jayakumar RG, Philipxd, Ahmedinator123, Heisenwombat, Xrortar, Cuongdola9695, Minimax Regret, Qwertyxp2000, The Dracommunist, Austin fridenberg, Biblioworm,
Heirenhaogepi, Flyboyy513, Grand Master Mao Zedong, TheGFishs, ArordineriiiUkhtt, Yettidirtbiker, Hanojz3, MONSTER87741, Uncle
Ho ILA, Swaggot12345, Craxke, Kneentcm, Membantppt, THEOKNEEN12345, CREASEW, Orihara1, BobbyAlfaro, Nhixpax, Ilovemao123, Where is the mun, Disguybreh, Jacobdaun, Shannon Dal, GeneralizationsAreBad, Nkkenbuer, KasparBot, NewHikaru07,
Beyaz Deriili, Oce worm, Anatol Svahilec, Icarus the Great, Mayhemonger, Fighter Lion, Djgenesisgeronimo1225 and Anonymous:
2440

17.2

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File:1936_Mao_and_third_wife_He_Zizhen.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7b/1936_Mao_and_


third_wife_He_Zizhen.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.northnews.cn/news/2008/200806/2008-06-29/150308.html
http://history.sohu.com/20150217/n394200399.shtml http://sports.eastday.com/eastday/history/h/20131021/u1a7724620.html Original artist:
Unknown<a href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718' title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:Q4233718'
src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png'
width='20'
height='11' srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 1.5x,
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050'
data-le-height='590' /></a>
File:1945_Mao_and_Chiang.jpg Source:
License:
Public domain Contributors:
account/7095/42097095/posts/2439373.shtml

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6f/1945_Mao_and_Chiang.jpg
http://cn.nytimes.com/china/20151105/c05meeting/dual/ http://blog.10jqka.com.cn/
Original artist:
Unknown<a href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718' ti-

38

17

TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

tle='wikidata:Q4233718'><img
alt='wikidata:Q4233718'
src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/
Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png' width='20' height='11' srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/
thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png
1.5x,
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/
Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050' data-le-height='590' /></a>
File:Baidi_Mao.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b8/Baidi_Mao.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: User:Gisling
File:Beijing_students_protesting_the_Treaty_of_Versailles_(May_4,_1919).jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/
commons/6/6a/Beijing_students_protesting_the_Treaty_of_Versailles_%28May_4%2C_1919%29.jpg License:
Public domain
Contributors: (3/17) Original artist: Unknown<a href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718' title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img
alt='wikidata:Q4233718'
src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/
Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png' width='20' height='11' srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/
thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png
1.5x,
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/
Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050' data-le-height='590' /></a>
File:Chairman_Mao-1.webm Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5b/Chairman_Mao-1.webm License: Public domain Contributors: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XAl3Pyvv1r8&feature=youtu.be Original artist: Unknown<a
href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718'
title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img
alt='wikidata:Q4233718'
src='https:
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png'
width='20'
height='11'
srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png
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https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050'
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work Original artist:
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was Nicolau at zh.wikipedia
File:Commons-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
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Contributors: http://news.xinhuanet.com/ziliao/2003-01/18/content_695383_2.htm Original artist: Converted from File:Danghui.svg
File:Edit-clear.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/f2/Edit-clear.svg License: Public domain Contributors: The
Tango! Desktop Project. Original artist:
The people from the Tango! project. And according to the meta-data in the le, specically:Andreas Nilsson, and Jakub Steiner (although
minimally).
File:Emblem_of_the_Kuomintang.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a1/Emblem_of_the_Kuomintang.
svg License: Public domain Contributors: Drawn and originally uploaded onto English Wikipedia by en:User:Zscout370, then modied by
en:User:Laurent1979 based on the ocial KMT website logo. Original artist: see above
File:Flag_of_Tibet.svg Source:
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Public domain Contributors:
From http://www.iheartvector.com/2008/04/25/tibetan-vector-flag/ Original artist:
Unknown<a
href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718'
title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img
alt='wikidata:Q4233718'
src='https://upload.
wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png'
width='20'
height='11'
srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png
1.5x,
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050'
data-le-height='590' /></a>
File:Flag_of_the_Chinese_Communist_Party.svg
Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6d/Flag_of_
the_Chinese_Communist_Party.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Originally designed by Chinese Communist Party
in about 1920s. Created by Gunter Kchler / Berlin using Inkscape. modied by User:PhiLiP with CorelDRAW. According to the Constitution of the Party (2002), Article 52, The ag of the Communist Party of China is a red ag highlighted
by a golden Party emblem on it.see and Party Constitution in English
http://www.dkdj.gov.cn/Article/UploadFiles/200806/20080627111410837.jpg Original artist: See above
File:Flag_of_the_People'{}s_Republic_of_China.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Flag_of_the_
People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work, http://www.protocol.gov.hk/flags/eng/n_flag/
design.html Original artist: Drawn by User:SKopp, redrawn by User:Denelson83 and User:Zscout370
File:Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/72/Flag_of_the_Republic_of_
China.svg License: Public domain Contributors: [1] Original artist: User:SKopp
File:Flag_of_the_Second_East_Turkestan_Republic.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/44/Flag_of_
the_Second_East_Turkestan_Republic.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: An Encore Performance From
The Boys In The Band
File:Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a9/Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union.svg License: Public domain Contributors: http://pravo.levonevsky.org/ Original artist:
File:Kissinger,_Ford_and_Mao,_1975_A7912.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/82/Kissinger%2C_
Ford_and_Mao%2C_1975_A7912.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.fordlibrarymuseum.gov/avproj/State_Trips_
PRC.asp, specically http://www.fordlibrarymuseum.gov/images/avproj/pop-ups/A7912.html Original artist: Unknown / Courtesy Gerald
R. Ford Library
File:Kissinger_Mao.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/09/Kissinger_Mao.jpg License: Public domain
Contributors: http://www.gmu.edu/library/specialcollections/acsrmn2_9_1f.jpg Original artist: Oliver Atkins (Jiang -original uploader on
en wiki)

17.2

Images

File:Location_of_the_First_Congress_of_the_Chinese_Communist_Party_Xintiandi_Shanghai_July_1921.jpg
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/46/Location_of_the_First_Congress_of_the_Chinese_Communist_Party_
Xintiandi_Shanghai_July_1921.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Uploadalt

39

Source:

File:Mao,_Bulganin,_Stalin,_Ulbricht_Tsedenbal.jpeg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4b/Mao%2C_


Bulganin%2C_Stalin%2C_Ulbricht_Tsedenbal.jpeg License: Public domain Contributors: <a data-x-rel='nofollow' class='external
text' href='http://www.hs.fi/kirjat/artikkeli/Mao+teki+pahuuden+maailmanenn%C3%A4tyksenSuurteos+Kiinan+johtajastamurskaa+
viimein+myytti%C3%A4Kirjoittajilla+on+laajat+l%C3%A4hteetja+leve%C3%A4t+tulkinnat/HS20061203SI1KU02nuq'>Helsingin
Sanomat</a> Original artist: Unknown<a href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718' title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:
Q4233718'
src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png'
width='20' height='11' srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.
svg.png 1.5x,
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data-le-width='1050' data-le-height='590' /></a>
File:Mao1927.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ae/Mao1927.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: ?
Original artist: ?
File:Mao1931.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/34/Mao1931.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: ?
Original artist: ?
File:Mao1938a.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e9/Mao1938a.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:
http://www.ibiblio.org/chineseart/contents/peop/c04.html http://www.chinanews.com/mil/2015/05-18/7283505.shtml Original artist: Unknown<a href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718' title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:Q4233718' src='https://upload.
wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png' width='20' height='11' srcset='https://
upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 1.5x, https://upload.wikimedia.
org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050' data-le-height='590'
/></a>
File:MaoStatueinLijang.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a0/MaoStatueinLijang.jpg License: CC BYSA 1.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Roy Niekerk
File:Mao_Jiang_Qing_and_daughter_Li_Na.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c3/Mao_Jiang_Qing_
and_daughter_Li_Na.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.gscn.com.cn/Get/picture/122812371_7.htm Original artist:
Unknown<a href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718' title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:Q4233718' src='https://upload.
wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png' width='20' height='11' srcset='https://
upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 1.5x, https://upload.wikimedia.
org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050' data-le-height='590'
/></a>
File:Mao_Proclaiming_New_China.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/85/Mao_Proclaiming_New_
China.JPG License: CC BY-SA 4.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Orihara1
File:Mao_Zedong_1913.jpg
Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a8/Mao_Zedong_1913.jpg
License: Public domain Contributors: Published in various sources, both in print and online.
Original artist: Unknown<a
href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718'
title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img
alt='wikidata:Q4233718'
src='https:
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png'
width='20'
height='11'
srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png
1.5x,
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050'
data-le-height='590' /></a>
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Original artist: Mao Zedong
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art_sculpture_4.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist:

File:Mao_and_Jiang_Qing_1946.jpg
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Jiang_Qing_1946.jpg License:
Public domain Contributors:
http://b20.photo.store.qq.com/http_imgload.cgi?/rurl4_b=
3eb41dd7e5c27abdea45067d2e5870fdf25167c44c61dac70b5c75fe1814fd7a77618b7bcbfea9954e6d05c90aa9916d4e6fe1f17c04da5ce2e8f4fb4fce6dd6b5e80
Original artist: unidentied photographer
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File:Mausoleo_de_Mao_Zedong-Tianang_Mei-Pekin-China8452.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/
9b/Mausoleo_de_Mao_Zedong-Tianang_Mei-Pekin-China8452.JPG License: GFDL Contributors: Own work Original artist: Diego Delso
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Source:
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org/wikipedia/commons/2/28/Nikita_Khrushchev%2C_Mao_Zedong%2C_Ho_Chi_Minh_and_Soong_Ching-ling.jpg
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Original artist:
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src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png'
width='20'
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data-le-height='590' /></a>
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le (converted to PNG) Original artist: White House Photo Oce (1969 1974)

40

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? Original artist: ?
File: .svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/13/%E4%B8%AD%E5%9C%8B%E5%B7%
A5%E8%BE%B2%E7%B4%85%E8%BB%8D%E8%BB%8D%E6%97%97.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work. Base
on File:Red Army ag.jpg and File:Flag of the Soviet Union.svg. Original artist: PhiLiP

17.3

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