Anda di halaman 1dari 8

Antonio Negri

This article is about the scholar.

Antonio Negri (poet).

For the poet, see tion Giovent Italiana di Azione Cattolica (GIAC). Negri became a communist in 195354 when he worked
at a kibbutz in Israel for a year. The kibbutz was orand all
Antonio "Toni" Negri (born 1 August 1933) is an Italian ganised according to ideas of Zionist socialism
the members were Jewish communists.[7] He joined the
Marxist sociologist and political philosopher, best known
for his co-authorship of Empire, and secondarily for his Italian Socialist Party in 1956 and remained a member
until 1963, while at the same time becoming more and
work on Spinoza.
more engaged throughout the late 1950s and early 1960s
Born in Padua, he became a political philosophy pro- in Marxist movements.
fessor in his hometown university. Negri founded the
Potere Operaio (Worker Power) group in 1969 and was a He had a quick academic career at the University of
leading member of Autonomia Operaia.[3] As one of the Padua and was promoted to full professor at a young age
most popular theorists of Autonomism, he has published in the eld of "dottrina dello Stato" (State theory), a pehugely inuential books urging revolutionary conscious- culiarly Italian eld that deals with juridical and constitutional theory. This might have been facilitated by his conness.
nections to inuential politicians such as Raniero Panzieri
He was accused in the late 1970s of various charges and philosopher Norberto Bobbio, strongly engaged with
including being the mastermind of the left-wing urban the Socialist Party.
guerrilla organization[4] Red Brigades (Brigate Rosse or
In the early 1960s Negri joined the editorial group of
BR), involved in the May 1978 kidnapping of Aldo
Moro, two-time Prime Minister of Italy, and leader of Quaderni Rossi, a journal that represented the intellectual rebirth of Marxism in Italy outside the realm of the
the Christian-Democrat Party, among others. Voice evidence suggested Negri made a threatening phone call on communist party.
behalf of the BR, but the court was unable to conclu- In 1969, together with Oreste Scalzone and Franco
sively prove his ties.[4] The question of Negris complicity Piperno, Negri was one of the founders of the group
with left-wing extremism is a controversial subject.[5] He Potere Operaio (Workers Power) and the Operaismo
was indicted on a number of charges, including associ- (workerist) Communist movement. Potere Operaio disation and insurrection against the state (a charge which banded in 1973 and gave rise to the Autonomia Operaia
was later dropped), and sentenced for involvement in two Organizzata (Organised Workers Autonomy) movement.
Negri ed to France where, protected by the Mitterrand
doctrine, he taught at the Universit de Vincennes
(Paris-VIII) and the Collge international de philosophie,
along with Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault and Gilles
Deleuze.[3] In 1997, after a plea-bargain that reduced his
prison time from 30 to 13 years,[6] he returned to Italy to
serve the end of his sentence. Many of his most inuential books were published while he was behind bars. He
now lives in Venice and Paris with his partner, the French
philosopher Judith Revel.

2 Arrest and ight

On 16 March 1978, Aldo Moro, former Italian prime

minister and Christian Democrat party leader, was kidnapped in Rome by the Red Brigades, his ve-man body
guard murdered on the spot of the kidnapping in Romes
Via Fani. While they were holding him, forty-ve days
after the kidnapping,[6] the Red Brigades called his family on the phone, informing Moros wife of her husbands
impending death.[6] Nine days later his body, shot in the
head, was found dumped in a city lane.[6] The conversation was recorded, and later broadcast and televised. A
1 Early years
number of people who knew Negri and remembered his
Antonio Negri was born in Padua, Italy in 1933. His voice identied him as the probable author of the call, but
the author of the call
father was an active communist, and although the fa- the claim has been since dismissed:
ther died when Negri was two years old, his political
engagement made Negri familiar with Marxism from On 7 April 1979, at the age of forty-six, Antonio Nean early age. He began his career as a militant in the gri was arrested for his part in the Autonomy Move1950s with the activist Roman Catholic youth organiza- ment, along with others (Emilio Vesce, Luciano Ferrari

Bravo, Mario Dalmaviva, Lauso Zagato, Oreste Scalzone,
Pino Nicotri, Alisa del Re, Carmela di Rocco, Massimo
Tramonte, Sandro Serani, Guido Bianchini, and others). Padovas Public Prosecutor Pietro Calogero accused
those involved in the political wing of the Red Brigades,
and thus behind left-wing terrorism in Italy. Negri was
charged with a number of oenses, including leadership
of the Red Brigades, masterminding the 1978 kidnapping and murder of the President of the Christian Democratic Party Aldo Moro, and plotting to overthrow the
government.[10] At the time, Negri was a political science
professor at the University of Padua and visiting lecturer
at Paris cole Normale Suprieure. The Italian public
was shocked that an academic could be involved in such
A year later, Negri was exonerated from Aldo Moros kidnapping after a leader of the BR, having decided to cooperate with the prosecution, testied that Negri had nothing to do with the Red Brigades.[4] The charge of 'armed
insurrection against the State' against Negri was dropped
at the last moment, and because of this he did not receive
the 30-year plus life sentence requested by the prosecutor, but only 30 years for being the instigator of political
activist Carlo Saronios murder and having 'morally concurred' with Lombardinis murder during a failed bank
His philosopher peers saw little fault with Negris activities. Michel Foucault commented, Isn't he in jail simply
for being an intellectual?"[11] French philosophers Flix
Guattari and Gilles Deleuze also signed in November
1977 L'Appel des intellectuels franais contre la rpression
en Italie (The Call of French Intellectuals Against Repression in Italy) in protest against Negris imprisonment and
Italian anti-terrorism legislation.[12][13]
In 1983, four years after his arrest and while he was still in
prison awaiting trial, Negri was elected to the Italian legislature as a member for the Radical Party.[14] Claiming
parliamentary immunity, he was temporarily released and
used his freedom to escape to France. There he remained
for 14 years, writing and teaching, protected from extradition in virtue of the "Mitterrand doctrine". His refusal
to stand trial in Italy was widely criticized by Italian media and by the Italian Radical Party, who had supported
his candidacy to Parliament.[14]
In France, Negri began teaching at the Universit de
Paris VIII (Saint Denis) and the Collge international de
Philosophie, founded by Jacques Derrida. Although the
conditions of his residence in France prevented him from
engaging in political activities, he wrote prolically and
was active in a broad coalition of left-wing intellectuals. In 1990 Negri with Jean-Marie Vincent and Denis
Berger founded the journal Futur Antrieur. The journal
ceased publication in 1998 but was reborn as Multitudes
in 2000, with Negri as a member of the international editorial board.


ing written some of his most inuential works while behind bars.
In the late 1980s the Italian President Francesco Cossiga described Antonio Negri as a psychopath who
poisoned the minds of an entire generation of Italys

3 Political thought and writing

Unlike other forms of Marxism, autonomist Marxism
emphasises the ability of the working class to force
changes to the organization of the capitalist system independent of the state, trade unions or political parties.
Autonomists are less concerned with party political organization than are other Marxists, focusing instead on
self-organized action outside of traditional organizational
structures. Autonomist Marxism is thus a bottom-up
theory: it draws attention to activities that autonomists
see as everyday working-class resistance to capitalism,
for example absenteeism, slow working, and socialization in the workplace. The journal Quaderni Rossi (Red
Notebooks), produced between 1961 and 1965, and its
successor Classe Operaia (Working Class), produced
between 1963 and 1966, were also inuential in the development of early autonomism. Both were founded by
Antonio Negri and Mario Tronti.
Today, Antonio Negri is best known as the co-author,
with Michael Hardt, of the controversial Marxist-inspired
treatise Empire (2000).[10]
In 2009 Negri completed the book Commonwealth, the
nal in a trilogy that began in 2000 with Empire and continued with Multitude in 2004, co-authored with Michael
Since Commonwealth, he has written multiple notable articles on the Arab Spring and Occupy movements along
with other social issues.[17] [18]


Labor of Dionysus: A Critique of the

State-Form (1994)

In this book the authors ask themselves How is it, then,

that labor, with all its life-arming potential, has become the means of capitalist discipline, exploitation, and
domination in modern society?" The authors expose and
pursue this paradox through a systematic analysis of the
role of labor in the processes of capitalist production and
in the establishment of capitalist legal and social institutions. Critiquing liberal and socialist notions of labor and
institutional reform from a radical democratic perspecNegri was released from prison in the spring of 2003, havtive, Hardt and Negri challenge the state-form itself.[19]



Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire (2004)

Insurgencies: Constituent Power and the

Modern State (1999)

This book written solely by Negri explores the drama

of modern revolutions-from Machiavellis Florence and
Harringtons England to the American, French, and Russian revolutions-and puts forward a new notion of how
power and action must be understood if we are to achieve
a radically democratic future.[20]


Empire (2000)

Antonio Negri with Michael Hardt holding a copy of their cowritten book Commonwealth

Main article: Empire (Negri and Hardt book)


Multitude: War and Democracy in the

Age of Empire (2004)

In general, the book theorizes an ongoing transition

from a modern phenomenon of imperialism, centered around individual nation-states, to an emergent Main article: Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age
postmodern construct created among ruling powers of Empire
which the authors call Empire, with dierent forms of
Multitude addresses these issues and picks up the thread
where Empire has left o. In order to do so, Hardt and
Negri argue, one must rst analyze the present conguration of war and its contradictions. This analysis is per...according to Hardt and Negris Empire,
formed in the rst chapter, after which chapters two and
the rise of Empire is the end of national conthree focus on multitude and democracy, respectively.
ict, the enemy now, whoever he is, can no
Multitude is not so much a sequel as it is a reiteration from
longer be ideological or national. The enemy
new point of view in a new, relatively accessible style
now must be understood as a kind of crimithat
is distinct from the predominantly academic prose
nal, as someone who represents a threat not to
of Empire. Multitude remains, the authors insist,
a political system or a nation but to the law.
its ubiquitous subject matter and its almost casual
This is the enemy as a terrorist....In the new
book of philosophy which aims to shape a conorder that envelops the entire space of... civceptual
ground for a political process of democratization
ilization, where conict between nations has
present an answer to the question what to do?
been made irrelevant, the enemy is simultaor
for concrete action.
neously banalized (reduced to an object of
routine police repression) and absolutized (as
the Enemy, an absolute threat to the ethical
order[21] ).[22]


Commonwealth (2009)

Main article: Commonwealth (book)

Empire elaborates a variety of ideas surrounding constitutions, global war, and class. Hence, the Empire is
constituted by a monarchy (the United States and the
G8, and international organizations such as NATO, the
International Monetary Fund or the World Trade Organization), an oligarchy (the multinational corporations and
other nation-states) and a democracy (the various nongovernment organizations and the United Nations). Part
of the books analysis deals with imagin[ing] resistance,
but the point of Empire is that it, too, is total and that
resistance to it can only take the form of negation - the
will to be against.[23] The Empire is total, but economic
inequality persists, and as all identities are wiped out and
replaced with a universal one, the identity of the poor

In this book, the authors introduce the concept of the

republic of property": What is central for our purposes
here is that the concept of property and the defense of
property remain the foundation of every modern political constitution. This is the sense in which the republic,
from the great bourgeois revolutions to today, is a republic of property.[25] Part 2 of the book deals with the relationship between modernity and anti-modernity and proposes alter-modernity. Alter-modernity involves not
only insertion in the long history of antimodern struggles
but also rupture with any xed dialectic between modern sovereignty and antimodern resistance. In the passage
from antimodernity to altermodernity, just as tradition
and identity are transformed, so too resistance takes on

a new meaning, dedicated now to the constitution of alternatives. The freedom that forms the base of resistance,
as we explained earlier, comes to the fore and constitutes
an event to announce a new political project.[26]
For Alex Callinicos in a review What is newest in Commonwealth is its take on the fashionable idea of the common. Hardt and Negri mean by this not merely the natural
resources that capital seeks to appropriate, but also the
languages we create, the social practices we establish, the
modes of sociality that dene our relationships, which
are both the means and the result of biopolitical production. Communism, they argue, is dened by the common,
just as capitalism is by the private and socialism (which
they identify in eect with statism) with the public.[27]
For David Harvey Negri and Hardt in the search of an
altermodernity-something that is outside the dialectical
opposition between modernity and anti-modernity-they
need a means of escape. The choice between capitalism
and socialism, they suggest is all wrong. We need to identify something entirely dierent, communism-working
within a dierent set of dimensions.[28] Harvey also
notes that Revolutionary thought, Hardt and Negri argue, must nd a way to contest capitalism and the republic of property. It should not shun identity politics but
instead must work through it and learn from it, because
it is the primary vehicle for struggle within and against
the republic of property since identity itself is based on
property and sovereignty.[28] In the same exchange in
Artforum between Harvey and Micheal Hardt and Antonio Negri, Hardt and Negri attempt to correct Harvey in
a concept that is important within the argument of Commonwealth. As such, they state that We instead dene
the concept of singularity, contrasting it to the gure of
the individual on the one hand and forms of identity on
the other, by focusing on three aspects of its relationship
to multiplicity: Singularity refers externally to a multiplicity of others; is internally divided or multiple; and
constitutes a multiplicity over time - that is, a process of


Prison, with its daily rhythm, with the transfer and
the defense, does not leave any time; prison dissolves
time: This is the principal form of punishment in a
capitalist society.[29]
Nothing in my books has any direct organizational
relationship. My responsibility is totally as an intellectual who writes and sells books!"[30]
" is indeed necessary to recognize as a fact the
emergence of the B.R. [Red Brigades] and NAP
[Armed Proletariat Nuclei] as the tip of the iceberg
of the Movement. This does not require one in any
way to transform the recognition into a defense, and
this does not in any way deny the grave mistake of
the B.R. line. At one point I dened the B.R. as a
variable of the movement gone crazy... I state again
that terrorism can only be fought through an authentic mass political struggle and inside the revolutionary movement.[30]
In Empire the expansion of capitalism is supposed
to be 'internal' rather than 'external,' in that it subsumes not the noncapitalist environment but its own
capitalist terrainthat is, that the subsumption is no
longer formal but real."[31]

5 Selected works (English)

Negri, Antonio. Pipeline: Letters from Prison, translated by Ed Emery. Cambridge, Polity, 2015
Negri, Antonio. Insurgencies: Constituent Power
and the Modern State, translated by Maurizia
Boscagli. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota
Press, 1999. Reprint by University of Minnesota
Press, 2009.
Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, Commonwealth,
Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2009.
ISBN 978-0-674-03511-9


Occupy movements of 20112012 and


In May 2012 Negri self-published (with Michael Hardt)

an electronic pamphlet on the occupy and encampment
movements of 20112012 called Declaration that argues
the movement explores new forms of democracy. The introduction was published at Jacobin under the title Take
Up the Baton. He also published an article with Hardt
in Foreign Aairs in October 2011 stating The Encampment in Lower Manhattan Speaks to a Failure of

The Cell (DVD of 3 interviews on captivity with Negri) Angela Melitopoulos, Actar, 2008.
Antonio Negri, The Porcelain Workshop: For a New
Grammar of Politics Translated by Noura Wedell.
California: Semiotext(e) 2008.
Antonio Negri, Political Descartes: Reason, Ideology and the Bourgeois Project. Translated by Matteo
Mandarini and Alberto Toscano. New York: Verso,
Antonio Negri, Negri on Negri: In Conversation with
Anne Dufourmentelle London: Routledge, 2004.

Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, Multitude: War
and Democracy in the Age of Empire, New York:
Penguin Press, 2004.
(Un)Contemporary Variations, edited by Timothy S. Murphy, translated by Timothy S. Murphy,
Michael Hardt, Ted Stolze, and Charles T. Wolfe,
Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004.

English translations of recent articles by Antonio

Negri from Generation Online
Hardt & Negri (2002), Marxs Mole is Dead in
Between Historic Compromise and Terrorism:
Reviewing the experience of Italy in the 1970s Le
Monde Diplomatique, AugustSeptember 1998

Antonio Negri, Time for Revolution. Translated by

Matteo Mandarini. New York: Continuum, 2003.

Towards an Ontological Denition of Multitude

Article published in the French journal Multitudes.

Antonio Negri, The Labor of Job: The Biblical Text

as a Parable of Human Labor, (Forward: Michael
Hardt; Translator: Matteo Mandarini), Duke University Press, (begun 1983) 2009.

Extract from Negri and Hardts Empire at

Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, Empire, Harvard

University Press, 2000.
Hardt, Michael and Negri, Antonio. Labor of
Dionysus: A Critique of the State-Form. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994.
Negri, Antonio.The Savage Anomaly: The Power
of Spinozas Metaphysics and Politics, translated by
Michael Hardt. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1991.
Antonio Negri, Marx Beyond Marx: Lessons on the
Grundrisse, New York: Autonomedia, 1991.
Antonio Negri, Revolution Retrieved: Selected Writings on Marx, Keynes, Capitalist Crisis and New Social Subjects, 196783,[32] trans. Ed Emery and
John Merrington, London: Red Notes, 1988. ISBN
Antonio Negri, The Politics of Subversion: A Manifesto for the Twenty-First Century, Cambridge:
Polity Press, 1989.
Flix Guattari and Antonio Negri, Communists like
us, 1985.

Take Up the Baton.

6 Films
Marx Reloaded, Arte, April 2011.
Antonio Negri: A Revolt that Never Ends, ZDF/Arte,
52 min., 2004.

7 See also
Paolo Virno
Libertarian marxism

8 References
[1] Elsa Romeo, La Scuola di Croce: testimonianze sull'Istituto
italiano per gli studi storici, Il Mulino, 1992, p. 309.
[2] Maggiori Robert, Toni Negri, le retour du diable",, 3 July 1997.

Goodbye Mr. Socialism Antonio Negri in conversation with Raf Valvola Scelsi, Seven Stories Press,

[3] Antonio Negri Prole at the European Graduate School.

Biography, bibliography, photos and video lectures..
Saas-Fee,Switzerland: European Graduate School. Retrieved 2010-12-12.

Casarino, Cesare and Negri, Antonio. In Praise of

the Common. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota
Press, 2009.

[4] Portelli, Alessandro (1985). Oral Testimony, the Law

and the Making of History: the 'April 7' Murder Trial.
History Workshop Journal (Oxford University Press) 20
(1): 535. doi:10.1093/hwj/20.1.5.

Declaration, with Michael Hardt, 2012.


Online articles

Multitudes quarterly journal (in French)

Archives of the journal Futur Antrieur (in French)

[5] Drake, Richard. The Red and the Black: Terrorism in

Contemporary Italy, International Political Science Review / Revue internationale de science politique, Vol. 5,
No. 3, Political Crises (1984), pp. 279298. Quote: The
debate over Toni Negris complicity in left-wing extremism has already resulted in the publication of several thick
polemical volumes, as well as a huge number of op-ed

[6] Windschuttle, Keith. Tutorials in Terrorism The Australian, 16 March 2005

[7] Ganahl, Rainer. Marx is still Marx: Antonio Negri.
Semiotext(e). Retrieved 2013-10-28.
[8] Tecniche d'indagine. Quando il telefono un blu.
Panorama (in Italian). 29 September 2011.
[9] Lucio Di Marzo (10 December 2011). Dopo il caso Battisti,ora Toni Negri spiega la losoa ai francesi. Il Giornale (in Italian).
[10] Malcolm Bull (4 October 2001). You cant build a new
society with a Stanley knife. London Review of Books.
Retrieved 2010-12-12.
[11] Michel Foucault, Le philosophe masqu" (in Dits et crits,
volume 4, Paris, Gallimard, 1994, p. 105)
[12] Revised bibliography of Deleuze at the Wayback Machine
(archived June 26, 2008)
[13] Gilles Deleuze, Lettre ouverte aux juges de Negri, text n20
in Deux rgimes de fous, Mille et une nuits, 2003 (transl.
of Lettera aperta ai giudici di Negri published in La Repubblica on 10 May 1979); Ce livre est littralement une preuve
d'innocence, text n21 (op.cit.), originally published in Le
Matin de Paris on 13 December 1979
[14] Pannella: e' chiaro che mira all' amnistia. Corriere della
Sera. 22 June 1997. Retrieved 5 January 2011.
[15] The Independent, "Antonio Negri: The nostalgic revolutionary", 17 August 2004. Accessed 7/04/10
[16] Gray, John (20 November 2009). Commonwealth, By
Michael Hardt & Antonio Negri / First as Tragedy, Then
as Farce, By Slavoj Zizek. The Independent. Retrieved


[24] The problem, as they see it, is that postmodernist authors have neglected the one identity that should matter
most to those on the left, the one we have always with us:
The only non-localizable 'common name' of pure dierence in all eras is that of the poor (156)...only the poor,
Hardt and Negri say, live radically the actual and present
being (157). Walter Benn Michaels, The Shape of the
Signier: 1967 to the end of history (Princeton University
Press, 2004), pg 179-180.
[25] Antonio Negri and Michael Hardt. Commonwealth. Harvard University Press. 2009. Pg.15
[26] Antonio Negri and Michael Hardt. Commonwealth. Harvard University Press. 2009. Pg.107
[27] Commonwealth. Book Review by Alex Callinicos, March
[28] David Harvey, Antonio Negri and Michael Hardt. An exchange on Commonweatlh in Artforum. November 2009.
[29] Preface to his The Savage Anomaly. The Power of
Spinozas Metaphysics and Politics. [A study drafted by
the light of midnight oil in prison (ibid.), from April 1979
to April 1980]. Minneapolis/Oxford: University of Minnesota Press, 1981, p. xxiii
[30] Autonomia: Post-Political Politics, ed. Sylvere Lotringer
& Christian Marazzi. New York: Semiotext(e), 1980,
[31] Hardt and Negri 2000, p. 272.
[32] ""Revolution Retrieved"". Archived from the original on
25 October 2009.

9 Further reading

[17] Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, Arabs are democracys

new pioneers, The Guardian, 24 February 2011.

The Cell (DVD of 3 interviews on captivity with Negri) Angela Melitopoulos, Actar, 2008.

[18] Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, The Fight for 'Real
Democracy' at the Heart of Occupy Wall Street, Foreign
Aairs, 11 October 2011.

Empire and Imperialism: A Critical Reading of

Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri. Atilio Boron,
London: Zed Books, 2005. (Publishers announcement)

[19] Introductory page on the book by University of Minnesota

[20] Introduction to the book by University of Minnesota Press

Reading Capital Politically, Harry Cleaver. 1979,

second ed. 2000.

[21] Antonio Negri and Michael Hardt, Empire (Cambridge,

Massachusetts & London, England: Harvard University
Press, 2000), pg 6.

The Philosophy of Antonio Negri, vol. 1: Resistance

in Practice, ed. Timothy S. Murphy and AbdulKarim Mustapha. London: Pluto Press, 2005.

[22] Walter Benn Michaels, The Shape of the Signier: 1967 to

the end of history (Princeton University Press, 2004), pg

The Philosophy of Antonio Negri, vol. 2: Revolution in Theory, ed. Timothy S. Murphy and AbdulKarim Mustapha. London: Pluto Press, 2007.

[23] Walter Benn Michaels, The Shape of the Signier: 1967 to

the end of history (Princeton University Press, 2004), pg

Dossier on Empire: a special issue of Rethinking

Marxism, ed. Abdul-karim Mustapha. London:
T&F/Routledge, 2002.

Autonomia: Post-Political Politics, ed. Sylvere
Lotringer & Christian Marazzi. New York: Semiotext(e), 1980, 2007. (Includes transcripts of Negris exchanges with his accusers during his trial.)
ISBN 1-58435-053-9, ISBN 978-1-58435-053-8.
Available online at Semiotext(e)
Antonio Negri Illustrated: Interview in Venice, Claudio Calia, Red Quill Books, 2011. ISBN 978-1926958-13-2 (Publishers announcement)


External links

Media related to Antonio Negri at Wikimedia Commons

Quotations related to Michael Hardt and Antonio
Negri at Wikiquote




Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses


Antonio Negri Source: Contributors: DavidLevinson, Edward, Jahsonic,

Gabbe, Lquilter, Nerd~enwiki, Sir Paul, Kaihsu, JidGom, Charles Matthews, Harris7, Blogalvillager, VeryVerily, Rbellin, Fredrik, Fifelfoo,
Stephan Schulz, Mirv, ABC~enwiki, Ojigiri~enwiki, Hadal, UtherSRG, Wikibot, Milkbadger, Alan Liefting, Richard Myers, Peter Ellis, Neilc, Pgan002, Quadell, Phil Sandifer, Maarten Hermans, Karl-Henner, Esperant, D6, Simonides, Rich Farmbrough, Cnwb, Lulu
of the Lotus-Eaters, Xezbeth, Bender235, Cyclopia, Lycurgus, Nickj, Stephian, Bill Thayer, Whosyourjudas, Valve, Rmattson, Cesarschirmer~enwiki, Hydriotaphia, Andrewpmk, Dowcet, Polyphilo, JK the unwise, Voluntary Slave, RJFJR, VoluntarySlave, Ceyockey,
RyanGerbil10, Mel Etitis, Logophile, Lapsed Pacist, G.W., Turnstep, Qwertyus, Kbdank71, Josh Parris, Behemoth, Rjwilmsi, Salleman,
Ghepeu, Hanshans23, FlaBot, Chobot, YurikBot, RussBot, Kmorrow, Hede2000, Leutha, LaszloWalrus, Don Mitchell, Jonru, Stevenwmccrary58, Tomisti, Poppy, Curpsbot-unicodify, SoberEmu, Piquant, Sardanaphalus, Attilios, Lundse, SmackBot, John Lunney, Monty
Cantsin, Hmains, Betacommand, Mgasner~enwiki, GoneAwayNowAndRetired, Dahn, Kaliz, Mladilozof, Pipifaxa, Thorsen, Ohconfucius, Cast, BrownHairedGirl, Lapaz, Tazmaniacs, Gobonobo, Giordaano, Christian Roess, Johnyang2, FrFintonStack, Bobfrombrockley,
Nakedpunch, Cydebot, JackMcJiggins, Bomzhik~enwiki, C chawson, Thijs!bot, Biruitorul, Wiel, MeredithParmer, Nick Number, RobotG,
Zigzig20s, Frankie816, Lawilkin, Freshacconci, VoABot II, Mammouth~enwiki, Owenhatherley, FisherQueen, Job L, Mtevfrog, Maurice
Carbonaro, Laurusnobilis, David r from meth productions, Andreamubi, Gjashnan, Belovedfreak, Inwind, TreasuryTag, TXiKiBoT, Ctwolfe, Tomsega, Zithulele Dlamini, Dpianelli, Seraphim, Room429, TicklishSubject, AlleborgoBot, Oules, SieBot, Monegasque, LSmok3,
Vojvodaen, Rholi, The Four Deuces, Bjorn Martiz, SummerWithMorons, Kai-Hendrik, Wedineinheck, DionysosProteus, M4gnum0n,
DerBorg, Cloudtwenty, Good Olfactory, Addbot, Rachel0898, Smetanahue, Download, LaaknorBot, Roux, Woland1234, Numbo3-bot,
Xenobot, Marla hurov, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Waxworklibation, Eduen, AnomieBOT, Ump111, LilHelpa, Paperoverman, Omnipaedista,, WebCiteBOT, FrescoBot, Reddishwagon, Senecasigma, Citation bot 1, Jonesey95, AustralianMelodrama, Baucham, Trappist
the monk, Miracle Pen, Regancy42, Zujine, F, SandorKrasna, Leendert123, Polisher of Cobwebs, TYelliot, Teleclap, Ottiuser, Helpful Pixie Bot, Anentiresleeve, AlterBerg, Graham11, Jim Sukwutput, Ostera65, Makecat-bot, VIAFbot, CsDix, StefanoRR, Skytale23,
JaconaFrere, AKS.9955, Mike Kabinsky, Eteethan, KasparBot, Approximate Huw and Anonymous: 124



File:Ambox_important.svg Source: License: Public domain Contributors: Own work, based o of Image:Ambox scales.svg Original artist: Dsmurat (talk contribs)
File:Antonio_Negri_y_Michael_Hardt.jpg Source:
Michael_Hardt.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: DarkMoMo


Content license

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0