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Mind Your Manners

'Sociol toct is moking your guests feel ot home, even though you wish they were.'

Anon

Lead-in

Read these extracts, which describe what is considered the polite thing to
when invited to a social occasion in Britain. Discuss these questions.
1 Are any of the 'rules' the same in your country? Are any completely

dr

different?

2
3

Which of the rules seem sensible? Do any seem ridiculous?


Do you think rules like this are outdated, or do they serve any purpose?

lf you are invited for 8 pm, you should arrive


about 10-15 minutes later. ln fact, it's impolite
to arrive exactly on time.

It is not polite to refuse a course, unless you


can't eat the food for some reason such as a
health or diet problem. lf you don't like the food,
try to eat it anyway. lf you can only manage a
mouthful or two, eat lots of everything else.

It's not necessary to bring a gift lor the hosts,


but flowers or chocolates will always be
appreciated,

Smokers should ask the host and other guests


before lighting up at the table, and should be
prepared to take no for an answer. No one
should smoke untilthe end of the meal.

The fost should introduce you to other guests


you don't know, but you can introduce yourself
if he/she doesn't do this. A smile and 'Hello' is
enough at an informal party - you don't have to
shake hands.
G

Say thank you, by telephone or letter, but say it


promptly, within a couple of days at the most.

Forks go on the left, prongs upward; knives


(with blades facing inwards) and spoons on the
right. The basic rule is to use the cutlery
starting at lhe outside and working in.

Focus on Listening Bod Monners

S"

Paper 4, Part 4

You will hear five people giving examples of behaviour which they consider to
be bad manners. You will hear the recording twice.

TASK ONE lists the places where the examples of bad manners occur. Match
the extracts as you hear them with the places, listed A-G. Write the correct
letter in each box.
A in an office
B in sornebody's home
C in the street
D in a restaurant

[f'l
fl-'-l

I-]-t

E
F
G
r24

in a shop
in the street cir on public transport
in a shop or on public transport

[]-4l

lft

URMANNERS

e 4

TASK TWo lists the things that the five speakers complain about. Match the
extracts as you hear them with the topics, listed A-G. write the correct letter
in each boxA somebody not talking at all
fl_6-l
B somebody speaking too much
C somebody speaking rudely
D somebody not getting out of the way
E somebody allowing noise to go on during a conversation
F somebody who canrt do their job
G somebody interrupting a conversation to talk to another person
ol

f-]-rt

f-T'l

frr.t
t-l'

IMUSSIONPOINTS

What do you consider to be'the height of bad manners'?

a
1
2
3
4
5
b
c

Discuss in pairs what it would be good manners to do in these situations.


You are sitting in the middle of a row of seats during a concert when you are
overcome with coughs
Someone starts to tell you a story they've already told you before.

A friend asks you to give your honest opinion of a new item of clothing
they've bought. (You think it's awful.)
You have been invited to dinner but miscalculate the journey and arrive half
an hour early.
You have invited friends to dinner but they arrive before you've finished
cooking.
When you've finished, compare your ideas with other students.
Now compare yo'r:rnswers with the key on page 233.Doyou agree or
disagree with the advice given?

Ibxt
MICTION

1a

Before you read the text on the next page, decide which of the following
would cause offence.

Which gift would a Chinese friend consider to be in bad taste?


a an alarm clock b a lap top computer c a calculator
2 Which gift could offend a Hindu colleague in India?
a a silver pen and pencil set 'b a cut glass vase c a leather briefcase
3 Which gesture would cause offence in Greece?
a tapping one side of the nose with the index finger
b the uS and British oK sign, thumb and finger touching in a circle
c kissing the fingertips
Which way of calling the waiter is considered rude in Japan?
a raising and moving the index finger towards you
b moving the whole hand towards you, palm up
c catching the waiter's eye and moving the head backr /ards quickly
1

Read the first paragraph of the text on page 126 to find the answers to
questions l-3. Then read the rest of the text and the missing sections on
page 127 for the general meaning and the answer to question 4.

t25

*>

MTNDYoURMANNERS

GAPPED TEXT

Paper

l,Part2

For questions l-6, you must choose which of paragraphs-A _G on page 127 frt
intoihe numbered gaps in the following newspaper article. There is one
extra paragraph which does not fit in any ofthe gaps'
Remember to look for grammatical or logical links between paragraphs,

STRATEGY

including:

reference links such as personal pronouns (e.g. he, it, her, etc.) or
names/titles (e.g. Ann smith --+ Mrs smith). See list in Unit 5,page75.

.
o

parallel expressions such

as attempt --+

ffirt.

Mrs Stewart said she believed that

When in China, don't


give a clock as a gift. It symbolizes death.
When in Greece, don't make the OK sign,
thumb and forefinger touching in a circle.
It is an offensive gesture. When in India'
don't give a Hindu a gift made of cowhide.

It is sacrilegious.

common sense and 25 per cent thinking


about others.'

l2l

Her advice covers every aspect of social


behaviour, including smoking manners'
flag etiquette for banquets, writing letters
of apology, and the ProPer form for
business cards.

Some visitors follow a rule of thumb' They


weigh how much displeasing their host
matters to them against their degree of
personal discomfort.

people

develop respect for the country they are


going to live in,' said Claire Stewart, who
works for an organisation which teaches
manners to people being transferred

Everywhere,

it

has become extremely

complicated to be polite. Not only are


customs different but in many countrles
standards of behaviour have changed in
recent years.

l3l
-'I

had the option of not going in, but you

comPanies or

feel a bit of a fool if everybody else in


there is naked,' said the banker, who
decided to take the Plunge. To make

Letitia Baldridge. an authority on manners


in the United States and the author of a

matters worse, he was attending the house


party with his boss. The hot'tub session,
'was discussed,
during which business

book on the subject, said:

lasted three hours.

by their

universities.

said.

Alexander Moorrees, a young American


investment banker in London' was invited

by

some British friends

'l

Finally, at 3 a.m., fearing for his health, he


took all his blankets, went down to the
main living room, built a fire in the large
fireplace, and went to sleep in front of itHe has not been invited back.

of

consideration for others. It's 75 per cent

Name/title link which


answer links the speaker
in the previous paragraPh
and Her in the following
paragraph?

t26

lh Questions 3/4
Topic vocabulary link:
what do not going in/
naked/take the Plunge rcfer
to? The clue is in the last
sentence.

sPend a

die of hypothermia.'

snobbish ways of behaving' Manners are a


common sense and
combination

QuOStlon.2

to

weekend at their home in the country. The


weather was below freezing. The manor
house to which he had been invited had no
central heating and the bedrooms had no
fireplaces. 'I kept waking up every hour to
make sure I was still breathing,' said Mr
was worried I was going to
Moorrees.

'Good manners are not elite, artificial or

.,,;fo

tbe

sangfroid to decline with grace without


making the Australians feel stupid" sb

Herald Tribune
lnbrnational
d

overseas

8-3'

banker had done the right thing" althougt


he had an option. He cou.ld 'have had tbe

By Sherry Buchonqn

'During our briefings, we help

examples in Unit 6, page

linking topic vocabulary such as examination/enter/paper/answer/results-

Must One Be 5o Polite Thot lt Hurts?

NEW YORK

See

MINDYOURMANNERS

Para; A":"'""'

9 {

'Even though it felt quite good, an

waiter might well respond by bringing you two

Englishman's reserve scarcely allows him to


feel comfortable in these circumstances,, he
said. 'Coming out is just as embarrassing. I was

more drinks.

ffito "quite good'? The


mflhe is in the last

mtence.

all wrinkly.'

) Para. B
ffironoun link He

He could have followed Ms Baldridge's rule


No. 2 when visiting a loreign country:

muld refer to two

'Become familiar with the dress code in that

.Whronoun

link what

pursible men. Make

country.' If so, he might have added long johns

nme you make the

and a ski mask to his wardrobe.

mmfti

link

the correct one.

with foreign habits and customs that can create


great discomfort to the uninitiated.
In a business situation, 'short of doing
something unethical,' the best advice is usually

'to go along with whatever the foreign custom


is,' she
G

The British use this gesture to call a waiter, but

in Japan it's considered rude to beckon a waiter


by moving the index finger. In Germany the

M'CUSSIONPOINTS

Knowing how to behave abroad can save


people from some major social gaffes.
However, etiquette writers and experts disagree
over how far people should go in complying

A young British banker recently found himself


at a house party in Sydney. After a barbecue,
the hosts invited everyone to climb into a large
bath tub to relax. The hosts' rule was that to
participate you had to take your clothes off.

added.

Ms Baldridge, who began her career as social


secretary to an ambassador and his wife at the
US embassy in Paris, now teaches manners to
international executives and charges thousands

of dollars a session.

Discuss in groups. If you were going to live abroad, what aspects of manners
and social behaviour would you consider it most important to know about?
For example' dress codes for different occasions, useful gestures (and gestures
to avoid!), table manners, handling business cards, choosing suitable

tifu.

tffi

i.W i:'', inrrsrsion mft*r n*g#gfyff intrsdn*cti+ns


Not bnly are customs different but in many countries standards of behaviour have changed.
Clext)
After the expression Not only,ttr-,e verb is placed before the subject as a way of adding more
emphasis or
&amatic effect' lf there is no'auxiliatyu"rt, doldoesldid ar hod are used, as in a question.
e-g. Not only dtres she work long hours but she also has two children to look
after:
This inversion of subject and verb also happens after other negative introductions
such as:
ft.notime... Never ... Rarely... e.g. At no time hove lmade any such promise!
(ht no occount ...
e.g. On no account mustyou tell anyone,
t/ot a (personlthing) ...
e.g. Not a single person dld / see the whole evening.
I'lo sooner ... than ...
e.g. No sooner hod I come ln than the telephone rang,
;#

See

the Grammar File, page 139 for more information.

Rewrite these sentences, beginning with the words in brackets.


I He managed to offend everybody and then left without even saying goodbye. (Not only)
2 lt's not often you see people in traditional dress like that these days. (Rarely)
3 As soon as we went to sleep the baby began to cry (No sooner)

4
5

I forbid you

to touch anything on this desk. (On no account)


I haven't heard a word from him.since he reft eight weeks ago, (Not

a word)

t27

ltrNo vouR

MANNERS

Focus on Grammar

I Modol Verbs 2

For more information about modal verbs see the


Grammar File, pages 142-144-

took cash just in case, but they let me in for free'


I took my credit card, but they would only accept cash'

I didn't take any cash because I knew entry was free'

He should have taken cash'


He didn't need to take cash.
He needn't have taken cash.
He had to pay cash.

I
a
o
o
o
I
2
3
4

OUligation - Present and future


Look at the sentences below and decide which ones:

5
6

Taking photographs of military sites is forbidden'


Obtaining a visa is no longer compulsgry for British

describe an obligation or prohibition (OP)

describe absence of obligation or necessity (AO)

Complete the following sentences using a suitable


modal verb and the verb in brackets.
I I'm sorry I'm late. I ..'... (make) an urgent phone call'
2 You really ...... (apologise) to him at the time' lt's a bit

give slrong advice (positive or negative) (SA)

to arrive exactly on time'


lt's not necessary to bring a gift for the hosts'
lt's important to go along with the foreign custom'
ln future all applicants will be required to have a.

lt'S impolite

'

medical examination'

visitors to the United States'


There's no need to shake hands at an informal party'

7
b

Rewrite the sentences above using suitable forms of


the following verbs. Use each verb at least once'

must

hove

to

should need

Complete the following sentences with suitable verb


forms expressing obligation or advice.

I
.

ln China, you ....'. (never give) a clock as a gift, as it

You

symbolises death.

(write) or phone to thank your hosts after

dinner party.

3 You're overweight. You ...... (eat) so.many sweets'


4 You ...... (tell) a soul what I've said. Promisel
5 Deborah ...... (work) a lot harder if she wants to do
well in her exams.
(have) a medical certificate before you can get
permit.
a work

You

Don't worry you

......

.....'

(be) especially fit to join the

aerobics class.
B You ...... (use) that word, children. lt's rude'
9 Do I ...... (have) a receipt to get a refund?
l0 You ..,... (shout). I'm not deafl l

2
a

OHigation

Match each sentence in

t28

cash.

7
B

to use it.

The queue was quite short so I .""' (wait) very long'


I feel exhausted, I . .. (stay up) so late last night'

3
a

Permission? co,n, ma1, might, could


ln the examples below there is one incorrect
sentence. Which is it and why is it incorrectl

I
2

We were allowed to leave early yesterday'


Children could work at the age of l2 in the l9th
century.

3
b

On my eighth birthday I could stay up until 9 o'clock


Complete the following sentences with suitable verb

forms expressing Permission.


| 'Do you thrnk I ...... ask you a favour?' 'Yes, of course """
2 I apologise for interrupting, but...... a suggestion?
3 Before 1969,you...... in an eledion in the UK until you
were 2l
4 They wanted to keep him at the police station for
.

5
6

questioning but when his solicitor arrived, he """ home'


ln some societies couples ...... married unless they have
their parents' Permission.
lf we get work permits, we .....' , so we won't have to

take so much moneY with

l-4

with a suitable comment

They wouldn't let me pay by credit card: they made

me pay

..

chance

past

a-d.

5
6

local hotel.
You ...... (speak) to him like that you really upset him'
(take) a tent with us because we never had a
We

ought to

......

late now.
... (take) a cab because Joe gave us a lift in his car:
Our flight was cancelled so we ...... (stay) the night in a

3 We

7
B

us.

When my grandfather was young' you """ a car


without even taking a test.
You've got such an interesling face. I wonder if I """
take your photograPh?

MIND YouR MANNERs

Focus on

Writing

Article

S'

Paper

9 4

Z,Part2

You have a friend who works for an organisation that arranges study exchanges
for school and college students. The organisation produces a regular magazine,
which features articles about exchange countries, experiences people have had
abroad, etc. Here is part of a letter from your friend.

f,here'e been a big increaoe in f,he number of people applyinq for ef,udy
exchanqeo to your country - nearly double laotr year'o figureo, in tacf,,
Almoef, all will be elayinq wiNh local families and, ae if,'ll be f,he firsf, time
mool of lhem have been No your country, we lhought we ouqhN to puf, an
inbroducNion Io f,he basic cuetrome in the nexf, edif,ion of our maqazine.
3o I was wonderin4 * you've gueeeed ibl - it you could poeoibly wrif,e a
ehorb a(Dicle on the topic.You could explain any epecial habif,e No do
witrh qreef,inq, ealinq, beinq a qood queot, el,c,, and aleo include any
Voin|e about.family or eocial life which you Nhink lhey ehould be aware of.
I know you'd do a brillianl job and l'd be really 4raNeful.
HoVe No hear from you eoon,
Love

Write your article in approximately 250 words.

TTTSKCHECKLIST

CIONTENT/ORGANISATION

Read the instructions carefully and ask yourself these questions.

What form of writing do you have to produce? What special features does
this have? (layout? language?)

r
o
o

Who are your readers going to be? (ages?/interests?/needs?)

2 a

What is the purpose of the writing?


What points do you have to mention?
Discuss these possible titles with other students and choose the best one.

Notes for visitors

to

...

WLCOM TO MY COUNTKY!

When in Rome, do as the Romans do

How to be a popular guest

Try to think of another, better title. You could add a touch of humour, for
example, with a slightly unusual angle: 'How to be an unpopular guest'.

Make a list of the topics suggested in the question and jot down any ideas
you have for each one. Imagine yourself as a visitor to your country and
your family. What would seem strange? What mistakes might you make?

Decide on the best order for the topics.

Make your article readable. Remember your Jeaders' ages. How can you get
their attention to begin with? How can you keep them reading? What would be
a good ending? (See Unit 7, page 100.)
129

Focus on Vocabulary Collocotion


I a Match verbs from Column
VERB + NOUN

with phrases from Column B in each of the

two boxes below.

AB

1 throw
2 take

a
b

3 raise
4 make
5 give
6 cause
7 express

aproblem
aquestion

an exPlanation

d
e

regret
the oPPortunitY
aPartY

an excuse

VERB +ADVERB

I pay
2 give
3 put
4 do
5 catch
6 bring
7 altract

a
b
c
d
e
f
g

Match each adjective with a noun.


4 keen
1 glowing

2
3

somebody's eYe
somebody's attention

something uP to date
somebody right (about something)
something PrioritY
somebodY a comPliment

Match each adverb on the right with two of the following verbs'

apologise complain congratulate somebody


thank somebody welcome somebody regret
ADJECTTVE + NOUN

somebodY good

heatfeltldeepest
generous/lavish

5
6

disgraceful
invaluable

bitterly profusely

a interest d
b advice e
c behaviour f

warmlY

hospitality
symPathY

praise

Complete these sentences with collocations from Exercise 1.


1 I'm writing to say how much we enjoyed our stay and to thank you for

2
3
4
5
6
7
8

your...... .
you """ '
'Nhy don't you take a short break away' I'm sure it would ...."
pay
for it?
to
going
we
How
are
The ...... which nobody has ...... yet is:
Although I ...... for arriving so late,I'm not sure they'll invite me again.
A11 the reviews of your book were full of ...... ...... . You must be delighted.
Didn't you see me? I was shouting and waving to ...... your ...... '
He...... some feeble ...... about why he was late, but nobody believed him.
about having to pay a supplement
She likes travelling alone but she
for a single room.

Negotive prefxes

Make the following nouns and verbs'negative by adding the correct prefix, dis-, rnis-

ar in'.

l 3 convenience 17 comfort (n)


5 calculate 9 obeY
l8 print (n)
14 honesty
2 conduct (n). 6 respect (n) l0 action
ll represent l5 understanding l9 accuracy
7 ability
3 please

130

agr:ee

justice

'spell
' pronounce 17 appr:oval 16 attention 20

MINDYOURMANNERS

fiocus on Grammar

9 <

2 TyFe 3 ond Mixed Conditionols

I a Look at these examples of conditional

md underline the verb forms in the if clause and the

2 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense in


the following sentences.

nssult clause. Then answer the questions.

sentences

lf Alexander Moorrees had taken the right clothes, he

wouldn't have felt so cold in the unheated house.

Did he toke the right clothes?


Did he feel cold?

lf Letitia Baldridge hadn't spent many years working as


an ambassador's secretary she wouldn't be an expert
on international etiquette now.

She ...... (feel) much fltter now if she ..,... (oin) that

ls she cn expert on etiquette now?

aerobics class when it started.


I ...... (not become) an aclor if my parents ...,.. (not
force) me to go to the theatre when I was small.

The young banker could have offended his hosts if he


hadn't joined them in the bath tub.
Did he join hls hosts in the tub?

Did he offend his hosts?

I might be doing more business if I had bothered to


learn about local customs when I flrst
l

arrived.

Am I doing more business nottl


Did I leorn obout locol customs?

b Sentences I and 3 are examples of a type 3


onditional. Sentences 2 and 4 are examples of mixed
conditionals. Complete these notes about each type.

3 conditionols are used to talk about something


could
in the past, but ......................
ln atype 3 conditionol, the .......,...,...,...... tense is used in
the lf clause, and would hove, should hove, could hove or
might hove + .....,................ are used in the main clause.
Type

which

1
3
4

A mixed conditionol is used to talk about the


result of a past condition.
ln a mixed conditionol, would be or mtght be are used in
the ................,..... clause, and the past periect tense in the

clause.

What on earth.,....(you do) if you......(b") in the same


situation that night?
The company ...... (not make) so much money now if it
.. .,. (not carry out) the restructuring programme last
year.

Did she work os o secretory?

He ....,, (not be) so unpopular if he ...... (remember) to


bring some gifts for his hosts.
lf 1...... (not persuade) someone to lend me some
money I don't know how I .... (get home).

\,

Check your answers by referring to the Grammar File on


page 138.

Note: Other tense and time combinations are also


possible in mixed conditionals, for example:
lf John spoke Japanese, his company might have sent

him to Tokyo.
DoesJohn speok loponese?
Dld hls compony send hlrn to lopan?

ln this example, the f clause refers to an unreal condition


in the present, and a hypothetical result in the past. -

Read the story and answer the questions below.

Now living in Japan, Steve Dorland work for Hi-Tech, an


American technology magazine. A couple of years ago HiIech opened a small office in Tokyo and they sent Steve
out there. After the long flight from Boston, Steve arrived
in Tokyo tired and hungry. He took a taxi into the centre
and stopped at the first restaurant he saw. Although
Steve spoke no Japanese he was able to order by pointrng
to the dishes he wanted in the window drsplay At the
end of the meal a bill arrived. Anxious to find a hotelfor
the night, Steve left a pile of yen on the table,
remembering to add a 15%tip to the total, and rushed
out into the street. Suddenly he heard shouting behind

him. Looking around, he saw an anxious-looking waiter


running towards him with a flst full of cash. 'Oh no,'

thought Steve, 'How embarrassing. I didn't leave a big


enough tip.'

I
2
3

What do you think happened next?


Was Steve right? Why did the waiter run after him?
What are the tipping customs in a) Japan, b) the USA,
c) your country?

b
I
2
3
4
5

Now complete these conditional sentences.


Steve wouldn't be working in Japan now if
lf Steve had travelled abroad before .....

.....

He wouldn't have rushed out into the street if .,...


lf Steve had known about Japanese customs .....
lf the waiter had known about American customs

.....

l3t

t{

II
l!

il

MINDYOURMANNERS

==

Focus on Writing

Report

Paper

Z,Part

You are studying in a college which has both British and overseas students. The
college recently held an International Day, with eyents organised by the
students themselves, with the aim of increasing staff and student awareness of
other countries and cultures.
As a student representative on the Staff-Student Committee you have received
the letter below from the Principal. Read the publicity poster for the event, the

Principal's letter and the notes you made at a students' meeting. Then, using
the information given, write the report which the Principal requests.
You should use your own words as far as possible. Write approximately 250
words.

PUBLICITY POSTER

eafse ahsu

nd videos

PRINCIPAHS LETTER

* {::T;nooon,

see sride

, usten cookerl
'n::.1"}oi-r.r".ion'
Wo.tt
the worrd
. l]'l"t'';;'""':T:ffi::nd
to muslc"
c

Usten

: il;t"

the dancingld

FridoY

il
Ij

rrruch r*ore!

l''fth Feb?uory

Dear Student Rep,


Thank you for your help in organising the

International Day.
As you know, this was the first event of its
kind which has been held in the college. If we
are to hold similar events in future, we need
assess how successfuf the day proved to be and
to take note of any problems which occurred.

will also be considering the possibility of


increasing the budget available for future
events

f would be grateful if you could carry out a


survey amongst the students who attended the
event and prepare a short report on their
reactions. Please include some general
recommendations based on your findings.
Your help in this matter is appreciated.

R Dearinq
R. Dearing
Principal
r32

lrfi"e

MINDYouRMANNTns

r {

IIOTES FROM STUDENTS' MEETING, 24TH FEBRUARY

1UOGE,TION5 FOR FUTURE EVENT,


- Form Tlanninq Committee (at leaa| 1 month in

,NTERNAT' ONAL DAY


)urvey of )tudent )pinione

advance)

GENERAL

- ?ro7ramme/timetable of evenLa needed


- Traininq needed in 4ivinq preaentations and

- Very intereatinq, informative


- Food excellent! Dancinq qood fun
- Maybe a bit overambitioue for a firat event
- Definitely worth doing again

ueinq audio-vioual equip

PROBLEMg

Flannin4: - rather laat-minute,


ended up doin6

allthe

All equip (audio-vioual + kiLchen)

to

be checked

Colle?e could:

a few people

build up collection of auitable CDe

provide free eoft drinka/coffee and maybe help

towarda coot of food

work

)rqaniaation: - people didn't know what wae


happenin4 when
Eventa:

one or two preoenLations a

borinq

bit

went on too lonq

- no[ enou7h music from different


countrie6
Equipment: - elide projector got etuck
- muoic waan't loud enouqh
- rice cooker not available
Roomo: - not really enouqh opace for
dancinq

TASKCHECKLIST

think about these questions.


Form: How should a report be laid out and organised? Are there any special

o
o

Target reader: What is the appropriate style for addressing the Principal?
Purpose: What exactly do you waht to achieve?

a
b

Read the instructions again very carefully and underline the key points.

Read the instructions and


language features?

CONTENT

Read each piece of information and make your own notes,

words as far

as

usingyour own

possible.

ORGANISATION/LAYOUT

Refer to the example report and the notes in the Writing File (pages 165 and
166). Remember to include a brief introduction. You can include your
recommendations in your concluding section.

STYLE/RXGISTER

Refer to the example report and Useful Language section in the

Writing File.

t33

t-

F.

MIND YouR I.4ANNERS

$
il

English in Use

Developing Skills: Structurol Cloze

@ Paper 3, Part 2

Read the newspaper article quickly and answer these questions.

1 What is a'cabbie'?
2 What is going to happen to Mr Gunduz?
3 Why?

Complete the text by writing one word in each space. The exercise begins with
an example (0).

roffiWY#ffi$f, TAH"LS Hffi HYS W#ffiSH TAffiffigg

& Question

It takes some doing ro earn the title,


(0) 4.ry9r1.530,000 cabbies, of the worst
taxi driver in New York. On no subject
(1) ..... New Yorkers heap more criticism

also been (7) ..... to throw (8) .....


suitcases of unwelcome passengers on to

than on their taxi service. But the

the road.

Mr Gunduz has, (9)

points to a special point of


grammar. See Study Box,

authorities have nominated Mr Vehbi


Gunduz and are taking steps to revoke

champion in the shape of Michael Stonq


his lawyer. The driveE conceded Mr
Stone, is 'an individual who apparendr

page 127.

his licence.

has many, many problems', but at

The negative introduction

Mr Gunduz, aged 34,

Question

This is a way of quoting


which you will find in the
Writing File (page 167) if
necessary:

has

committed an unusually large number of


offences, even (2) ..... the srandards of
local taxi driving. (3) ..... to the Taxi and

Limousine Commission (TLC), Mr


Gunduz has rece ived 88 separate
summonses over rhe past five years and

Question 9

Notice the commas. This is


an expression of concession.
Check the list of linking
devices in the Writing File
(page I 70) if necessary.

t34

been convicted (4) ..... breaking TLC


rules 119 times. The offences (5) .....
from over-charging and reckless driving,

to verbally abusing passengers

and

expelling them (6) ..... his cab. He

has

(10) ..... 'he has never attacked

member

of the public'. That defence is accurate,


says the TLC, (11) ..... when Mr
Gunduz threatened murder recenrh.,
(12) ..... was against the person of an
airport taxi dispatcher.
(13) ..... strict new TLC rules, a
cabbie may lose his licence if he gets
three convictions (14) ..... using violence
or harassing his passengers. It (15) .....
Mr Gunduz just three days to achieve
the required number of violations.

nl

MTNDYouRMANNERs

English in Use

2 Developing Skills: Register Cloze

9 4

Paper 3, Part 5

In this task you have to use information from one text to complete another
which has been written for a different audience and purpose.
For questions 1-12, read the following Guest Comment Card and use the
information to complete the numbered gaps in the formal memo to staff. Use
no more than two words for each gap. The words which you need do not
occur in the Comment Card. The exercise begins with an example (0).

Housekeeping

Guest Comment Card

The bedepread waa torn, which we mentioned on the firat


day, but the Houaekeeper aeemed totally unintereated
and nothrn7 waa done about it.,

We would oppreciote your opinion ond suggestions for


improving our services.

Restaurant

Reception
Obviouoly reception sf,aff have never heard of 'aervice with
a emile'! Any queetion we aeked wae Lreated aa an
annoyin4 interruption.

)ervice unbelievably alow, and when the food finally came


there waa a mix-up with our order on two occasiona. Even
that would have been alri4ht tf we had once heard the
word'oorry'.

Doorman/Porters

Any other comments

Their uniforma were a diograce! Doean't the hotel have


irone? )taff werq uoually too buoy havinq a quick puff on
a cigarette (eurely thia can'L be allowed?) to be qf any

My huaband and I have atayed at the hotel on many


previoua occaaiona and have never had cau6e to complain
before, but we were extremely dieappoinLed by Lhe eervtce
we received thia time.

help.

From: Genera] Manager

Question

look for
information in the last

Two words:

section of the Guest


Comment Card and make
sure your answer combines
r,rith the preposition fo.

Question 6

Two words: \A{hat is the


problem if something is an
annoy ing int er r upt io n?

Question 9

One word: Why was there a


mix-upwith the order? Your

word must combine with


madelater in the sentence.

Questlon

12

Two words: Think of a word

which means pay no aflenlion


ro. The subject ofthe clause
is the matter - what kind of

structure is needed?

To:

att staff

fJ

ItEilo

L./Une

we have received a number


of complaints from a (0)
hoter'

H:"Jtln;;;;",ir"rthe

"'J-i

2o.r?lg
sharr rc-1"'l".isarins *no

One of the points raised


concerned the untidy (Z)
staff and I take this oppo.tl:rrii

of

ril
crean
:.:"if.
""u or.o"Ir;.,;;"rl::
T::"-ili;.":;""::;:"i;:*.:^.ni:
"i.rr were seen
!:"ji;
1 lsr of "o*"
course,
prohibited.
unirorms *.,=t

n.

strictly

These g,uests wer

abor.it. the unfriendly


.... rh" ;;;:pliil :i:?::"who
15)
apparently gave the
impression that they were (;;
to deal with any requests
(7)
f am aware that

some

(8) ,"'::ili,;.;:51"

in the kitchen have 1ed


to

in the restauranL. However,


it appears that. (9)
with orders were afso made.
these circumsLances,
least our quest.s could have fn
was (10)
expected
Fina11y, it is disturbing
reporred rhar a bedspreal to hei
Housekeepins "."uJj'."."?irir::::"i :ffi fl:::::
::?) horelbv
This
prides itself "r-;;.
of its service and f
"" ;;;thequality
stronslv
-i;-;;;;
imporrance
or maintaining
the hisrhesr sranda.d"
ffi:";ij::1"::::.::o
mainreini-^
,io._:

rl

FE:@

ffits

Grammar File
Page

Co mp a riso n

I
2

of

dj ectives/odyerbs

Reported speech

Comparatives and superlatives

137

os ... os

t37

Conditionols

I
2

Summary of forms

t38

Special points

r38

Emphatic structures

I
2

lnversion

t39
t39

Cleft sentences

Infinitive

I
2
3

The ro infinirive
lnfinitive without to
Perfect and continuous infinitive

t40
140

r40

-ing forms

|
2
3
4
5

-ing forms as nouns


Verb + -ing form

Other expressions + -ing form


Prepositions/comparatives + -ing form

Posiess;ys + -ing form


Modol verbs
I lntroduction

2
3

t4t

t47

information: ability

142
142

t42
143

permission

Semi-modals

Participle clouses
I A{jectival participles (reduced

2
3

relative clauses)
Adverbial participles
After conjunctions/prepositions

t43
144

t44
144

t45

Possiye

I
2
3

Form
Use
Special points

t45
t46
t46

Relotive clouses

I
2
3

4
5

Reporting statements
Reporting questions
Reporting orders, requests,

t47

suggestions, etc.

t47

Reporting intentions and hopes

147

Time reference

148

Capital letters

r48

Forming participles

t48

147

Spelling

I
2

Tbnses.'present

I
2

Present simple
Present continuous

Tbnses: exPressing the future


Summary of forms and uses
Ienses.' Present
Form

I
2
3

pe

149

r50

t50

rfect

General use
Simple v. continuous

l5t
l5t
t52

Ienses: post

Special characteristics

Detailed

t4t
l4t
t4t
t4t

I
2
3

Defining relative clauses


Non-defining relative clauses
Relative clauses with prepositions

t46
t46
147

I
2
3
4

Past simple

t52

Past continuous

t52

Past perfect

153

to talk about
hypothetical siruations
Reference Lists
-ing forms and infinitive
Past tenses

Reporcing verbs
Verbs not usually used in
continuous tenses
Verbs with a different meaning
in simple and continuous tenses

t53
154
154

t55
t55

FILE

GMMMAR

1.3 Adverbs

Comparatives and supertatives

l.l

Adjectives

Most adverbs form comparatives and superlatives with


more and most.
e.g. eoslly, more eosily, most easily

One-syllable adjectives add +r and -est


e.g. strong, stronger,strongest

Adverbs with the same form as adjectives form

lf the adjective ends in , -r and -st are added.

adjectives.

comparatives and superlatives in the same way as


e.g.

e.g. wise, wise[ wisest

lf the adjective ends in a consonant -y, this changes


-ier, -iest.

to

e.g.dry,drier, driest
lf the adjective ends in a single consonant after a single
vowel, the consonant is doubled.

fostest
hord, horder hordest
eorly, eorlier, eorliest

The following have irregular forms:


well, better best
bodly, worse, worst

,.4

e.g. hoL hotter, hottest

fo$ faster

The following have irregular forms:


good befter; best

Qualifying comparatives

Het

no

olderlmore intelligent, etc

hordly ony

bod, worse, worst

They

for forther (or further), farthest (or furrhest)

go

o littlelslightly fosterlmore smoothly" etc.


(quite) o lot

Two-syllable adjectives which end in -y add -er and -esl

lots

e.g. funny, funnier, f;nniesr

Most other two-syllable adjectives take more and most.

People

hove muchlfor

toke

e.g. ancient, more oncient, most oncient

less

free time now.

for fewer

doys off,

The following wo-syllable adjectives can form


superlatives \ /ith either the endings -erl-est or with
morelmosL

common cruel gent/e hondsome likely moture


norrow pleasont polite shallow simple stupid
Adjectives- of more than two syllables take more and rnost.
e.g. interestlng more interesting, most lnteresting

2
2.,

This structure can be used with adiectives and


adverbs, and also with much and many + noun. The
second os can be followed:

1.2 few and less


fewer (the comparative
plural nouns.

of

few) is normally used before

as... as...

by a noun, noun phrase

Heb cs toll os his fother.

or object pronoun

He thinks nobody knws


os much os him.

by a clause

e.g. fewer peopte, fewer opportunities


less (the comparative

of

tittte) is normally used before

uncountable nouns.
e.g. less tlme, iess money

ln informal English, however,

less is

often used with plural

nouns.
e.g. Ihere were /ess people than

Heb os toll ss his fother is.


He thinks nobody knows
os much os he does.

by possible, ever

I'll stoy os long os possrble.

or

He looked os hondsorne

usuol

The negative is formed with not os ... or not so


expected.

as

ever.
...

e.g. Shes not os careful os she should be.

He didn't do os well os he hod hoped.


We hoven't hod so much roin os lost yeor.
.,

137

cnanvrnn*

2.2

2,3

Qualifying comparisons with os..: os...

A,S

just

Special word order: os + adjective + alan +


noun + os ...

os hard-working os B (is).

e.g. A ls as hord o worker os B.

almost

works

This is an alternative and slightly more formal way of


expressing the meaning of A works as hard os B. ln this
structure, it is essential to place an indefinite article
before the noun. The negative is formed with not os ...

os hard os B (does).

neorly

quite
twice

Ais

not neorly

as hord-working os

or not such

(is).

not quite
not holf

doesn't work

...

e,g. Thot wds os fine a game cs /ye eyer seen.


It wosn't os windy o doy os hod been forecost.

I'm not such dn expert player as you ore.


os hord os B (does)

neorly

guite

holf

reguires

holf

os much energy as Y (does).

twice

as mony players os Y (does).

five times

Conditionals

Summdry

oJ

Mixed conditionals

forms

. The conditional types abirve can be combined in several

Type 0: Conditions which are always rrue

lf

present

form +

ways. The most common are:

presenr form

or imperative

When
e,g. When yoa put solt on ice,

it

lf

melts,

l: Conditions which

infi

nitive

e.g. lf you hod driven faster, we could be there by now.


lf she hodn't decided to chonge job.s, she would be

are very probable in the

Present or future

form

past perfect simple/continuous

could I might

lf you see her, gve her my love.


Type

Unreal conditions in the past with an unreal present or

future result.

gotng to Chino next month.

future form or

Unreal conditions in the present with an unreal past

e.g. lf I leove now, /1/ mlss the rush hour.


Type 2: Conditioris which are improbable

the present or future


If past simple/continuous

result.

or impossible

in

lf

would, could, might +

e.g. lf I didn't trust him, I wouldn't hove let him look

infinitive

ofter the boby.

e.g. lf you met the President, whot would you soy to him?

lf I spoke Japonese, / might hove got thot job.

lf they lwed o bit neorer we mrght see them more


often.
Type 3: Unreal conditions in

pastsimple/continuous

couldlmight have + pasr pa

the past

If

past perfect simple/continuous


couldlmight or hove + past participle

wouldlshouldl

Special points

2.,

Conditional links

Apart from ifi the following links can be used to


introduce conditional clauses:

unless

e,g. lf the telephone hodn'twoken me, I'd hove been

appointment

late for my
She could hove gone to unlersity

if

she'd wonted

os/so /ong

os

suppose/supp osing (thot)

providinglprovided(thot) oncondttion(that)

la.

GMMMAR

2.2

no comma is used.

Inversion with should/were * infinitive


ln very formal situations should + subject (in type I
conditionals) and were + subject + infinitive with to (in
type 2 conditionals) can replace rf;
e.g. Should you need ony help, pleose don't hesltote to

Should

In type

2.5

Punctuation

When the if clause comes first in the sentence, it is


followed by a comma. When the main clause comes first,

2,3

FILE

contoct me.

conditionals should + infinitive (without to) in

Were we to increose the loan, would you guorontee

the if clause makes the condition less likely.

repoyment?

e.g.lf you should need ony help,/ust /er me know.

2.4

Were + infinitive

(with to)

ln type 2 conditionals were + infinitive with to in the.rf


clause can be used in formal contexts.
e.g. lf we were to occept your conditions, would you be
prepored to increase the loon?

Emphatic structures

Little, few, so, such when not followed by a noun.


e.g. Litt/e do you know what's in store for you!

lnversion

5o strong wos the wind thot I could itot control the

The following expressions can be placed first in a clause


in order to give more emphasis or a more dramatic
effect. The subject and verb are then inverted. lf there is
no auxiliary verb, doldoes or did are used, as in a
question.

Rorelylseldom,., Nowhere (e/se)


Never,,.
Not (o soull o thing etc)
At no time,.,
N ot only .,. but olso

,,.

..,

Under no circumstonces
On no occount
Nobody

...

Hordlylscorcely .., when

No sooner
ln voin ...

...

...

...

thon

,.,

...

meettng.

Not c slng/e word would he say on the subject


Not only does he drop ash on the corpet but he olso
spil/s his tobocco.

Hordly had I sot down when the doorbelt rong.


No sooner did she hong out the woshing thon it
begon to rain.

The following additional expressions can also be used in


this way in certain circumstances.
Only before adverb of time (now,loter, etc.) or when
qualifiing an introductory phrase.

I understand why you behaved

Such is fotel

Cleft sentences

Cleft (or divided) constructions can be used to highligtt


particular items of information in a sentence by puaing
them into a separate clause of their own. They are used
in both speech and writing, but are especially useful in
writing, where emphasis cannot be indicated by
intonation. There are two main types of cleft
construction.

e,g, Never hoye I seen such on owful srghtJ


Under no circumstances must you interrupt the

e,g. Only now do

cor.

os you

dtd.

Only in Cornwoll con you buy real Cornish postles.

2.1 WhottThe

thing, etc. + clause


This structure is used to place special emphasis on the
subject, object or complement of a sentence.
e.g. 5he wonts to heor evidence thot he cores.
Whot she wonts to hear is evidence thot he cores.
(emphasis on the object)
Lock of communicotion couses most problems.

This kind of cleft sentence often uses general terms like:


the person (who), the thing (that), the place (where), the
reason (why), etc.
e.g. The thing thot couses most problems ls /cck of
communicotion. (emph'asis on the sqblect)
Lock of communico{ron ls the thing thot cduses most
problems,

This structure can also emphasise the verb, by using


doldoes or did as a substitute in the whot clause.
e.g. She opplied for onother job.
What she did wos (to) opply for onother

job.

Bg

cnnmrrn rru

There is usually an implied contrast with something that


was said previously.
e.g. I con't help you find o husbond. Whot I can do is help
you moke the most of your looks.

type, it implies a contrast with a previous statement.


e.g. Whot you say isn't importont, but how.
It isn\ whot you soy thot\ importont but how.
(emphasis on the subject)
The differences /ie in the woy men ond women

2.2 lt + be + thot

tok

This type of cleft structure can put emphasis on most


elements ofthe sentence, except the verb. Like the whot

It\ in the woy

men ond women talk thot the

differences [e, (emphasis on

lnfinitive

The infinitive without to is used:

The to infinitive

The to infinitive is used:

l.l

e.g. Iheres o reporter here to interview you.

after certain verbs (thgre is a list of the main ones

on page 154).
eg. We can't offord to go out

after modal verbs.

e.g. We could telephone to see how she is.


Why con't you be more considerote?

to express purpose.

1.2

lnfinitive without to

2.1

I go swimming to try ond keep my weight down.

2.2

after the objects of certain verbs.

moke, let and sometimes help


e.g. She wouldn't let me poy for the damoge.
You

much.

can't moke me

go.

The porter will help you corry your coses.

Don't hesitote to contoct me if you need help.

1.3

the advedrial)

after the objects of certain verbs (there is a list of

the main ones on page 154).

heor, see, feel, notice, wotch when used in the sense of


perceiving a complete action. (When part of an action is
perceived, an -ing form is used.)

e.g. You surely don't exPect me to come with you?

e.g. Didn't you hear me shou? (Compare: I heord o top

Could you'rerhind me to post this letter?

drrpping so I got up.)


I sow him go into the building. (Compare: / sow

Red causes people to feel in o hurry.

1.4

after the auxiliary verbs be and have.

e.g. Does she have to be so cggressive oll the time?

him tolking to someone.)

2.3

after would rot!rcr ..., hod beaer ... and wlry not

...1

e.g I'd rother speok to you in privote.

The police ore to stort towing awoy vehicles soon.

You'd better hurry up.

1.5

e.g. They're bound to be hungry when they orrive.


Fortunotely, it's not likely to happen.

1.6

after tno + adiective and adjective + enough.


e.g. /ts just tjo hotto eoL
Are you ftt enough to toke port in the race?

1.7

Why nottoke q breoQ

after adjectives.

as

the subject of a sentence.

e.g. Io spend so much money would be foolish.


Ta err is humon, to forgive divine.

Pedect and continuous infinitive

3.1

The perfect infinitive (to + hole + past participle)

used

to refer to the

e.g.

past

/ts usefulto hove hod some experience in the field.


I'd like to hove known him bener.

is

]t
RAMMAR

3.2

The continuous infinitive (belto be + -ing form)


is used for actions which are or were happening at

the time of speaking.

/ts

e.g.

nice to be toll<ng to sorneone who knows therr

FTLE

can be used with modal verbs.


e.g. We could be lying on the beoch insteod of sitting in
this trafftc jom.

See Grammar File, page 145

for

passive infinitives.

subject

-ing forms

Prepositions/conjunctions

4.1

-ing forms can be used after any preposition.

-ing forms as nouns

-ing nouns, or gerunds, can be used with an article, with a


possessive adjective, and with other determiners that go
with uncountable nouns such as thislthot" somelany, much
Iiule, morelless, oll, etc.
e.g. You'll enjoy the singrng
Any cheoting wrl/be severely punished.

I'm doing less driving now.

When used with an article, an -ing noun doesnt normally


take a direct object.

of:
we say:
lnstead of:
we say:
lnstead

* Ihe srgning the teoty


Ihe signing of the treory
* The opening the motorwqy
The opening of the motorway

* An asterisk indicates an incorrect utterance.

Verb + -ing form

Certain verbs are followed only by -ing forms (or nouns).


e.g.

know how he detests going to parties.


Let me know when you've finished workng.
Yo,u

Note: need + -ing form has a passive meaning.


e.g. Your house needs poinang.

There is a list of verbs which are followed only by -ing


forms on page 154. A few verbs can take both -ing forms
and infinitives with little difference in meaning, while
there are others which can take both forms but with a
difference in meaning (see lists on page 154).

.t'

-ing form

verb + preposition + -ing form


I flnally succeeded in starang the cor.

noun + preposition + -ing form


Doing yogo is o good woy of reloxing.

adjective + preposition + -ing form


He s good at coming up with so/utions.

Other verbs, nouns and adjectives followed'by


prepositions are listed on page 154.

4.2

-ing forms are used after the following time


conjunctions: before, ofter, when, while, on, since.

e.g. After checktng the door was securely locked, she

|eft..

For more detailed information about participle clauses,


see Grammar File, pages 144-145.

Possessive

a -ingform

An -ing form after a verb, preposition or other


expression may be interrupted by a possessive pronout
(e.g. her) or noun + 's to show a change of sut{*t
e.g. We opprecioted Helens offeringto help.

We apprecioted her offering to help.


I hope you won't mind my interrupnng yau.
I look forword to your joining us.

to get out of it.


ln informal speech, a noun or personal pronoun may be
/t's no use her trying

used instead.

Other expressions * -ing form

Other expressions which take -ing forms, such as con't


stand and no use, are listed on page I 54.

t4t

cnnNuenrrc

Modal verbs

(con) Were you oble to ftnd o bonlQ


Did you manoge to find o banlQ

lntroduction

Modal verbs are a special kind of auxiliary verb. Like

other auxiliary verbs, they are always used with a main


verb but modal verbs express an ottitude to what we say.
They can express how certain or uncertain we are about
an event, or how willing or unwilling we are to do
something, for example.

There are three so-called semi-modals: dore, need and


used to. These have some special characteristics which
are described later.
The modal verbs in English are:

con might sholl


could 'must

moy

ought

Detailed information

3.1 Ability:

3.l.l

con, could, oble to

Con is used

to talk about present ability

and

awareness.
e.g. Hotidoys con domoge your heolth.
Con you heor me?

It can also be used ro talk about furure ability (but not


awareness), often with the idea of personal willingness.
e.g. Con we meet tonighO

I can give you o ltft tomorrow, if you like.

would

should

to

3.1.2 As

wtll

con has no infinirive, be able to is used with wr[


tq etc.
e,g. we'll be oble to gtve you on onswer soon.
Will you be able to see the stoge2
/ used to be oble to swim 20 lengths without stopping.

going to, used

Specialcharacteristics

2.1 Modal verbs are followed by the base form of the


verb or by the base form of be (present) or hove (past) +
participle.
e.g.I might go. You could rent o car.
Would you like to sit down?
They

night be having

dinner,

He could hove left the country,

2.2

3,1.3 Coutd is only used ro talk about general ability in


the past. To talk about a specific example of ability, we
use wos able to. Couldn't refers
specific ability.
e.g. I could drive when I

Modal verbs do not inflecr, i.e. they do not take an


third person or -lng or -ed.

Modal verbs do not take the auxiliary do. The


negative is formed by adding not.
e.g. You con't go in there.
It mightn't roin ofter oll.

one)

Questions are formed by inverting the subject and


the modal. Modal verbs are also used in question tags.
e.g. Must you make thot noise?
Moy I come

in?

You'd join, wouldn't you?

2.5

Modal verbs'have no infinitive. Oth'er expressions


must be used instead.
e.g. (con) Witl you be abte to help me?
(must) I'm going to hove to leove.

Modal verbs have no past form, and other


expressions must be used instead. (For special uses of
could und woul4 see notes below.)
e.g. (must) I hod to chonge the tyre.

r42

15.

3.1.4 Could + perfect infinitive is used to talk about how


things might have been different. lt can also sutgest
criticism.
e.g. He could have been on octor, (But he didn't become

2.4

2.6

and

Luckly I wos oble to find o toxi.


I couldn't dne till I was 25.
I'm ofroid I couldn't frnd o toxi.

-s in,the

2.3

wos

to both general

'

hove telephoned me to soy you'd be lote.


(But you didn't phone)

You could

3.2

Degrees of likelihood, assumptions and


deductions: rnust, can'tn could, may, might

3.2.1

Could, moyand mrlht are used to talk about the


possibility of something. Strong possibility is indicated by
adding well;weak possibility is indicated by adding possibly.
e.g, Dont eot itJ tt coutdlmaylmight be poisonous.
Prices might we//rlse.
I might possibly be wrong.

'nl
MMMAR

Negative possibility is indicated by moylmight +


mL Couldn't indicates impossibility.
e.g. He might not hove our phone number.

3.2.2

e.g. You mustn't moke too much noise

Must is used to say that you are certain that


something is true or is going to happen, while cont is
used to say that you are certain that something is not

true or is not going to happen (unavoidable assumptions


and deductions based on what you know).

You

don't hove toldon't need to moke on

3.3.5 Should and ought to express strong advice or


obligation. They are very close in meaning, but note the
difference in word order in the examples below. The past
is formed with a perfect infinitive.
e.g. I should reolly tidy the house up.
You reolly ought

to tidy the house up.

They shouldlought to hove been more coreful.

It con't be her ot the door. She's owoy on holidoy.

expressed by using a perfect infinitive.


e.g. He could hove been held up by troffic. (possibility)
You must hove been terrified. (certainty)
She can'tlcouldn't have token it. (impossibility)

woke the

opporntment to see hlm.

e.g. /t must be 6 o'clock lheres the time srgnol

3.2.4 Assumptions and deductions about the past are

you'll

boby!

Ihe news couldn't be better.

3.2.3

or

FILE

3.3.6

Need exists both as an ordinary verb and as a


modal auxiliary. lt is used as a modal auxiliary mainly in
questions and negative statements in the present tense,
to express lack of necessity, and in the expression needn't
have done (see 3.3.7 below).
e.g. Need you oslQ

3.3

Obligation: rnust, need, ought to, should

You needn't shout, I'm not deofl

3.3.1. fiust and rnustnt are used to say that it is very


important to do, or not to do, something. This can be a
personal recommendation, a strong suggestion or an

to v. neednt have done: didn't need to is


used when something wasnt necessary so wasnt done,
while neednt hove is used when something was done

obligation (see also 3.3.2 below).


e.g. You must try the ice creom. lt's de/icious.
We mustn't forget to write and thonk them for then

even though it turned out to be unnecessary.


e.g. He didn't need to go to court becouse the cose wcs

3.3.7 Didn't need

dlsmissed.

I needn't hove dressed smordy. When I got there,

hospitoltty,
You

musttry to be more punctuol.

3.3.2 Obligation

in the past is expressed by hod to.


Obligation in the future can be expressed by must when
the obligation already exists now. lf it will only exist in
the future, will have to is used.
e,g. He told me thot I hod to try horder.
You must telephone first before you orrive next time.

lf I'm late, I'll hove to toke o toxi.

everyone wos in jeons.

3.4

Permission: con, may could

3.4.1

Talking about permission

Con and may are used to talk about what is and isnt
permitted in the present. Moy not is more formal than
connot.
e.g. You con leave school when you ore

l6

but you

connot vote.

3.3.3 fiust

v. have to: rnust usually expresses an

obligation which comes from the speaker while hove to


generally expresses a more impersonal obligation.
e.g. You must send me o postcord. (friend speaking)
You hove to hove o viso to enter the country. (travel
agent speaking)

3.3.4 mustn't

y. don't have toldonl need to: mustn't

expresses negative obligation while the other forms


express absence of obligation.

Under the low you moy moke one photocopy for your
personol use, but you moy not moke multiple coples.
Could and woslwere ollowed to are used to talk about
activities which were generally permitted in the past.
Only waslwere allowed to can be used to refer to
permission given on a particular occasion.
e.g, At school we could weor ony c/othes we wonted,
oport from jeons,

When the World Cup wos on


stoy up lote ond wotch.

-N,

lwos ollowed to

Wilt be obte tolwitt be allowed to are used


future permission.

to talk about
143

p.

cnrNum rue

3.4.2

Asking for and giving permission

When asking for permission to do something, con is the


least formal, while could and moy are more polite. The
addition of possibly or the use of the form I wonder if I ...
makes the request more polite. Mightis very formal.
e.g. Con I borrow your pen for o minute?
Could I (possibly) use your telephone?

'

Moy I

nome os o referee?
I wonder if I could interrupt you for o momen|
Might I make o suggestlon7
use your

When replying to a request for permission, only can and

The meaning is the same as when they are used as


ordinary verbs.
e.g. I doren't walk through the pork ot night.
How dare you speok to me like thoi?
We needn't hurry. The film doesn't stort till B.

4.2

dare

ln the present simple, dore sometimes takes an -s in the


third person singular, while the past simple is usually
formed with -d. Dare can also be used with the auxiliary
do and didn't, and with the modals will, would and shou/d.
e.g. Shes the only one who dores chollenge him.

rnoy are used.

Don't you dare do thot ogoin.


Nobody dared leove before the end.
We didn't dore tell him whot reolly hoppened.
Would you dore go there alone?

e.g. Yes, (of course) you conlmay.


No,

(l'n

afroid) you con't (connot)lmoy not.

4 Semi.modals: need,

dore, used to

These verbs exist both as ordinary verbs and as modal


auxiliary verbs. As modals, they have certain special
characteristics and the main points of these are described
below.

l.a

dorc and need

These verbs are mainly used as modal auxiliaries in


questions and negative sentences in the present tense.

4.3

Used to

to the past. ln general, its use as a


modal auxiliary (Used you to ...? He used not to ...) is more
formal and less common than its use as an ordinary verb
with did. ln the negative, neyer used to is often used
Used to only refers

instead of didn't use to.


e.g. Didnt you use to ploy in the school orchestro?
He never used (didn't use) to be so mean.

detectlye in another murder mystery, ls her best yel

Participle clauses

(= which feotures: non-defining)

lntroduction
Participle clauses are common in written English because
they enable the writer to convey information in a
concise, economical way, avoiding unnecessary words.
There are two types of participle clause, which are
described below.

'l

Many of the people woiting outside the poloce had


been there for hours.

,.2

Adjectival clauses formed with a past participle have


a passive meaning. The past participle shows how the
noun has been affected by an action.
e.g. Irees blown over by the storm were blocking the

Adjectival participle clauses (reduced


relative clauses)

,,rood.

switched to o healthier dlet

l.l

2.1

r44

(= who ore worried: non-

defining)

non-defining.

e,g. Ihe outhols lotest book feoturing the fomous

(= which hod been blown over: defining)

We stoyed ot the hotel recommended by the trovel


ogent (= which hod been recommended: defining)
Mony people, worried obout their heolth, have

Adjectival participle clauses have the same function as


relative clauses, which is to give further information
about a preceding noun. They can be expanded into a
full relative clause, and may be either defining or

Present participle clauses generally have an active


meaning. They are used to refer to actions that happen at
the same time as the main verb.

(= who were woiting, defining)

Adverbial participle clauses


Participle clauses can indicate the sequence of

events.

The present participle is used when the action in the

GMMMAR

participle clause and the main clause happen at about


the
same time.

I saw the old house. (= When t


turned the corner, I sow .., I I turned the corner ond
sow ...)
He stormed out of the room, slomming the door

main clause.
I

e.g, Knocked to the floor, the ycse smcshed into pieces.


Knocked to the floor, / smashed the yase lnto pleces,

Nof x

...)

The perfect participle is used when there is a time


difference between two actions.

Participle clauses after prepositions and


certain coniunctions

Participle clauses can be used after the following


prepositions and conjunctions: despite, on, os, before, ofter,

e.g. Hoving flnished the report, she wenr out


for o wolk

2.2

when, whenever, while, since, until.


e,g. I foiled my driving tes[ desplte hoving token 25 lessons.
ln some jobs, you have to retire on reoching 60.

Participle clauses can replace adverbial clauses of


reason, result and condition.
e.g. Not being on expert on the subjecg I con,t onswer
thot questton. (reason)
Hoving lived in the country o long trme, I know o lot

He's perceived as being o hord mon.

obout its customs ond culture. (reason/result)


Serviced regulorly, the engne should lost
for mony

goingto

Passive

goingto be + p.participle
You're going to be tested

Form

Modals

(present)

Modals

(past)

l-.-l

The passive puts emphasis on the person or thing


affected by an action rather than on the agent (whoever
does the action). To change a sentence from active to
passive, the object must become the subject
of the new

,.2

The passive is formed with the appropriate tense of


the verb to be + past parriciple.

Present

simple

amlislore + p. participle

continuous

+ p. participle

The door hos been locked.

Past simple
Past continuous

woslwere + p. participle
It wos mode of silver.

Past perfect

Future simple

hod been + p. participle


The cup had been broken.

willbe + p. parciciple
They'llbe uiticised.

+ p. parriciple

suggests that the action described was accidental


rather

than intentional.
e.g. Ihe trees got blown down in the storm.
I'm ofroid your file got /ost in the move.

1.4 An impersonal construction can be used after verbs


of mental processes, such as ogree, allege, believe,
feel,
judge, know, n)mour, say, think.

woslwere being + p. participle


The cotwos being chased.

have been

Get + past participle can be used as an alternative to the


be + past participle form in informal contexts. lt usually

omlislore being + p. participle


hoslhove been

1.3 Get + past participle

I'm being followed.

Present perfect

modal

He's hoping to be invited.

He is colled 'Lofty'.

Present

modal + be + p. participle
The c,ar might be gtoten.

rnnnitive :"#j'.T:.Tffit

sentence and be followed by a passive form.


e.g. Active: Sorneone hos scrotched my cor.
Passive: My cor hos been scrotrhed.

years, (condition: lf you serylce it regutarty, ...)


Participle clauseS us0ally have the same subject as the

e.g. Turning the corner,

behind him. 1= ... ond

FILE

It + passive + that clause


e.g, lt wcs ogreed that membership
fees

should

raised.

It is hoped thot the summit meeting wrl/ be successfu/.


Subject + passive + to infinitive/perfect infinitive
e.g. She ls belleved

to

hove

good chonce of winning.

He is rumoured to hove had secret dealings with the


enemy.

145

r
t;

cnervan rtu

2.4 to make a statement

more formal and impersonal,


and often deliberately to avoid mentioning the agent.

Use

The passive is used:

e.g. Your licence has been revoked.

It wos felt thot he wos ot foult,


Ihis is be/ieve d to be the only exomple in the country-

2.1

when the agent is not known or not imPortant, or


when the agent is obvious from the context.
e.g, Ihe roof's been repaired

ot

lost.

I'm hoping to be promoted next yeor.

2.2
you

when the agent is people in general (to avoid using

or

one)

Special points

3.1
to

moke, hear, see are followed by an infinitive withom

in the active, but by the infinitive with to in the

passive.

e.g. Irckets con be reserved by colling the Box Office'


The centre of town should be avoided during rush

e.g. They mode me leove. I wos mode to leave.


I heard them shout. They were heord to shout.

hour,

2.3

when the action or event is more important than

the agent, as in describing processes or scientific


experiments.
e.g. Ihe buds ore ftrst cleoned with mtld detergent to
remove the oil ...
Woter is then odded to the mixture in the test tube

3.2

let has no passive form. lnstead, the verb allow is


in
the passive.
used
e.g. They didn't let me poy for the damoge. I wosn't
ollowed to Poy for the domoge,

Notes

Relative clauses

I sow him go into the building. He wos seen to go inm


the butlding.

Defining relative clauses

English.

A defining relative clause makes it clear who or what


we're talking about and is essential to the meaning of the
sentence.
e.g. t'm afraid I've /ost the book thot you lent me.

I met yesterdoy.
Less formally, we would say:
e.g. Ihe mon whom

The mon (who) I met yesterday.

or

which.

e.g. Ihe typewriter thot you so/d rne hos gone wrong'
OR lhe typewriter yoiu sold me hos gone wrong,

Commas are not used before the relative Pronoun.

subiect

object

People

wholthot

wholwhomlthot

Things

whichlthot

whichlthot

Place

where

Time

when

Reason

why

t46

to both people and things.

collopsed.

Thot often replaces who

The relative pronoun can be omitted when it is the


object of the clause.

Whose can refer

e.g. Ihe womon whose dog ron owoy;A house whose roffi

Special points

a
b

Whom is very formal and mainly used in written

possessive

That normally follows superlatives and words like


somethingl onythingl nothingl oll I noneI mony and few.

Non-defining relative clauses

A non-defining relative clause gives extra information


about a person or thing and is not essential to the
meaning of the sentence.
e.g. We went on on excursion to o witd life porQ which
wos interesting

whose

Special points

a
b
c

Who and which cannot be replaced by that.

The relative pronoun cannot be omitted.

A comma is normally used before the relative Pronotn-

MMMAR

Relative clauses with prepositions

lf a defining or non-defining relative clause contains a


verb with a dependent preposition, this preposition is
usually placed at the end of the clause:
e.g. Iheres the house (that) we used to live in.
The President, who

ln more formal English, the preposition can be placed at


the beginning of the clause. ln this case the relative
pronoun which or whom must be used.
e.g. Iheres the house in which we used to live.
The Presideng to whom / spoke yesterdoy, is very
concerned.

spoke to yesterdoy, is very

clauses

Reported speech

e.g. He told me to woit in the queue.


/ osked her to switch off the centrol heottng.
Her doctor odvised her to stop smol<ng,

Reporting statements

To report what.someone said, we use a reporting verb


followed by athot clause. ln informal speech and writing,
that may be omitted.
e.g. She sold she hod been to on tnterview.
I told you I'd be lote.

There is a list of reporting verbs which can be used with


thot clauses on page I 55.

Other reporting verbs which can be used with this


structure include invite, order and worn. There is a fuller
list of such verbs on page I 55.

3.2 To report a suggestion, we can use a thot clause.


This clause often contains the verb should but may also
contain an infinitive.
e.g. Ihe Manoger suggested thot we should put our

Reporting questions

comploint in writing.
The Manoger suggested we put oir comploint

Note: Reported questions use normal word order and do

not have question marks.

2.1

Yeslno questions

To report ayeslno question, we normally use osk followed


by an if clause or a whether clause. Yes/no questions with
or are usdally reported with whether clauses.
e,g. They osked if we had ony children,

There is a list of other verbs which can be used with

Other reporting verbs which can be used with this


structure include demand, rnsist and recommend. There
a fuller list of such verbs on page 154.

e,g. He suggested breokng the journey in Chester.


The doctor odvrsed tol<ng o holidoy.
Steve recommended trying

the steok

There is a list of these verbs on page

wh questions

To report a wh question, we use the wh word followed by

is

3.3 To report suggestions, advice, recommendatlons,


etc. we can also use certain reporting verbs + jng.

if

and whether clauses on page I 55.

tn

writing.

/ asked whether you wanted teo or coffee.

2.2

for more examples of relative


with prepositions.

See Study Box, page 188

concerned.

FILE

155.

Reporting intentions and hopes

There is a list of verbs which can be used in this

To report a stated intention or hope, we can use either


thot clause or a to infinitive clause after certain verbs.
e.g. / promlse d to be bock before midnight.
I promised thot I would be bock before midnight.

structure on page I 55.

Note: A thot clause must be used if there is a change of

the reported clause.


e.g. She osked why she hod to poy

deposrt.

He wonted to know where the bonk wos.

subject.

3
I

Reporting advice, orders, requests,


suggestions, etc.

To report an order, request, etc. which has been


made to someone, we can use a to infinitive clause.
3.

Other reporting verbs which can be used in this way


include hope, propose and threoten. There is a fuller list of
such verbs on page I 54.

147

cuNr,nnrru

Time reference

Notes

When reporting speech, the tenses and time expressions

are normally changed as follows:

reporting verb is in the present tense or when the


original words are still true.

Direct Speech

Reported Speech

Present simple
Present continuous

Past simple

Present perfect

Past perfect

Past simple

Past perfect

Past perfect

Past perfect

o mechonic.

Past continuous

Professor Cooper exploined thot fomily tensions often


erupt when the family ls thrust together incessontly.

b Certain modal verbs (could, would, should, ought to,


mriht) dont change in reported speech.

sholllwill

shouldlwould

couldlmight

now

then

todoy
tomorrow

thot doy
the nextlfollowing doy

yesterdoy

the doy beforelthe previous doy

this

thot

here

there

ago

before

e.g. I might be bock lote.

mustlhod to

at the beginning ofo sentence.


heodings and suhheodings

for reports, articles

and

so on. Also in the fitles of books, plays, films, porticulor


works of ort, scientific laws, etc. ln this case, the main
words have capitals while the articles and smaller
prepositions usually do not.
Bock

with

Focus on

Advonced

Engtish

Homlet

to the Future Mono Lisa Boyle's Low


of people (also animals and other things

nomes

which have individual names), monufocturers. shops, hotels,


gove rn m

ent

d ep o

rtm ents, etc.

e.g. Mr Martin

The Rome

Holl Ford
Hilton

Deportment of Educotion

with nomes of countries, cities, towns, regrong oreos,


with odjectives and nouns describing
nationoliry or plocn of origin but not with easg west, etc.
on their own.

Fronce Athens the Middle East Soho


Fifth Avenue French o Dutchman Bovorion

with nornes of rivers, mountoins and other geogrophicol


features. Also with planets but not the sun, earth or

moon.

r48

Eyerest

The Sohora Desert

The Block Forest

March Eoster the Middle Ages

(but summer, wnter, etc.)

with the names of certain professions or posltions


when used as titles for particular people but not when
used generally.
e.g. Let me introduce you to the Principal. (but /d /ike to
become the principol of o college one doy.)

Forming participles

2.1

Doubling consonants

Thd final consonant is doubled in verbs:


Quicksave

streets, etc., and

e,g.

Mount

with doys, months, festivols and historicol periods but

not seasons.
e.g. Tuesdoy

Capital lefters are used:

e.g.lntroduction

Nl/e

Mors

Capital letrters

in

soid I might be back lote.

e.g. Ihe

Spelling

I
2

change the tense when the

e.g. He soys hls car hos broken down ond he's woiung for

conlmoy
must

lt is not necessary to

which have only one syllable and which have one


vowel followed by one consonant.
e.g. stop

* stopping

run, trop, swim, ft7 clop

Exceptions: Final -w, -x and -y are never doubled.

2 which have more than one syllable but where the


final syllable is stressed and has one vowel followed by
one consonant.
e.g. regret

regretting

begn, odmit" refer, occur, forget


Exceptions: There are a few verbs where the final

!I
GMMMAR

consonant is doubled even though the stress is on the

2.2 Other

first syllable:

which end in J after one vowel.

e.g. sneeze

travelx, concelx, control, signolx, fulfil


e.g. quorrel
quarrelling

Note that in American English there are some verbs


where the final J is not doubled. Examples are shown

with a *.

e.g. sweep

sweeping (Rule 2.1.

l)

where there are two final consonants


e.g. worn

worning (Rule 2.

I.

l)

where the stress is on the first of two syllables


e.g. limit

ogeing, dye

dyeing

Final -y after a consonant changes


e.g.

try

to -i before

-ed.

tried

Final -y after a vowel does nor normally change in this

limiting (Rule 2. I .2)

e.g. enjoy

e.g. stea/

Exceptions: poy

enjoyed, ploy

paid, loy

ployed

loid, soy

said

The ending -ie changes to -y before -ing


e.g. /le

Iying die

dying

Verbs which end with

<

usually add -k before -ed

or

-ing.
e.g. ponic

where final -/follows two vowels

ponicked, picnic

picnicking

steoling (Rule 2.1.3)

Tenses: present

sneezing

way.

The final consonant is therefore not doubled in verbs:


a where there are two vowels followed by a consonant

Main exceptions: cge

points

Verbs which end in a consonant + -e normally drop


the e before the ending -ing.

e.g. worship, kidnap, hondicop

F|LE 4

difference in meaning between the present simple and


present continuous. There is a list of these verbs on page

Present simple

55.
e.g. I think you're wonderful. (opinion)

Form
6ut" 1ep6 +

(e)s I

Negative: doesn't ldon't

l'm thinking obout what you soid eorller: (mental

e.g. She ploys the vrotin.

process)

base form

Question: doldoes + subject + base form?

Use

1.4

The present simple also has certain special uses in


reviews, sports commentaries, dramat'ic narratjve and
when reporting what you have heard or been told (with
sayltelllheor).

l.l

The present simple refers to situations which are


long-term or permanent and to general truths such as
scientific facts.

e.g. Dustin Hoffmon, who ploys the hero, gives c fne


performonce.
Blcck posses the boll to White but he misses ...
There I om, oll olone in the house, ond the doorbelt

e.g. She works for the Foreign Otffrce.


I love clossicol music.

rings!

Nine p/onets trovel round the sun.

I heor you've decided to move.

1.2 lt can also refer to regular or repeated actions.


e.g.

He

swims during his lunch break every doy.

I olways spend Christmos with my fomity.

1.3 lt is used with certain verbs to express thoughts,


feelings, impressions and immediate reactions.
e.g. Ihls teo tdstes stronge.
Do you wont to try the jocket on?

Note: With certain verbs e.g. think,

feel,

there is a

1.5

The present simple can be used to talk about future

with reference to timetables and itineraries (see


Grammar File, page 150), and is also used ln time clauses
introduced by when, ds soon os, ofter, rfl etc. (The present
perfect can also be used in time clauses; see section on
plans

present perfect below.)


e.g. The troin leoves ot middoy.
I'll let you know if a fox orrives.

149

cmmvnn rne

2.2

Present continuous

lt can also refer to actions.or situations which are

temPorary.
e.g. l'm helping out in the kitchen until they find o new

Form
islore

+ -ing

".g.

Hes woshlng his hoir.

chef.

Negative: omlislare not + -ing


Question: islare't subject + -ing?.

2.3

Note Certain verbs do not usually occur in continuous


tenses (see page I 55).

The present continuous can be used with alwoys or


forever to describe a habit which the speaker finds

annoying.
e.g. Why ore you forever criticising me?

Use

2.4

2.1

The present continuous is used to talk about


actions which are happening at the moment of speaking
or which are changing or developing at the present time.

The present continuous is also quite often used to


express pre-arranged future actions (see Grammar File,
page 150).
e.g. Nrge/s coming round to see us tonight.

e.g. Don't disturb him, he's worklng.

My

typing's improving.

Tenses: expressing the future


Summary of forms and uses
Form

Use

goingto
e.g. We're going to hove o porty.
Are you going to invite John?
e.g. I think I'm going to foint,

Future.simple
e.g. Het/ be

The aclion has usually been considered in advance and some


arrangements may have been made,
2 To make a prediction based on what you know feel or can see.

':

I To express a future fact or prediction.

bW in June.

Tomorrow witt

I To express personal intention.

be

cold

and wet.

e.g. I know, l'll phone for o toxi.

e.g. Sholl I gve you o lif?


Willyou help me with this bo{
e.g. l'll hit you if you do thot agoin.
Don't worry, I won't be late.
e.g. lsuppose you'll be pretbl busy.
Do you think he'll come?
e.g. Iheres a cor pulling up outside,
Oh, thot'll be Jim.

2 To express a sudden decision.


3 To express an offer or request.
4 To express a threat or a promise.
5 To express an opinion about the future after verbs like thlnk,
suppose, expect, doubt if and also with probobly.
6 To express strong probability

Present continuous
e.g. Whot ore you doing this eveningJ
The cor's being serviced tomorrow.

Present simple
e.g. Whot time do you orrwp ot Heothrovl
We call ot Venice and Athens.
ls to
e.g You are to do exoctly as I soy.
e.g. Ihe President ls to vlslt Rome,

To express a pre-arranged future action. Similar in meaning and use


to going to but with less sense of personal intention.
To express the certain future, a fixed future event usually based on
a timetable or programme.

I To express an instruction or orden


2 To talk about an action or event which has been arranged, often
officially

150

GMMMAR

About toldue to
e.g. Ihe building

ls due to be completed soon.

He's obout to onnounce the resulL

To talk about actions or events which are expected


usually fairly soon.

to

FILE

happen,

Future continuous
e.g. /ts owful to think I'll be working thls rlme

next weekl

I To talk about an aclion which will be in progress at a point in the


future,

e.g. Ihe big stores will be hoving their winter


so/es soon.

2 To talk about an action or event which will happen as a matter of


course.

e.g. Will you be checl<ng out todoJ?

3 To express a request for information rather than a request for


action.

e.g. Wheres Nigel tonigh?

He'll be performing somewhere with his band,


I expect

To express strong probabiliry.

Future perfect
e.g. They will hove received our letter by Mondoy

To talk about a future event which will be complete by a time


which is further in the future.

Future perfect continuous


L.5. I'll hove been working

l0 yeors next

in

this compony for

April.

To talk about the duration of an action, as seen from a point in the

future.

Tenses: present perfbct

I've been going to Scotlond every summer since I wos

o child.

Form
Simple:

hoslhove

+ past participle

e,g. Hes sold his cor.

Negativer hoslhove p61 + past participle


Question: hoslhove + subject + past participle?
Continuous: hoslhove been * present participle
e.g. /ve been ployingtennis.

Negative: haslhave been + -ing


Question: hoslhove + subject + been -rnd
Note: Certain verbs are not usually used in continuous
tenses. See list on page 155.

2 General use
2., Both the presenr perfect simple and the present
perfect continuous are used to refer to actions or states
which began in the past and have conrinued up rill now.
Since is used to express the starting point, and for is used
to express its duration.

2.2

The present perfect simple is used to refer to an


action or state which was completed in the past but
where the time is unknown or unimportant. The present
result is generally more important than when or how the
action or event occurred.
The following expressions are often used:
just" olready, before, ever, neven

to

see

it

again.)

The TV's been repoired.

(= lt

Hove you ever been

Nepot?

about

to

is now workng.)

(= Can you tell me

it?)

2.3

The present perfect can be used in time clauses


introduced by when, os soon as, ofter to describe an action
which will be completed before the action in the main
clause.
e.g. We'll make the onnouncement once everyone hos

The following time expressions are often used:

arrived,

lotely recently so far

You can buy

up till now

yet" still

e.g. Your fothers just come in. (= He's here.)


/'ye seen that frlm olready. (= I dont want

o car ofter you've pcssed the driving test.

e.g. /Ve hod o cold for a week


He hosn't been procilsing on the piono so much lately.
How long hove you lrved rn this flot nor,Q

151

iirr
j

ii

iil

cumN,rn

nlr

3.4

Simple % continuous

3.1

ln some cases there is little difference between the

two forms.
e.g, /ve lived here oll my life.

The present perfect simple suggests that an action


is complete while the present perfect continuous
suggests that it is still incomplete.
e.g. /ve pointed the kttchen. ft-he job is finished.)
I've been pointing the l<tchen. (The job is probably

/ve been llinghere ollmy life.

3.2

un{inished.)

The present perfect continuous tends to emphasise

how long an action has continued.


e.g. /ts been raining all doy,
I've been waiting for hours.

3.3

The present pedect continuous may suggest that an


action is temporaD/ rather than long-term or Permanent.
e.g. Hes been staying with his sister tll/ he finds

3.5 The present pertect continuous can be used for a


series of repeated actions but the present perfect simple
must be used when the actual quantity of actions or
finished products is mentioned.
e.g. /Ve been knocking on the door for oges.
I've knocked on the door ten times.

somewhere to live.

1.4

When we report two actions which happened at


the same time, and it is the result that is important, we
can also use the past simple in each case.

Tenses: past

Past simple

Forrn

e.g. As it grew dorker we found it more diflcult to follow

the path.

Rgular veris:
base form

+ -(e)d

e.g. Ihey wolked towords us.

Past continuous

Negative: didn't + base form


Question: drd + subject * base form?

Form

Use

Negative: wosn'tlweren't + -lng


Question: woslwere + subject * base form?
Note: Some verbs do not usually occur in continuous
tenses. See the list on page I 55.

l.l The past simple is used to refer to completed


actions or events which took place at a particular time or
over a period of time in the past.
e.g. We met /ost summer. Do you remembei
I stayed with my uncle until t found o flot of my own.
1.2

The past simple can also refer

to repeated actions

in the past.
e.g. He went for o wolk every doy before lunch.
Note: lt is also possible to use used to or would + base

Use

2.1 The past continuous refers to actions or situations


which were unfinished at a particular time in the past. lt
also emphasises how long an action continued.
e.g. You were living in Brighton then, weren't you?
I wos getting colder ond colder oll the time,

form with this meaning.


e.g. He used to go for a wolk,..

He would go for o walk...

2.2 lt is often used to refer to an action which was


going on when a second shorter action interrupted it.
e.g. / wcs driving home when I heard the news on the cor

1.3 When two actions happen quickly, one after the


other, we usually use the past simple in each case.
e.g. When the oil warning light come on, I switched off the
engrne.

rodio.

2.3

The past continuous is often used to describe the


bacllground to events in a story.
e.g. lt wos o beoutiful doy. The sun wds shlning and the
birds were singing

FILE

GMMMAR

2.4 The past continuous can be used to describe two


actions which happened at the same time when we are

e.g.

more interested in the fact that they happened together


than in the result.
e.g. While I was waiting for him to ring he was out hoving
o good time.

2.5

The past continuous can be used with olways or


forever to emphasise the frequency of an action. ln this
case, the speaker is often expressing criticism

recognised him os soon ds I sow him.


After he left. the offrce he went to collect his cor
from
the goroge.

3.3 The past per-fect continuous is used when the first


action continued for some time or was unfinished.
e.g, Ihe fue hod been burning for some time before the
flre brigode orrived.
I'd been hoping to meet her for oges when I bumped

or

into her by chonce.

annoyance.
e.g. They were alwoys having loud porttes which went on
tillthe eorly hours.

2.5 The past continuous is used in the expressions I


wos wondering i'flwhether and I wos hoping (that) ... as a way
of making an invitation, a request, etc. more polite. These
expressions refer to the present/future, not the past.
e.g. / wcs wondering if you would like to join us?

Past tenses used to talk about


hypothetical situations

4.1

expressions to talk about situations which do not exist


or events which did not happen but which we are able to
imagine.

wish
if only
I

Past perfect

Form
Simple:

6661

would

rather

supposelsupposing

if

os iflos though

The past simple is used for present or future reference.


e.g. / wsh I hod o ccr. (l haven,t.)
past participle

I'd rother you didn't smoke. (you are smoking or may

e.g. He hod olreody left

do in future.)

Negative: hodn't * past participle


Question: hod + subject + past participle?
Continuous:

Pasr tenses can be used after the following

hod been +
e.s. I'd been

He behoves os if he owned the p/oce. (He doesnt)


Suppose you didn't get the
1ob, what would

iting for an hour

Negative: hodn't been + -ing


Question: hod + 5u[js6 -r been a -ind
Note: Some verbs do not usually occur in continuous
tenses. See list on page I 55.

yw

Note: I wjsh + would is used to express a wish for


something to change in the future. lt cannot be used to
refer to oneself.

ii

wsh the weother would improve.


I wish you would stop going on obout iL
The past perfect is used for past reference.
e.g. /

'lii,

e.g. lf only he hod telephoned before he come. (He

o,::Lil*

*,

Use

3.1

The past perfect refers to actions which happened,


or situations which existed, before another action at a
particular time in the past.
e.g. Ihe shop hod closed by the tjme I got there.
When t reoched the front door,

I reilised

t hod lost my

k"y.

3.2 The past perfect is used ro make the order of


events clear. lt's not necessary to use it when the two
actions happen quickly, one after the other, or when the

hodntt totdme. ffou did tel me;

He Speok os if he hod done oll the work himsetf


(He didn't.)
Supposing you hod hod

4.2

on occidentl(you didn't.)

The past simple is also used after the expression

ltt

(highlobout) time.
e.g. /ts high time we lefr.. (lt's late and

we haven,t left

yet.)

order of events is clear anyway.

153

cnavunnrte

6 Verbs followed by a

Reference Lists

afford
agree
aim
aPPear
arrange
ask
attemPt
beg
care
choose
consent
dare

-ing forms and infinitive

I Verbs foltowed by -ing forms

admit
detest
dislike
adore
appreciate dread
avoid
endure
celebrate enjby
commence 'face
consider fancy
contemplate finish
go
delay
imagine
deny

keep

resent
resist

!i"

risk

loathe

sit

mention

stand

mind

suggest

involve

miss

postpone
practise

report

to
agree with
aim at
apologise for
approve of
beliwe in

benefit

from

for
confess to
count on
depend on
feel like
care

get on with
insist on
object to
pay

for

form

idea

of

thought

of

at
good at
good for
bored with

capable

of

succeed in

think of
vote for

put up with
rely on

excited about tired of


keen on
fed up with
nervous of
fond of

go (e.9. camping)
spend time/money (on)

stand

not worth

fight
guarantee
happen

help
hesitate
hope
intend

encourage help

expect
beg

recommend
remind

forbid
force
get
intend

invite

wait
want
refuse
seem

wish
yearn

come + to

inf

dread + -ing

no good

to

tell
urge

want
warn

or ato infinitive

fear

love

hate

prefer

like

start

With a difference in meaning


come + -ing
move in a parcicular way

inf
+ -ing
+ to inf

gradually start doing something


be fearful about a future action

dread + to

(used only with think)

regret

be sorry about an action in the past

regret

no use
remember
/forget + -ing

(with soy, tell, inform and announce)


be sorry about a present action
refers to an action before the
moment of remembering or forgettirg

remember/

refers to an action after the moment

forget + to inf

of remembering or forgetting

stoP + -ing

finish an action

stoP + to inf

interrupt an action in order to do


something else

trY + -ing

make an experiment

try + 1e ;n1

make an effort

difficult

t54

swear

tend
threaten
undertake
volunteer
vow

With liale difference in meaning

attempt cease
begin continue
bother deserve
b

guilty of

bear
help

expect
fail

8 Verbs followed by -ing forms

way of
method of

5 Other expressions followed by -ing forms


cant
cant
cant

deserve

leave
order
persuade
prefer

advise
allow
ask

4 Adjectives follelired by a preposition + -ing form


bad

demand

infinitive

resort to

3 Nouns followed by a preposition + -ing form


hope of
difficulty in

learn
long
manage
mean
neglect
offer
pause
plan
prepare
pretend
promise
Prove

decide

7 Verbs which take an object followed by a

2 Verbs followed by a preposition + -ing


admit

to infinitive

to do something

MMMAR

Reporting verbs

decide*
deny

mention
observe

suSgest

doubt

persuade

suPPose

announce

estimate

promise*

answer
argue
boast
claim

expecC

ProPose

explain
feel

confirm
consider

state

swead
tell
think
threaten*

remark
remember

fear

comment
complain

rePeat

find

reply

guarantee*
hope*

rePort

insist

say

understand

warn

ask
know

if and whether clauses

remember
say

love

deserve

imagine

matter

astonish
be

believe
belong

concern
consist

with wh

words

guess
imagine
know
learn
realise

teach

remember

tell

reveal

think

say

understand

see

wonder

involve
keep

know
lack
last
like

mean
owe
own
please
possess
prefer
reach
realise

seem

sound
stoP
suppose

surprise
survive
suspect
understand

remember want

satisry

wish

Simple tenses

Continuous tenses

aPPear

= look/seem

exPect

= feel confident that

= take part in (a
trial/play/film)
= waiting for sth/to

feel

have an opinion

='physical sensation

have

=
=

POSSeSS

=' organising/actions

hold

have a certain capacity

(e.g. a bath)
= physical contact

with
look

=
=

have an appearance
have a certain length

= use your eyes


= have a certain smell

to infinitive clause

beg

forbid
instruct
invite

tell

command

recommend

urge

hands

= action of sedng
= action of taking a

remind

warn

teach

= meeting
= accion of smelling
something

think

=
=

have an opinion

= mental process

taste

have a certain taste

weigh

have a certain weight

= action of tasting
something
= action of
weighing something

5 Verbs followed by

advise
beg
demand

insist

prefer
propose

deny

recommend regret

l'l
l

l
l

athot clause containing should


ln some cases the meanings listed under'Continuous
tenses' can be used in simple tenses, e.g. she's hoving o
both, she htos a both every morning, but the meanings listed
under simple tenses cannot be used in continuous tenses.

recommend
request
suggest

6 Verbs + -ing form

admit

lQeasurement
see

smell

ask

include

Verb

measure

suggest

4 Verbs followed by object +


advise

impress

be pregnant

3 Verbs followed by clauses beginning

decide
describe
discover
discuss
explain
forget '

contain

detest
dislike
doubt
envy
exist
fit
forget
hate
hear

admire
adore

Verbs with a different meaning in simple


and continuous tenses

reveal

xThese verbs can also be followed by to infinitive


clauses.

2 Verbs followed by

Verbs not usually used in continuous tenses

I Verbs followed by that clauses

add
admit
aSree

FILE

mention
rePort

propose
suggest

Writing File
Task Types
A lnformal Letters
Al Layout

Page
r57

AZ Example
43 Types of Letters

Formal Letters

Bl

t59
Layout

B2 Example
83 Types of Letters

Personal Notes and Messages; Memos


C

t6l

Notes and Messages

C2 Memos
C3 Examples
C4 Types of Notes, Messages and Memos
C5 Notes and Messages: Beginnings and Endings

D lnforrnation

Sheets, Leaflets and Brochures


D

D2

Notes
Examples

E Articles

t63

,64
EI

Notes

E2

Example

E3

Headings

t65

Reports
FI

Notes

F2

Example

F3

Useful Language

GI

Notes

Reviews

157
G2 Examples
G3 Useful Language

fil
!il

2 Linking and Logical Devices


Addition

$,

Cause and result

fl

Concession

:".1

Contrast
Purpose

F={
rf;

if

Similarity
156

Time

ind comparison

t70

WRITING FILE

A lnformal Letters
Al

Layout
Write your address in
the top right-hand

Your address

cornen

Write the date directly

The date

Write the {lrst line next to


the left-hand margin.

below

)g3p ====
Begin the next line under
the name.

E
A2 Example
Z2York )treef, Never put your name
before your address.

Bridewell

9R9 450
Write the house

24th Nov,19Never begin with Deor


Frtend. Always use a name.

Dear Ken,

Begin the first sentence

Many Lhanke for your lef,fer and for Lhe Vhohoqraphe


Nhey brouqht back very haVpV memoriee of our holiday.
l'm qlad No hear Lhal your new job ie qoinq eo well. lN

with a capital.

muel

be

Do let me know when you're coming Io Enqland. lt,


would be lovely f,o oee you and you're most' welcome to
etay here - there'e Vlenf,y of rooml
Hope f,o hear from you eoon.

Beel wiehes
9ue

number first, followed


by the street, town
(and postcode, if you

know it).

With closer friends,


you could just put
Write soon.
Best wshes, and Yours

are useful general


endings. For close

friends, you can end

with

Love.

r57

A3 Types of Letters

A3.l

Useful longuoge:

I'm writing to opologise


Beginnings

ln an informal letter to a friend, it may be appropriate to


begin by mentioning a letter which you have recently
received or by making general friendly comments,
Useful longuoge:

Many thanks for your letter

...

It wos lovelylvery nice to heor from you recently


I wos glad to hear that you hod o good holidoy
I hope you ond the fomily ore well.

...

- obout...
- for the foathot (+ clouse)
- for (not) (+ 4ng)
I'm terribly sorry that ...
I do hope thot -..
Pleose let me know where you bought itlhow much
lll glodly reploce itlpay for it.

A3.5

w"

lnformation/News

Useful longuoge:

A3.2

lnvitation

I thought youA fike to knowlhear about ...


Ihis is just to let you know that ...

the event is and explain the details of date, time


and place clearly You may need to add other details such
as who else is coming, what you would like your friend to
bring (if anything), whether they can bring a partner or
friend, when you need a reply by, and how to get there.
Use separate paragraphs for each main piece of

A3.6 Giving Advice

information.

It

Useful longuoge:

One thing I would suggest is

Say what

Useful longuoge:
You osked me for odvice on ...

Have you thought obout ...


might be o good ideo to

...
...

l'm hoing o birthdoy porty on Soturday the 22nd ond I hope


you'll be able to come.
I wos wondering if youA like to come to see 'Wld Lives' ot the
Theotre Royolwith me?
Would you

lik

tolWhy don't you come ond stoy for the

weeken0
Could,you (possibly) Iet me know if you con come by

A3.3

...

A3.7 Thank you/Congratulations/Good Luck


Useful longuage:

l'm writing to thonk youlThank you so much for (+ nounl-ing)

It wos very kind of you to ... (+ verb)


I'm writing to congratulate youlCongratulotions on (+ nsurl
l'm writing to wish you (the very best of) Iuck inlwith
(+ noun)

Request

Describe the situation or problem and explain exactly what


needs to be done. Make it clear how grateful you would
be for the help you ask for and give an opportunity for the
recipient to agree or refuse, if appropriate.

A3.8 Endings

It is usual to end letters which expect a reply with


sentence on a separate line. This could be:

Useful longuoge:

Looking forword to heoring from youlseeing you.


Hope to heor from you soon/see you soon.

l'm writing to

Write soon/See you soon.

osk you a favour.

wonder \
I wos wondering t
I

i1t couru osk you o

fovour?
Although it's important to know how to set out the address for reallife letter writing, you do not need to include addresses in exam

H be terribly groteful if ...


Pleose

dont hesitote to

A3.4

Apology

soy

no if you con't monage it

...

Explain why you are apologising, give reasons for your


behaviour: express regret for any damage, inconvenience,

offence which was caused, and offer


possible

158

to put things right if

tasks.

)
WRITING FILE

B Formal Letters
Bl Layout
Your address

Write your address in


the top right-hand
cornen

Write the recipient's name


and address on the lefthand side below the date.

The date

Write the date directly


below.

Other person's name


and address

Only use Deor Sir or Deor


Modom if you don't know

DearSir/Madam,

/ Dear Mr Brandon/Mrs Whlte,

the person's name.

Yours faithfully, /

Yours sincerely,

lf you begin Deor Sir or


Deor Modom, end with
Yours faithfully, lf you

Your signature
Your name

begin with a name, end

printed

with

Yours sincerely.

82 Example
Z2York Slreef,
Write the name and/or
title of the person you're
writing to. Do not indent
their address.
Write the firsl line next to
the left-hand margin.
Begin the next line under
the name.

Write

Yours

'Y' and faithfully

ci

bRB
The Trincipal
ClifLon Colleqe

or

sincerely

foll,

'

490

Never put your name


before your address.

24th Nov.1g- Write the

ClifLon

CL5 zRE
Dear 9ir,
I am intrereeled in applyinq for a Vlace on a computrer
couree aN your colleqe and I would be qraleful if you could
oend me full deLails of the coureeo you offer and the feee,
loqelher wilh an application form.

house

number first, followed


by the street town
(and postcode, if you

know it).
Give your reason for
writing at the
beginning. lf you are
replying

with a capital

with a small 'f' or's'. These


p.rlings arc

Bridewell

to an advert,

say where you saw it

I look forward

to

hearing from you.

Youre faithfully,

tma.

S.

/A.1ilchtiet

9, M, OtLCHRtsT (Mr99)

and when. lf you are


replying to a letter; give
the date of the letter:
Print your name clearly
after your signature.

t59

WRITING FILE

83 Types of Letters

83.4

83.I

Explain why you are apologising, give reasons for your


behaviour; express regret for the

Enquiry

Explain clearly what information you would like and why


you need it. lf there are different points you need to

explain or

to

ask about, use a different paragraph for each.

Apology

damage/inconvenience/offence which has been caused and


promise not to let rt happen again or to make up for wtrffi
you've done, as appropriate;

Useful longuoge:

I am wrifing to enquire obout ...


I wos interested in your odvertisement in 'The Doity Times'
ond I would like to hove further informotion obout ...
I should be groteful if you woutd send me (fuil) detoils of ...

83.2

Job Application

Explain clearly which post/job you are applying for and, if

you are responding to an advertisement, say where you


saw it and when. Grve all the necessary information about
yourselfl including age, qualifications, past employment,
relevant experience and any special hobbies or interests,
and explain why you are particularly interested in this post.
Use a new paragraph for each main topic. lt,s also helpful

to

say when you

would be available to attend an interview.

Useful language:

, orn interesred in opplying for the post of ... which wos


advertised in'The Globe' on 22nd September.
My reoson for opplying is that t woutd like to brooden my
experlence ond olso ...
I would be oble to attend an interview ot ony time which is
convenient' to'you.

83.3

Other Application

about it and, if appropriate, who you represent. Give all the


necessary information about your appl ication, explain ng
how you intend to use the opportunity/money what you
i

to

I'm solreally sony (not) to

have

(+

p. part.)

I (do) hope you will forgive me for (not) (+ -in1)


I ossure you thot itlthis wiil never hoppen ogoin.

83.5

Complaint

ln the first paragraph, explain the reason for writing and


the next, explarn exactly what the problem is. Give all the
necessary details about where and when it happened and
who was involved. Give other relevant information in

n"n

further paragraphs if necessary ln the final paragraph,


explain what action you want to be taken.
Useful longuoge:

I am writing

- to comploin obout ...


- to express my concern obout the faa that ...
- to express my annoyance ot...
I must insist thot you

...

I must urge you to ...

Explain clearly what you are applying for; where you heard

hope

Useful longuoge:

I om writing to opologisell sincerely apotogise


- for (not) (+ -lng)
- for the foathat (+ clause)

achieve, and why this is important or worthwhile.

83.6

Opinion
lf you're replying or reacting to something such as a letter
or an article, give the necessary details. Explain your
opinion and the reasons for it clearly using separate
paragraphs for each main point. Sum up your argument in

the final paragraph.

Useful Longuoge:

I am interested in opplying for the grontlscholorship which ...


- wos advertisedlmentioned in on orticlein /dst week,s
'Globe on Sundoy.'

enable melus to goin voluable procticol experience


moke o reol difference to mylour worklprqect.

learnt obout from my tutorlthe college notice boord.


The reoson for mylour opptication is that thls grontlscholorship
would

Useful longuoge:

ln

reply to your leuer

I would /ike to

suy

appeored in Mondoy\ edition of your newspaper,

ln my opinion,...
/t seems (clea) to me thot...
I would suggest thor ...

83.7

160

of t2th September I would like to


d to the orticle entitled ,...', which

:..

Although it's important to know how to set out the'address for rearlife letter writirig, you do not need to include addresses in exam
tasks.

respon

Endings

It is usual to end letters which expect a reply with a


sentence on a separate line. The most common ending is
I look forward to hearing from you.

\/VRITING FILE

C Personal Notes and Messages; Memos


C

I Notes and Messages

Notes and messages are even more informal than informal letters and are written to friends and people
you know well. They usually contain a brief message about one or two main subjects so they are
generally shorler than a page. They may or may not be placed in envelopes and are often delivered by
hand rather than posted. There are no fixed rules about their layout.

C2 Memos
lYemos are a form of note or message between colleagues in a business contet. They are usually
written on officialforms which have the heading'Memo'and a place to write the name of the sender
and the recipient, the date and sometimes the sub;ect. There is no need to begin 'Dear ...'. The language
is generally more formal than in a note to a friend but the degree of formalrty depends on the
relationship between the writer and the recrpient, and the subject matter:
You can use a shortened

c3 Examples
Notes and Messages

address or omit the address

The day, date or time is normally


somewhere at the top.

completely

You may begin with Deor ..., with a


flrst name, or just with an initial,
depending on your relationship.

'!,iX'"i*'{iT"'J?:l

Wi:irnPl;

lnformal language is often appropriate.

#i:j!"n:r'"^*tl:

';;?ffirffi,

":#,1"!;:,;F'*
Finish

with your name or

initial.

C3.2 Memos
The heading includes names

(or initials) and the date.

It's usual

to put the

subject,

underlined, at the top.

MEMO

To:
From:
Date:

SO

Subject:

Sales Conference 2 May

HB
1014

ln order to compile the annual departmental report for


the above event, I need up-to-date sales figures for your
section. Could you have these on my desk by 22 April
at the latest, but sooner if possible?
l'd also like to take this oppoftunity of thanking you for
all your hard work over the past year. Enjoy your Easter

There's no need
'Dear...'.

to

begin

A memo can be unsigned or


can have a name or initial at
the end

WRITING FILE

C4 Types of Notes, Messages and Memos

C4.4 Apology

ln general, the language in a memo is more formal than in


a note or message, but the degree of formality in all three
types of writing depends on the relationshrp between the

(l'm)

writer and the recipient, and also on the subject matter: A


note to an acquaintance would be more formal than a
note to a friend. A memo to a close colleague about
servicing the coffee machine would be less formal than a
memo to the boss apologising for a mistake you'd made.

C4.I

lJseful longuoge:
Sorry I couldn'tlwosn't oble toldidn'tlforgot to

I (would like to) apologise for

misstng

...

the meerlng

C4.5 Thankyou/Congratulations/Good Luck


Useful languoge:

Mony thonks for .- (+ noun/-lng)


Just to thank you for .- (+ nounl-ing)
lA fike to toke this opportunlty of thonking youl to thonk you

Query

Useful languoge:

Moy I take this opportunity of thonking youl to thonk you ... ?

Could you let me know

Congrotulotions on ...

- whot hoppened obout ...


- what you('ve) decided obout
Con you tell me

Best

(+ noun)

of luck inlwith... (+ noun)

...

C5 Notes and Messages: Beginnings and


Endings

whot you think obout ...


if youre lnterested in .,,

if you'd hke to ...


Would you (pleose) clorify the situotion regording

C5.l

Beginnings

Useful longuoge:

...

No special introductory phrases are necessary but notes


often begin with expressions like:

C4.2 lnformation/News

lust (o note)
A quick note

Useful longuoge:

Just to let you know (thot) ...


(l) Thought you might like to know (thot)
For (your) informotion, the next meettng will be held

to
to

let you knowltell youlcheck (thot)

...

osk/see l[,..
thonk you forl opologse (forl obout)

...

C4.3

C5.2

Endings

Useful languoge:

Request

No speclc/ ftnol phroses ore needed but notes ond rnesscges


moy end with expressions /lke:

Useful longuoge:
Could youlWould you (pleose)

r62

...

let me hove

send me

.,.

look into

...

find out obout

See you soon

Speok to you soon


All the best

...

...

T
u/RITING FILE

D lnformation Sheets, Leaflets


and Brochures
D

Text:

o ls the information broken up into short

I Notes

o ls the order logical?

Information sheets, leaflets and brochures are intended


to inform, advise, persuade or warn. The two main
aims are therefore to catch the readers atlention and
to present the message as clearly as possible. To do
this, layout and organisation need to be as effective as
possible. Short paragraphs with clear headings are

much easier

to read and absorb than long blocks of

texl, for example. The best approach is to imagine


yourself as the reader and to ask what you would want
to know and in what order you would find it easiest to
absorb the information. Consider these points:

Visual help:
Can you help the readen for example:
by indenting small sub-sections so that they stand
out as small blocks which are clearly separate

from the main text? or


putling
by
important points on separate lines? or
5. by numbering your points? or
. by putting 'bullets' in front of main points? or
by using different STytES and SIZCS of writind? or
by underlinins, or

putiing

Main heading:

o ls this as direcl and eye-catching as possible?


o Does it give the reader a clear idea of what the
subject

easy-to-read

seclions?

FoCt

roun3 |imrcrtantl words

You won't be marked on your design skills, of course,

but you may make a good impression on the


examiner!

rs?

o Does it make the reader want to read

on?

Sub-headings:

o Are these short and clearl Asking a question in


your heading may be more interesting than stating

fact. (See Example D7,7.)

D2 Examples
D2.l lnformation

Sheet

BRISTOL HALF MARATHON

The Frrent
On the lOth Moy this yeor Bristol will be stoging its
tenth Holf Morothon. This is now the lorgest moss
porticipotion sporting event in the West Country.
The moiority of enkonts ore not dedicoted othletes but

runners of oll obilities, who like setting themselves o


chollenge ond who enioy the otmosphere of the doy.
Our course is exceptionolly fost ond flot, with leoding
finishing times regulorly under 65 minutes.

Your Certificate
Eoch finisher will quolify for o certificote, which will be
sent soon ofier the roce.

The Closing Pate


The lost dote to receive entries is l Sth April. ln recent
yeors, entries hove doubled, so PLEASE ENTER EARLY
to ovoid disoppoiniment. You connot enter the moin
event on roce doy.

The Charity
Children's Hospitol Grond Appeol
The proceeds from individuol runners' sponsorship will
go directly towords the rebuilding of the Royol Hospitol

for Sick Children. We oim to roise gl O,OOO which will


help provide o consulting room to be nomed ofter the
evenf.

I::n

trtsd

haaltfty, 1#iyshoqld I

rF,.rf

trffii.
&n,t { hsart afiaft{ a
{slcl{ way :e

in:

\or aiwavs HeM dtq{<e

cs cEEe u_ : ajl
d$coifoq sd *orr

tov

aEa I

evs:*,Stiihgleara djse:

kffiffiffixffi?,9f;k::*-#
.lilhy d* I

n*d

toel

*y trs*lt?
-r1n*$*ffiffiffiffr"ffi,
te

s.Es?

'W
qlut

*
#n{"*.@ii

$Ii+ffl*fr

*$:Sc
-

T* FilmH!{* ffrTen'

JffiW
eaEBlf a6rtt

lloxltry1aL

-Irt

he.ldhile .
falt rgdd opcb!

. c*earyqalood
Aroldrk
'3l{yoE+e.

ffi

di*as.?

i+C3lltlg XgYfgR

-+'#*&?.*=!**'*g#

i$D ltlrtli# }*ii**

Articles
E

I Notes

An article is a piece of writing on a particular subject


which is written for publication in a newspaperl magazine
or newsietten
Approach:

A wide range of approaches is possible, depending on


the subject matten A light-hearted or humorous topic
might be given a fairly personal treatment, for example,
while a more serious topic would be treated in a more
neutral, analylical way
Headings:

Articles should have a heading which makes the subject


matter clear but which also catches the readers eye and
makes him or her want to read, Newspapers and
magazines often use dramatic statements or word play in
headings for this reason, and sometimes add a subheading which gives more information. (See E3 for
examples.)

164

Layout and Organisation:


As with any other kind of composition, it's important
to have an interesting introduction and a suitable
conclusion to 'round off'the piece, and to organise

the information into paragraphs which help the reader


to follow the argument or understand the different
aspects of the subject. ln addition, articles often
include an outline of the story orthe topic nearthe
beginning so that the reader begins with a general
picture and then reads on to flnd out more
information.

{
I

\MRITING FILE

E2 Example

Screaming Tyres

HEADING

By Tracy Cole

catches the

Have you ever wondered what it would be like to sit behind the wheel of a racing car? Are
you looking for a really imaginative birthday present for a canmad friend or relation? lf the
answer to either of these questions is 'yes', then you may be interested to hear about a course

readers attention,

e.g. by asking

My day as a racing driver was the {irst prize in a newspaper competition I had entered, and
I must say that it was the most exciting prize I've ever won. The day began with theoretical
instruction covering all aspecls of safety This was followed by practical tuition in a high
'per{ormance
saloon car: With no traffic to worry about, I was able to practise controlling the
car on bends and prepare myself for the ultimate experience: the chance to drive a single seater

OPENING: Start
in a way which

direct questions.
Use separate
PARAGRAPHS for

different aspecls of the

subjecl
ENDING: 'Round off'
the article suitably, e.g.
with an overview a
concluding remark, or
joke!

took at Stoke Lodge Racing School recently.

racing can
And finally with crash helmet on and full harness seat belts secured, I was able to rev up
the engine and edge my way out on to the circuit. Six breath-taking laps later: my dream had

become reality
Forthose not lucky enough to win a day atthe racing school, the cost of the introduclory
course is {120, which includes all equipment and also an impressive cerlificate to hang on the
wall, Anyone who can drive a car can enjoy the experience, regardless of age. The oldest
participant so far has been 85, and I understand that he has booked a second coursel

E3 Headings
Writers can use

a variety of devices

to

make their headings eye-catching. Examples from texts rn this book

TODAY lS CANCELLED (dramatic statement)


Your Mind: Do you make the best use of it?
\ 1.r,.tt"nging question)
You are caught in a fire - then what?
I
Must one be so polite that it hurtsl (interesting question)
Last chance
US and

to see ... (unfinished statement

see what?)

Them (word play: US = l. United States; 2. personal

For examples of different siyles and approaches

to writing articles, look through the texts in this book

F Reports
F

I Notes

A report

is a formal document prepared by one

a
finol
report, recommending legrslotion ogoinst rccism.). Both
articles and reports may deal with similar subject
matter but the treatment is different. While an article is
designed to make a topic interesting forthe general
readen a repoft is usuallywritten fora more informed
reader who already knows something about the
subject. Reports are generally longer
" "nd ror""d"tuil"d
person or a group of people who have been studying
particular subject (e.9. Ihe committee published its

rnan aructes.

o The first simply provides information on a topic and


gives a brief conclusion or summary at the end.
Example: a report on the educational system in a
particUlar country, written to help someone research
the subject.
o The second sets out to identify strengths and
weaknesses in a particular situation and make

recommendations for improvement. Example: a


report on the library facilities in a college written at
the request of the principal.
, ___..^_^ ^.-r h__:_-_.Language and Register

Reports are the most impersonal kind of writing and it


rs usually best

to avoid expressing personal opinions or

feelings, except, perhaps, in the conclusion. lnstead of

Approach:
There are two basic kinds of

pronoun)

report

thinkthot ... or lfound thot ..., for example, you can use
the impersonal '/t' construction and a passive, e.g. /t
seems that ... lt was found thot.,. (see F3).
165

It's also advisable to avoid making very definite


statements unless you're absolutely sure they're true.
lnslead of saying /t is, for example, you can use a
modal verbs, e.g.lt couldlmightlmoy be or a more
tentative expression such as /t seerns to be ... or /t tends

to

be.

shorter sections. The information should be organised


and presented as clearly and logically as possible, witfrn
a short introduction, explaining the aim of the report
and how the information was obtained and a suitaHe
conclusion, summing up the information and making
recommendations if necessary.

Layout and Organisation:


Reports should have a clear: factual heading and may
also have subheadings which divide the writing into

F2 Example

LEISURE EACILITIES IN ANYTO\AN\


Clear: factual heading.

lntroduction

The introduction says


what the aim of the
report is and how the
information was obtained.

The aim of this report is to describe and assess the leisure facilities available in
Anytown. lt is based on information made available by the Anytown Tourist Office, and
on views expressed by local people who were interviewed.
Sport
Anytown has awide range of sports facilities, both public and private. There is a large
modern leisure centre in the High Street and facilities include a swimming pool, a sporffi
hall for judo, fencing and other activities, and tennis courts. The centre runs courses in
all these sports and these tend to be very popular: Membership costs f 150 a year;
which was felt to be rather expensive, but a special temporary membership is available
to visitors. The public swimming pool on the outskirts of town at Downmarket is olden
less attractive and often overcrowded, but entry is only { 1.50.

Subheadings divide the


information into logical
sections.

Theatres

There are two theatres in town, the Kings Theatre in Bee Street, which offers mainly
'serious' drama and has a good reputation for its productions of Shakespeare plays, and
the Litlle Theatre in Sea Street which specialises in lighter entertainment and the
occasional PoP concert. ln general, it seems that the Kings Theatre is more popular w.i#n
the older members of the community while the Litlle appeals more to people in their
teens, twenties and early thirties.
Museums and

Art

Galleries

The City Museum has an etensive colleclion of maps, pottery and other articles
connected with Anytown's history The attendants are said to be very friendly and
helpful, and there is also a small caf6 with reasonably priced home-made snack.
lnterestrngly few of the local Anytowners interviewed had ever been to the museum

but it was recommended highly by several tourists


Shopping

The conclusion provides


brief summary of the
information and may
include recommendations

for improvement.

Conclusion

Anytown

is well-provided with leisure facilities for a town of its size and these are wellused by the townspeople, on the whole. Sport seems to be the most popular leisure
activity (after shopping) while cultural aclivities like visiting the museum or art gallery
appeared to be the least popular amongst the Anytowners who were interviewed.

Perhaps the City Council should consider launching a publicity campaign


much these facilities have to offen

t66

to show how

WRITING FILE

F3 Useful Language
The oim of this report is to

lntroduction:

This report is intended to

...

This report /ooks ctldescribes

Reporting an
observation:

It seemsloppeors that
... tend(s)

/t ls bosed on
It drows on ...
/t uses ...

...

...

It wos found thot


It wos felt thot ...

...

to (do)

AlThe mojoritylminority of

...

...

As X soid,

According to

Speculating:

It moylcouldlmight (well) be thot


... moylcouldlmight + (dolhove

On the

ln the words of

...

done)

whole

ln the moin

Generalising:

ln

Commenting:

lnterestingly Curiously Oddly Strongely


As might be (hove been)

Making a
recommendation:

/t is recommended thot

...

in the majoritylminority

... were

...

Quoting:

generol

It

.,,

expected

lt

Surprisingly

Predictobly

is lnteresting thot ,., (etc.)

...

(Pekops) lt islwould be odvisoble for X to (do)


(Perhops) X mightlshould consider + ing

Io sum uplTo

Summing up:

summorise

On

bolonce
Book

G Reviews
I Notes

A review

is an article in a newspaper

or magazine

in

which someone gives their views on a book, play, film,


TV programme, etc. The purpose of a review is firstly

to

give factual information about the subject, and

to give an opinion about it which will help the


reader to decide where to buy the book, see the play

secondly

or visit the exhibition.


Reviews normally contain the three main ingredients

listed below. A review may not always fall in three neat


sections, howeven The writer may decide to describe
an aspect of the subject and comment immediately on
strengths and weaknesses, for example, before going
on

to describe another aspect ofthe

l.l

Book

Overview

subject.

a description of the subject

- non-fiction:

What is it about? Who is it for? How technical is it?


How is it organised? What topics are covered? What
special features are there? How much does it cost? etc.

ln short

fiction:

What kind of book is it (thriller/historical novel/science


fiction, etc.)? ls it different in any way from other book
of this type? What's the story? etc. (You can give an
outline but don't give the ending away!)
Play/Film/Programme:

What is it about? ls there anything special/unusual


about the production? Play/film: Where is it on? Are
there any well-known actors? Who is the director{ TV
Programme: Which channel? ls it part of a series? Who
is the producer?
G 1.2 Pros and cons

- detailed comments on the

successful and unsuccessful features of the subject

Your comments will probably rnclude both obiective


views (based on fact) - the photographs were poor
quality or the costumes didn't fit the actors properly,
for example and subiective views (based on personal

feelings)

the story wasn't interesting orthe fllm was

too violent. Make sure, however; that you give reasons


for your comments.
r67

You may have strong positive or negative feelings about


the subject of the review and this is no bad thing. A
strong opinion, clearly argued, is often more interesting

make it clear to the reader whether you


the subject without any reservations, recomrnerTid ff

to read than a carefully balanced assessment.


try not to be completely one-sided.

at all. ln real life, readers often look at the last


paragraph of a review {irst to see what the gener-d
verdict is. Make sure your review gives a clear

G 1.3 Verdict

- summing-up

Even so,

with one or two reservations, or don't

and recommendation

The last paragraph should sum up your feelings and

G2 Examples
G2.l Book

- non fiction

G2.2 Book

The Joy of Sandwiches - A Munch and Y Knott, The


Take Away Press, Neasden, S35.
Despite its rather unpromising title, this is actually a fascinating
and comprehensive study of a long neglected aspect of the cook's
art.
The first part of the book deals with the background to the
subject. There is a detailed history of the sandwich from its
invention by the Early of Sandwich in the l8th century to the
latest creations of the present day. There are chapters on 'The
Sandwich in Art' and 'The Sandwich in Literature', and this
section ends with a survey of the place of the sandwich in the
cultures of various countries around the world.
The second part of the book is devoted to 'recipes', some

traditional, some new, and each sandwich

is

beautifully

illustrated with a fulI page colour photograph. The 'recipes' are


clear enough even for a child to follow (although it must be said
that a child might have difficulty lifting the book since it weighs
nearly 2kg!). There are helpful line drawings showing some of
the preparation techniques including the correct way to slice
bread. All in all this is a superb book which should provide
inspiration for all sandwich makers whether they are beginners
or 'old hands'. Only the rather steep price off,35 may prevent it
from becoming the best seller which it deserves to be.

G2.3 Film/Play

Crazy Plumber: Plaza Cinerna


If you have seen the advance publicity, you might imagine that
this was a funny film. Wrong. It's a film which tries very hard to
be funny and fails consistently. The story concerns a plumber
who isn't very good at his job. When his customers desert, and
he can't pay the bills, he decides to turn to crime. He tries a little
shoplifting (he's not very good at it, ofcourse) but then he gets
involved in bigger things.
Wayne Gibson, who plays the hero, has one or two good lines
but most of the time he's struggling with a terrible script. There
are a few good moments - the car chase sequence is memorable
- but the story line is very slight and the director seems to have
run out of ideas very quickly. As the film progresses, the level of
violence increases. Despite the publicity, this is not a film for
young children.
A great deal of money went into the making of Crazy Plumber
but in the end, spectacular effects are no substitute for real
fi

[,p

humour.

.?

168
5r

fiction

Yes,

Mr President - Ivan Oscar,

Blockbuster Press, S12.50.


This is the unlikely story of a second-rate actor who
President of the United States. Young Donald Beagan
set for a mediocre career in Hollywood in ths lS{S5 rrnffill
ventures into politics and wins a nomination for
California. Ten years and one marriage later, he runs fa
White House and ends up the most powerful man in
world.
Ivan Oscar, the author, is well-known for such best
thrillers as 'Live Now, Die Later' and this book is
packed with action and exotic settings but somehow
formula doesn't work. The hero, Beagan, never really
to life and his wife, Mandy, (an ex-actress - what elselt r
such a cardboard figure that it's hard to feel interested in
relationship. In the end, the story is just too improbabb
hold the reader's attention. A very forgettable book.

G2.4 Radio/TV programme


The Secret Life of the Termite, 9.30 Ttresday, BBC 1.
This was the flrst in a new series of wild life documentary
programmes presented by the well-known naturalist, David
Buttonborough. Each programme will focus on one creature anci
looks at its habitat and life cycle in depth.
This week's subjecl was the termite and we learnt, among otl'er
things, about the amazingly complex architecture of the termite Fn
Termites are not particularly attractive looking creatures but the
photography was so superb, and Mr Buttonborough's commentarn,
so informative, that it was difflcult not to become totally absortec. I
for one, have certainly learnt a new respect for these industrious
little insects. ln the week to come, we can look forward to
programmes on the earthworm and the sea.slug. lf they can
maintain the standard set in this {irst programme, this will be a verr
I

successful series.

The

book

concerns

f,lm

deols

progromme

of

study

shows

survey

history

tl

describes
te//s the story

of

choFter

I secilon
I

l'"

I chopter
I progromme

on
I focuses
ls
devoted
to
I

contoins
includes

Eoch

The

booHscript

ts

fllmlprogromme
progromme

written
produced

The story is based on

presented

port

ployed

costumes/set

desrgned

Films

Books

by

Progrommes

Ploys

chopter

plot/storyline

scene

episode

plot

script

oct

series

soundtrock

scenery

commentary
photogroPh

chorocterisotion

"

illustrotions
design
contents

set

costumes

sPecio/eflects

cost

studio

stunt

stoge

broodcost

G3.2 Pros and cons

reolly

interesting

extraordinorY

hurnourless

entertoining

beoutiful

exciting

hoPeless

stunning

informotive

ovlful

suPerb

ottroctive

omoteurish

brilliont

successfu/

over the to1

originol

unusuol

Predictoble

neun
Atthough * clause
.......... olthoughlbut + clause
On the one hond

...,

on the other

"' while "'

hond

"

whereos "'

..'

except thot "'

.. even if "'

G3.3 Verdict

otl,
ln the end

completely

omolng

Despitelin spite of

Altin

unimognottve

omusing

foscinoting

obsolutely

reolly

/n the /ost
On

onolysis,

bolonce,

ln

conclusion

To sum uP,

Linking and Logical Devices


Cause and result

Addition
in oddition to
os we// cs ...

Beccuse

...

*N

besides

.,,

both ... and...

not only

...

since

..,

+N

clause

cose

due to

...

...

+N

owing to...
...

Moreover...

...

in

but olso.., + N/clause

Fur-thermore
... o/so

cs...

os

clause

result of

so (thot)

,..

so

toolos well

...

...

+ ADJ/ADV + thot

...

clause

such*N+thot,..
therefore

clause

consequentJy

Concession

Contrast

olthough

while

...

even thoughleven if ...


but...
yet

...

whereos....

though

* clause

...

* c/ouse

but...
on the other hond,

Purpose

despite... + N
in.spite of ...

in order thct ... * clause


so thot

however

in order tolso os to ... + V

neverthe/ess

to

Similarity and comparison

Time

os

before

...

ds

...

cslos soon

...

+'N + oslthot *
os+ADJ/ADV*4s...
the same

clause

not oslso + AD/ADV

* os *

N/clause
not such + ADJ/ADV
N/clause

* cs *

os iflthough.,.

...

ofter + N/clause
tillluntil

+N
cs+ADJ/ADV*os...
/ike...

clause

oslwhen I once I immediotely

clause

* clause
during * nsLln
while

during thot time


th

en

s u

bs e

In

extl ofte r

q u e

th

otl ote r I
I

ntly I ev e ntuo I ly I fi n o I ly

ot last
no sooner

...

thon...

hardly ... when

t70

...

...

* clause

l0 w.

State of the Union


'Why con't o womon be more like o mon?'
George Bernard Shaw Pygmolion

Lead-in

Read through the cartoon and then discuss the questions below

with another

student.

How does she feel about him? How does he feel about her? What is the
problem?
If you were an 'agony aunt' what advice would you give to her? Would you
give him the same advice?

If not, why not?

Do you think the man should always make the first move by asking
woman for a date? Or is it OK for a woman to ask a man out?

t
j

Iil
I

r"
I'
t

b-

ro

srATE oF THE uNroN

Text

ii

The article below is about some research into how men and women
communicate, carried out by an American professor of linguistics. Read
quickly through the main part of the text, ignoring the gaps, and answer these
questions.
1 Do men and women 'speak a different language' in the opinion of this

SKIMMING

expert?

2
3

For questions l-7 you must choose which of the paragraphs A-H on the
next page fit into the numbered gaps in the following text. There is one extra
paragraph which does not fit in any of the gaps.

GAPPED TEXT

Paper

What evidence has she got for her view?


Why does she think the subject is so important?

l,Part2

Remember to look for grammatical or logical links between paragraphs.

Men: they cringe at the prospect of discussing anlthing


personal, grumble they're being nagged when asked to
take out the rubbish and, if they lose their way while
&iving, :,:age at the suggestion they ask for directions.
Women: they read things into the most innocuous
comment, get upset when their man says 'I' rather than
'we' and demand impossibly detailed reports of every
conversation they miss - who said what and how they
looked when they said it.

And,

says Deborah Tannen,

it will all go on like this,

each'sex bristling at the other's peculiar ways, until we

wake up to the simple truth


speak the same language.

men and women dont

F-t-l
Since our lives are lived as a series of conversations, it's
her belief that the sooner we start to appreciate and
understand these differences - and the reasons behind
them - the better.

For more than 20 years she has studied how people talk
- what they mean by what they say and how it can be
interpreted and often misunderstood. Eavesdropping in

restaurants, collecting friends' anecdotes, watching


hundreds of hours of taped conversations ... all in the
name of research.

Men are concerned primarily with status, and prefer


discussion offacts to dissection offeelings. Since feelings

suggest vulnerability and

thus inferioriry men

conversation as another way ofscoring points.

see

So who's right? NeitheE says Deborah Tannen.

This sort

of disagreement rypifies the different approaches

men

and women have to asking for information. Since women


are so used to asking for help, refusing to ask directions

makes no sense to the wife. To her, asking for and


receiving directions reinforces the bond between people.

This may sound a long-winded explanation but in the


world of socio-linguistics, it is only scratching the surface
of the male-female conversational anomalies in this
particular situation. Mention any aspect of everyday chat
and Deborah can give examples of the ways men and
woment attitudes to it differ.

in the way we
communicate is in the crucial matter of the metamessage
- the unspoken attitudes, thoughts and intentions behind
what is actually said. And while fact-oriented men tend
Apparently the main difference

to listen to the message, feeling-oriented women tend to


listen for the subtler metamessage.
For instance:
She:

He:

Why didnt you ask me how my day was?


you've got something to tell me, tell me. Why do

lf

you have to be invited?

ru

Deborah maintains: 'Without understanding the gender


differences in ways of speaking, we're doomed to blame
other people, or ourselves, or the relationship. The
biggest mistake is believing there is one right way to

Listen, talk and have a conversation.'

STATE OF THE

The thrust of this study is that women


language to enhance intimacy, men to

use

assert independence. Women, concerned

primarily with making connections with


people, regard conversation as a way to
share feelings, create bonds and explore

possible solutions to common problems.

But in her husband's hierarchical wodd,


driving round until he finds the way
himself is a reasonable thing to do. Men
are comfortable

with giving help and

information, but not with receiving it.


asking for directions would make the

So

husband feel he was dropping in status by


revealing his lack of knowledge.

Their simplest exchange sparked off


misunderstandings and irritation. Just
before they separated, she attended a
course in linguistics at the University of
Michigan. Suddenly the light dawned. The
problem wasnt what theyd been saying,

but, of course, how. The divorce went


through - but Deborah was hooked.

D It's not so much that the vocabulary and


grammar we use are different, she explains.
The differences lie in the way men and
women talk.

TASKANALYSIS

3a

UNIOT.T

IO {

The lost-in-the-car scenario is an


illustration of this. You know the scene it's universal. Invited to
a couple
^party,
have been driving round in circles for half
an hour searching for the address which he
is sure is nearby. She is fuming because he
insists on trying to find the address himself
instead ofstopping to ask directions.
She's fed up because she wants to hear
evidence that he cares how her day went,
regardless of what actually happened. And
he, concerned principally with the fact-

exchanging aspect of conversation, cant


understand what she's complaining about.

G Take politeness. Men consider it


subservient, women sensitive, Boasting.
Men boast as a matter of course, battling
to gain or maintain that all-important
status. Women, who tend to gain
acceptance with each other by appearing
the same as, not better than, everyone else,
take care never to boast.

H Tall, gentle, immediately likeable and


mercifully spouting little of the jargon
you'd expect of one of the world's leadi.g
lights in her field, Deborah Tannen is
Professor of Linguistics'at the University of
Georgetown, Washington DC.

Compare your answers with another student.


b Draw a circle round the reference links which helped you to choose the
correct missing paragraphs.
Remember that reference links can refer both backwards and forwards. For
example, in the paragraph yori chose for gap 1, there should be a word
which refers to'Deborah Thnnen'in the previous paragraph and a parallel
expression which links with 'conversations' in the following paragraph.

DISCUSSION POINTS

4a

Work in pairs. Read through the remarks below and the replies. According
to the information in Text l, decide which of the replids is from a man (M),
and which from a woman (W), and why.
I My boss garre me a week to write a report. The research alone would take a
month if I did it right.
a Don't you hate it when they do that?
b You should tell him if you do it in a week, it'll be a terrible job and it won't be
your fault.

t73

['
I

ro

srATE oF THE uNroN

2
a
3
a
b
4
a
b
METAPHOR

rvVhat frustrates you about your partner?

X never gets to the point.

X never tells me anything.

What's a good way to impress someone yodve just met?


Ask a personal question and listen to the answer.
Have interesting information and witty things to say.
You had a rotten day? I'm so sorry.

lt's not your

fault. b

Thanks for your concern.

Change pairs and discuss what you think of Deborah Tannen's views.

Each of the following excerpts from the text contains a metaphorical


expression in which a noun is used as a verb. Read the dictionary definitions
below and look at each expression in context. Then discuss with another
student what the meaning is.
... each sex bristling at the other's peculiar ways ... (main text para. 3)

1
2
3
4
5

Their simplest exchange sparked o.flmisunderstandings ... (para. C)


Suddenly the light dawned. (para. C)
Deborah was hooked. (para. C)
.... spoutinglittle of the jargon you might expect ... (para. H)

bristle r

stiffhair esp. on an animal


spark n a small bit of burning material thrown out by a fire
dawn n the time of day when light first appears
hook r a curved piece of metal used for hanging things on, catching fish, etc.
spout n an opening from which liquid comes out, such as a tube or pipe
a short

Focus on Listening Why men don't think like women

}n

Paper 4, Part

will hear an extract from a radio programme about anatomical differences


between the male and female brain. For questions l-9, complete each of the
statements. You will hear the recording twice.
You

The language-associated areas in women's brains are

than men's.

Tests have shown that women have better

than men.

Research has shown that when reading, men and women


;

MRI,

brain imaging system, allowed researchers to monitor

The results showed that most women use

differently.

in the body.

of the brain when they read.

The left side of the brain is responsible for verbal abilities and

Researchers at Pennsylvania University asked men and women to lie in a dark room and
7

The women's brains were more active in the zones which deal with
r

In the research at Yale University

f,
t:

t
F

|*

174

and

18

of women's brains worked in the same way as men's.

1l
srArE oF THE

Focus on Grammar

Review

Rlt tfte quotations below deal with the subject of


love. Choose one or two which you like and discuss your
choice with another student.
'Love ls like war: eosy to begin with but very hard

to

stop.'

H. L. lYencken (2fth C)

'Porting ls such sweet sorow

.,,.'

'Love meons never hovrng to soy you're sorry.'


Eric Segal (20th C)

'/t's /ove

Remember, a few verbs can take either an -ing form or


an infinitive verb with no difference in meaning. Some can
take either form but with a difference in meaning. There
are details of both kinds in the Grammar File, page 154.

For more information about the use of -ing forms and


infinitives, see the Grammar File, page 154.

Romeo and Juliet, Shakespeare ( l6th C)

ro {

of -ing Forms ond lnfinitives

uNroN

ln the following letters, put the verbs in brackets into

the correct form: -ing form, to infinitive or infinitive

without to.

thot mokes the world go round.'

Date with disappointment

Traditional

"Tis better to hove loved and lost thon never to hove loved

ot

oll.'

Alfred Lord Tennyson, poet (l9th C)


'Lrfe hos tought us thot love does not conslst in goztng ot

eoch other but rn looking outword rn the same direction.'


Antoine de Saint-Exupery, French writer (20th C)
'To get the
full volue of joy you must hove someone to
divide it with;
lYark Twain, American writer

2 a

(|

835- l9 l0)

We met on the paradise island of Fiji. After (1) ......


" (spend) several days together we had to continue our
journeys but we arranged (2) ......(meet) in Hawaii a
month later. He managed (3) ...... (send) romantic
messages to me along the route and he even
telephoned me from LA (4) ...... (say) how much he
was looking forward to (5) ...... (see) me. In spite of
(6) ...... (send) a telegram with details of his arrival in
Hawaii, he never arrived!

I often wonder just


Which quotations contain examples of -ing forms

used:

what made him (7) ...... (chan,ee)


his mind. It's a hell of a long way to go (8) ....-. fte|
stood up.

after a preposition ............ (Remember: -ing forms can


be used after all prepositions,)

LISA JONES

as a noun ..,,..,...,. (These verbal nouns are also called

West Hampstead, London

'gerunds'. See Grammar File, page l'4 | .)


after a verb ............ (See list in Grammar File.)

Which quotations contain examples of an infinitive

without to

used:

I
2

after a modal verb ........,...


after make or /et .,.,........

Which quotations contain examples of a to

infinitive

used:

after adjectives

adj + sn.rth,

.,.........

(also after too + adj and

e.g. too heovy to

lift,

not old enough to go

olone.)

Note: We use the perfect inflnitive (to + hove + past


participle) to refer to the past, e.g. /ts good to hove hod
the experience of tiving obro,od.

2 to show purpose .,.......... (You could also say ln order

While (f) ...... (stay) with friends in Ireland, I met a


very pretty girl at a dance and she agreed (2) ...... (let)
me (3) .".... (walk) her home. As we madg our way
along the Cliff path, a full moon lit the harbour. It was
so romantic and what a picture! I asked my
companion if she'd mind (4) ...... (wait) a few minutes
while I ran. (5) ...... (fetch),my camera from my
friends' house. When I returned, she'd gone.
I decided (6) ...... (take) a picture anyway. Was it
worth (7) ...... (takex Well it won first pnze in a
national photographic competition!
ROBERT TRUBSHAW
Weston-super-mare

ro...)
175

ro

srArE oF rHE uNroN

Focus on Speaking Family ond Friends


EXAM TIP Paper 5, Part I
lf you are paired with a
student you know for the
Speaking test, you may be
asked to introduce each
other: Before you go in,
make sure you know the
basic facts and also one or
two interesting details about
your partnen

Paper 5, Parts 1,2

&4

Work in pairs. How much do you know about your partner? Could you answer
questions about the following points? If not, check the details with your
partner.
mother/father? - where they live, etc.
brothers/sisters?

ages/jobs, etc.

husband/wifelpartner?

job, etc.

children/nieces/nephews? - names, ages, etc.


best friend? - how they met, etc.
favourite social activity?

|oin another pair and work

as a group of four.

it in turns to introduce your partners and talk briefly about their family,
friends and social activities (about one minute each).
Thke

TIP Paper 5, Part 2


This
task
always has more
i
, than one par t. ln addition
I to describing the pictures,
! you may have to compore,
I EXAM

2 a

Workin pairs andboth look

at the photographs on pages 236 and,239.

Student A: You should talk about the photographs on page 236.They each
show a wedding, but were taken 50 years apart. You should
a) describe the similarities and differences between them, and

controst, commenL. tdentifu or

b) comment on the changes that have taken place since the first photo was
taken. You have about one minute.

lspeculote.
o
I You'll only have about
II one minute, so there
rsn't time lor a detailed
deso iption of each

I
I
!
i.
i
I
i
I
I
i
i

liaure,

Student B: When Student A has finished, comment on what he/she has said.
Suy ifyou agree or disagree.

Keep this part

fairly brie{

M"tg sure you follow


tfre instruclions for the
other part(s) ofthe task,
and remember to

a) compare and contrast them, and

b) comment

expr ess a personal

on what life would be like for a child in each family.

Student A: When Student B has finished, comment on what he/she has said.

reaction to what's
shown in the piclures.

DISCUSSION POINTS

Student B: You should talk about the photographs on page 239. They each
show a family group. You should

Say

ifyou

agree or disagree.

Discuss these questions.

1 Do you think money spent on a big wedding celebration


2 What do you think are the advantages and disadvantages
o living with

.
3

Focus on

Writing

is well-spent?

of

your parents until you get married?

having elderly parents living with you?

Is the trend in your country towards smaller families? Why/Why not?

lnformol Letter on.d Memo

Paper

2,Part

When you return from holiday, you find the following items of mail waiting for
you: a wedding invitation dated three weeks ago, a more recent note from a
friend and a letter from your boss.

t76

-------1

STATE OF

WEDDING
INVITATION

9bz

THE

UNION

IO

,t*rk/

&-*

CongnAalbeet
wlaheo, ela. +
profuee apologleo

LETTER

Helpl

NOTE

'wr*WW
-!^;'i:iffi^':#i;:r:;;;::#i:'1";::;^'

"tii{:":,i^"J*:rrg:;r'i'*,y^",#!xl'*;
r.we, enu,ra

?::^;;;;i

ioaa

Zomeohing)

//

rzzn'

L./,;

As )rou may know, Marie N. was due to go


to the international t.rade conference in
New York from 12-15 February. However,
in your absence she has been promoLed to
Regional Manager and her new
responsibi-lities do not a11ow her to
attend. For that reason, f would now
like to ask you to represenl the company
at the conference.
This will be an exciting opportunily for
you and I am confident that you will do
an excellent. job on our behalf.
Please let me know as soon as possible
if you are able to atlend, confirmiag at
the same t.ime that you hold a valid
passport, so that the necessary trawel
arrancfements can be made.
Yeelll

eusseeN

'_
Read the three items above and then write:

a) a suitable letter to Joanna and Michael, explaining that you are unable to
attend their wedding, and covering other relevant points (about 200 words);
boss confirming your willingness to attend the conference

b) a memo to your

(about 50 words).
You should use your own words
TASK CHECKLIST

as

far

as possible.

Read the instructions and the three items very carefully, highlighting
important points. For each piece of writing you need to consider:

r
.
o

Thrget reader and style: Think about your relationship with each reader and
about the circumstances. Make sure the style and tone are appropriate.
Purpose: Be clear about the specific purpose of each piece of writing and
take care to achieve this.

Layout and length: Check the examples and notes in the Writing File and
keep to the word limits. You must include all the key information but you
can add extra details if necessary to increase realism.
177

ro

srATE oF rHE uNroN

Text 2
Discuss in pairs. What changes do you think there might have been in the
following aspects of marriage during the last 50 years?

PREDICTION

o
o
o

.
.

the age when people get married


the age when women have their first baby

who does the housework


who pays the bills

whether mothers go out to work

Text2 is a magazine article about five women who married in different


decades. Read the five sections quickly to see how far their experiences
correspond with your ideas. Discuss any interesting points with a partner.
MUXTIPLE MAICHING

Paper

For questions 1-18 answer by choosing from the list of women (A-E) on the
right below. Some of the choices may be required more than once.

l,Part4

Note: When more than one answer is required, these may be given in any order.

According to the article, which woman ...

arguments?
feels her marriage has improved with time?
thinks it's important to avoid

received a formal proposal of marriage from her


is more extrovert than her

1 ......
2 ......3 ......

fianc6?

husband?

life?
let her parents influence arrangements for the wedding?
,began maiibd life with a large financial commitment?
commitment?

had a wedding which departed from tradition in some


has a husband who no longer does much

way?

housework?

weddings?
was able to economise on wedding expenses?
says she had no illusions about marriage from the start?
had arguments with her husband about housework?
disapproves of lavish

DISCUSSION POINTS

178

...... I A

6 ......

had a restricted social life at the start of married

emphasises that she saw marriage as a lifetime

4 ...... 5

7 ....-.

...... g

...... |

10 ......
11

......

12...... ts......
14 ......

"
ID

Ie

lvy Gould
Sally Graham
Lady Vincent

Amanda Russell
stephanie walter

15 ......
16 ......

17 ......
18 ......

Discuss the following statements with another student. Decide if you agree
or not and say why.
1 It's a goodidea for newly-married couples to live with their in-laws until
they have saved enough money for a home of their own.
2 A husband should be the breadwinner and his career should come first.
3 A wife should be able to keep her own name if she wants.
4 It's out of date for a woman to promise to obey her husband.
5 Marriage partners should have separate bank accounts.
6 A couple's career interests should determine when they have children.

!r

I
II
I

) I ny'^i;,;-"i;E:l;) Stqfe
Of fhe UniOn ffif',#t$;*#l
I

A l"y GOUTD (The 40sl

|
I

he was 26. He is now

rc+7. when she wa,

73,

,*,
l':i:,:.;;.":'f":;::::i,7ll,
oo(f"f, J,ayne,, 41.

own name.

t ui*urri

fi"t;Lf,y::3

charge-andgavememoneyeachweekto and have


F
"n,ror",l11lii
cover food and any make-up or stockings myself as an
appendage. I don't wantio be g
I
ltved rn
Y" otfer. the same road, so we knew I wanted. We had friends in to play cards just Mrs Som&iing. iut the children have F
I
John but we only went out on birthdays andr3oChris'sname; itjuitseemedtobetheway g
I.^"uto
lerf well. Then when
l0 came out ot the aidbrce we met
os anniversaries because there wasn't the to do it.
at
a
dance.
I
F
the same ballroom a few money.
I wasn,r particularly interesred in i
I fll,n-losed.at
took me out on to the
I think the 1950s were the best years to housework, but fortunaieru Ctrl, ala":i
I months later'.He
showed me a diamond ring. It get married. It was before the explosion of expect
an instant t our.*1r..-*" ;;;
II _:i_t:"t{."nd
E
was qurte romanlrc'
everybody wanting to do.their own thing. r35 most of lhe chores.
though r ao ,orili
""it"-nowbecausel,mtheoneathome.
I
l', I didn't want a big wedding, but my zoYou canlt do th*at without somebod"y
I F
have

I p-"nt, did, and in_t"hose dayi'you dii


I what thev wanted I'd done'a tlotin!
I apprenticeship. so I made my gown. all the

We had to. fit in


show worked until Imogen was 1g months
_and
consideiation. And I think we did, by and
then gave up completely when I
large. Certainly in my circle, our homes
suffering.

and ramiries

*1"'u'lv'"ti;;;:' ""'

1,,*kW;mf:t[i:il::;Ti
C lody VINCENT (The 70s)
m!
I

"'"'",,0:ilffi:$#J;fi#:#liit
I .don't

t';

old,

was I

"t

ffi:lf

suppose anyb^ody else would


i
read our marriage as perfecl. But after
Chriitine married iir wiitiii vincent
[
years we're still in love and we have a
1976, when she was 24 and he was 25.
kitchen with Mum. It wasn't difficult.
f
is now 44 and an investment consultant of mutual respect. don't feel smug.
stopped work when I got married; you
$
and
Christine, 43, is a novelist. They have 145 expected marriage to be quite hard work E
then.
The
rs
man
was
supposed
to be
I
andithasbeen.it'salmosr'r*"a.;ot. E
breadwinner and
rris joo ,rrui uo three sons, Edclie, 17, Charlie, 1'6,
mattered. Because it was such a large John'
I
,
The house we wanted to buy was
g
E Stephonie WALTER (The
lout., i
;terrty ro do. John didn,t
beyond our means, so we decided
Stephanie married. Riihard Watier
housework, Urit ne's changed since
F
we were married we would put
199i,
when she was 22 and h; r".;tl.
f
eshaving children for three years. In the 15s15
an insurance broker and she is ct i
*tr;"youfirstgetmariedyouthink',',
event I got pregnant a bit sooner thu.l*,"'q
g.rng
recruitment
I,m not sure it
i
moved in with them and
grandmother.
w. had our own room buiwe shared

zs

the
1
did
the

I
I
I
it rir
I
I
il
I
I *t
roretirea.
l-"
;'b. ;;iilf;;
I

14'

do
he

in
He

l3
lot
I

and
way G. r .
that
off

90s)

in
i;

consultant.

lived

il#*?"-.-J"""xi,:!:y;itf*"J ,i*f,il1Tffill'!:,tx:::tr'tr*
I r';:i,x,;;lTH','",T*',Tr*ffii
i
ln the arly years musl regret it later. e6 I had three children
me to wait until I was asked. SLr rr*eki
in i1,r".

vears. and
I
I have given each other a lot of luckily with each baby William'r;.r;J
tss later he proposed on one knee.
.1lo
i;
I l:il
I
We dropped the promise in the marriage
get promotion. But i was car.eful not to
I secunty'
I
cRAH+qrhe
ffi:t:HJ?'#J"$xJ'lJl;Jx'i:1,,":x ;"#xiT:J,i:i::;TLHT#*."1'{ f
| ':ql'r *::'i.,!__Gordon
Graham
e5accessory
o/?
instead bf a .ompanion. We just not us. However. it nevercrossed mv
| F^s,alltt
ebruary
,-?55: when she was 26 and both hate rows. I could row wiih a stranger roo mind not to change my name; you're
if
not g
l|a
was .19' Hn
retired insurance but never with the family; you say sulh prepared to do ihat,- why botlier to set
I he
11.
-is ,a
J - -----' '.- D-'
hurtful things that can't be unsaid. Wiltlam married?
I worken 7 I . and she is 67. a former is
I
t::::r:?;,Trey have two childrenanclrwo so diplomatic; he's just ace.at-quietly We opened a joint abcount and
now
we
II grandchildren.
$
req getjing his, own way and I don'i even
each pay in half"our *"g*;;hd;;;;;
until a week later. The
we
helped
rrrj.ns,*'- iit., our own.
out
with
the
cost
of
the realise
l" wedding.
91ly
ro do with
'i" as we wish. i
:';
We didn't have grand weddings we really disagree about is drivins. I'm Housework
I
was
a
novelty
-"r, *f,"n. ," f
i ttren, urr? it rro.riri"s -e how much people ,nor" uggr"rriv"e than wirri"-, rrti ir r"
un9
Ric.hard
ret me. rt
*.rr-rifrn.red
;.;;;., ;;;i;;;i;.."# Iwas111my-:":o,n:ng,
spend todav'
rodav. Then
marriape w,c
\,^,,,o, ;;t;;:'J"'::';? Tf;::"'oT3ilr:'"-:11*
,
I
*'n *u1'1t:
was A
a srcn
s:el yo.rl
ow,,
rault
but
it
reauy
annoyed
me
,ff
took for better. lor worse, for ever. I didn't '"'
he's ;
soknow anvone who was divorced. we spenr
,,,;:T;"","ftT;.t#"l"tilj:T:ili,X:i
i3L1**| ,,XtlfiglJeticent;
l35up,

50s)

*-

time getting to know each other

and

married.

#Tt;:lf;"'*""iTl,l? rutm
80s) that;
it's difficultjustlearningtolive

becomlng frlnds before we


D Amqndq RussErt (rhe
I was always busy. Babies didn't have Amanda Russell, a part-time designer,
disposable nappies, so I had washing ts married Chris
Giwer a market
55every day' There were no women's rights, researcher,
in 1982, when they were bothrzs
but we didn't moan or groan - we jusi got 24. Now 37, they have
two children,
on with it. Of course, I gave up work; I Imogen, g, and Osiar 5.
didn't know anybody who worked when M-y parents wanted us to have a big

together. But we -go" u g."ut deal less


now; we've both mellowed. Eventually
we'd like to have children, but not yet.
Richard said he wanted tfr"_ lf ifrJ trrr"
rr" *u, 30, but now he,s upped that to 35.

their children were small. My husbandrzopartywhenwegotmarriedandl'mver! Itwilldependonhowmycareerisgoing.


bills - he was very much in gtad *. did. I; was impoftant to me, rsoThat,sfairlyimporlanttome.

oopaid the

ro

srArE oF rHE uNroN

Focus on Grammar

Type

2 Cleft Sentences

The following sentence can be expressed in different


to create special emphasis.

ways

Jack lost his chequebook

I
2
3

the person who lost his chequebook.


The thing (that) Jack lost was his chequebook.
What Jack lost was his chequebook.

Jack was

Sentence I emphasises the subject, who lost the


chequebook, while sentences 2 and 3 emphasise the
object, what was lost.
Sentences like these are called cteft sentences (cleft
means 'divided'). They are a common way of highlighting
key information both in speech and in writing.

The FIFA World Cup is a ....., every four years.


1969 was the year...... moon.
The reason ..,... is that you haven't plugged it in.
The thing about English grammar ,,....
Of all my friends, the one ......

Type 2

I a They say that the flrst yeor of morrioge is the hardesl


b They say that its the first year of marriage thot
the hardest. (Text 2)

3 a Attitudes to marriage began to change in the 1960s


ond 1970s.
b lt wos in the 1960s ond 1970s that attitudes to
marriage began

Rewrite the following

as

visit.

cleft sentences to emphasise

the part in italics.

to
The thing I

porents.

I
2
3

to

She's only good at cooking vegetoble soup. (thing)


I would never have thought

of looking there. (place)

...

Complete the following cleft sentences with


suitable relative clause.

I
2
3
180

that is emphasised.

to

be

the breadwinner (not the womon).

You keep parking in my space. (person) So you're ...


I'm looking for o begnner's gurde to computing. (WhaQ
I borrowed your mobile phone to collthe hospitol.

Thot's

Sentence lb emphasises the subject, while sentence 2b


emphasises the object. Sentence 3b emphasises the time
adverbial, and in sentence 4b, it is rhe infinitive clause

osk you for is your address.

(reason)

4
5

/t wos to pleose their porents thot lvy and John had a

e.g. ln the past it was the mon who was supposed

ask you for your address. (thing)

meont

change.

This type of cleft sentence often implies a contrast.

Example:
I meant

to

4 a lvy and John had a big wedding to pleose ther


big wedding.

The. composer whose music I like best of all is Handel.

/ts the security of morrioge thot lvy Gould

appreciates.

Cleft sentences can also use more specific terms


(thot), etc.
Tolyo is a city (that) I've always wanted to

is

2 a lvy Gould appreciates the security of morrioge.

like: the womon (who), the crty (thotlwhere), the fllm


e.g.

The second sentence in each of the following pairs


illustrates another type of cleft sentence, which can be
used to emphasise almost any element of a sentence.

This kind of cleft sentence often uses general terms


like: the person (who), the thing (thot)lWhot,

the one (thot), the ploce (where), the reoson (why),


{he time (when).
e.g. I was the one who proposed to Richard. (Text)
Perhaps you think you are the only person who can
solve the problem.

4
5
6
7
B

Alexander Fleming was the scientist ...... penicillin.


Burkino Faso is the country ...... Upper Volta.
Beethoven was ...... deaf in old age,

Rewrite the following using a cleft structure


lt + be to emphasise the part in italics.

beginning with

I
2
3

lvy's porents wanted a big wedding, but lvy didn't.


Amando does most of the household chores now that
she's at home wrth the baby
Men seek stotus rother thon intimocy, according to

4
5
6
7
B

Deborah Tannen.
Hs hobit of keeping things to hrmself frustrates me.
Women didn't get the vote in Brrtain unttl t9 tB.
A womon, not o mcn, discovered radium,
Whot you soy isn't importanl; how you soy it is.
I want the opportunity to trovel, not a huge salary

t
STATE OF THE

UNION

IO {

Focus on Vocabulary
COLLOCATION

choose the right verb to complete the following phrases. Most come from
Texts
do

1
2
3
4
5
6
a

and2.
have

get

make

...... a commitment
...... your fair share of the work
...... your own way

7
8
9
10

...... no sense at all


...... a row with someone

1i

...... an apprentic

12

/
,./
eship

...... engaged to someone


...... a good cry
...... the ironing
...... a big party
...... your own back on someone
...... a fuss about something

There are mistakes in some of the following sentences. Make the necessary

corrections.

Haven't you heard? She got married with Tony last April.
2 I'm going to make a proposal to Linda tonight. Wish me luck!
3 They're honeymooning in Scotland until next weekend.
4 The stupid studio managed to ruin all our marriage photos.
5 We can't afford to have an extravagant wedding reception.
6 You'll need to keep your marriage certificate in a safe place.
7 I wonder why you have to fill in your marital status on this form.
8 she's going out with a 27-year-old divorced, who works in the same office.
9 They're upset because we didn't invite them to the marriage.
10 We got separated for a few months but we're back together again now.

Which of these expressions can be used for a man or a woman? What


exactly do they mean? Check in a dictionary if necessary.

bachelor an old llame


heartthrob a spouse a soul mate

a confirmed
a
PHRASALVERBS

a widower

Fill in the gaps in the following sentences by completing the phrasal verbs with

particles chosen from the list below.

on fo, out out off off with oyer up up

up

t
{

1 They used to be good friends but they fell ....... over politics.
2 David's just split
his girlfriend and he's feeling a bit low.
3 We arranged to meet outside the cinema but he stood me ....... !
4 It was love at first sight. I fell ....... you the minute I saw you!
5 She broke ....... their engagement two days before the wedding.
6 If you like her so much, why don't you ask her ....... ?
7 rf r ever catch you cheating ....... me with another man, we're finished!
8 we had a couple of dates but I went ....... him when I realised how stingy he
could be.
9 No matter how bad the row, they always kiss and make ..... in the end.
10 It's ayear since his wife left him but I don't think he's got ....... her yet.

181