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-Ç-C¢√®Ωç 2 -Çí∫Ææ’d 2009 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Nishanth: Hi, Visisht, You didn't attend college a) We use about


yesterday. Why?
Åü¿%-≠æd-´-¨»ûª’h Åéπ\úÕ doctor îª÷°æ¤ three to four
ûªy®Ω™ØË ´÷´‚©’í¬ ´Ææ’hç-ü¿E ¶μº®Ó≤ƒ cakes of soap a
(E†o †’´¤y college éÀ ®√™‰ü¿’, Éî√a®Ω’.)
áçü¿’-éπE? month = ´’†ç
Visisht: That's good news. I feel relieved.
Visisht: I had work at home. I thought I could ØÁ©èπ◊ 3, 4 Ææ•’s G∞¡x-
finish it before college time, but that
(ÅC ¨¡Ÿ¶μº-¢√®Ωh. ÅC Ø√é¬\Ææh Ü®Ω-ôí¬ ©†’ ¢√úøû√ç. (3 or
took longer than I had thought.
ÖçC.) 4 soaps ņç)
(Éçöx °æ†’ç-úÕçC. College time éπçõ‰ Nishanth: His mom vowed that she would b) Please give me
perform poojas at temple if he soap. (Please give
c) His works will soon be published =
´·çüË °æ‹Jh îËßÁ·îª’a††’-èπ◊Ø√o. é¬F
؈-†’-èπ◊†oüΔE-éπçõ‰ áèπ◊\¢Ë °æöÀdçC.) became normal. me a soap ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’) = Ø√èπ◊ ÆæGs-´yçúÕ. ÅûªúÕ
c) Please give me some soap ÅE -èπÿú≈ ÅØÌa.
®Ωîª-†©’ ûªy®Ω™ v°æ-J-ûª-´’-´¤-û√®·.
Nishanth: You missed an interesting demo on (¢√úÕéÀ †ßª’-¢Á’iûË í∫’∞x °æ‹ï©’ îË®·-≤ƒh-
how soap is made. There was a †E ¢√∞¡x´’t ¢Á·èπ◊\-èπ◊çC.) Work (= °æE) èπÿú≈ English ™ uncountable.
Å™«Íí Iron. Iron = 1) Ɇ’´· – Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ Iron,
uncountable. Åçõ‰ Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ ¢√úÕ-†-°æ¤púø’, a/ an
man from Washwell Soap Vow = v°æAïc îËߪ’úøç/ ¢Á·èπ◊\-éÓ-´úøç. (äéπ °æ†’çC, È®çúø’ ´‚úø’ °æ†’-©’ °æ‹Jh-îË-ߪ÷L ÅE Iron, Irons ÅE ¢√úøç.
Company. The chemistry associa- Visisht: I saw him this morning. He is pro- ûÁ©’-í∫’™ ņoô’d English ™ èπ◊ü¿-®Ωü¿’).
Iron = 2) ÉÆ‘Y °õ„d– (Iron box ÅE English ™
tion had invited him to give us the gressing. He has gone out on work/ on some work =
demo. Åûªúø’ °æE/ àüÓ(some) °æEO’ü¿ •ßª’-öÀ-Èé-∞«xúø’. ņç). Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ Iron countable.
(-É¢√∞¡ Öü¿ßª’ç Åûª-úÕE îª÷¨»†’. éÓ©’- a) He bought an iron yesterday = E†o Åûª-úÌéπ
(Ææ•’s ᙫ ûªßª÷®Ω’îËßÁ·îÓa ûÁLÊ° v°æü¿- A lot of work ÅØÌa. Å®·ûË work •ü¿’©’
èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√oúø’.)
job ¢√úøû√ç. 'Job' ´÷´‚-©’í¬ ´’†ç
®Ωz†-†’ -†’-´¤y éÓ™p-ߪ÷´¤. ´’† éπ∞«-¨»© äéÓ\-≤ƒJ ÉÆ‘Y °õ„d éÌØ√oúø’.
Nishanth: I'll see him tomorrow. b) He bought iron yesterday = E†o Åûªúø’
Chemistry Association -¢√-∞¡Ÿx ÖüÓuí∫ç ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ ¢√úøû√ç. Å®·ûË job èπ◊ äéπ®Ω’
'Washwell' Ææ• ’s© Company E (؈’ Í®°æ¤ îª÷≤ƒh†ûªúÕE.) îËߪ÷-Lq† °æE ÅØË Å®Ωnç èπÿú≈ ÖçC. Ɇ’´· éÌØ√oúø’.
Ç v°æü¿-®Ωz† E®Ωy-£œ«ç- Now look at the following
sentences from the conver-

Teachers take class


î√-Lqç-Cí¬ Ç£æ…y-
Eç-î√®Ω’.) sation between Nishanth
Demo = Demonstration and Visisht.
= v°æü¿-®Ωz†, ´·êuçí¬ 1) You didn't attend college
àüÁjØ√ v°ævéÀߪ’/ °æE ᙫ- yesterday.
îË-ߪ÷™ îª÷°œç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊. Taking care of the guests is his job = 2) You went to temple as usual.
Visisht: I had known about it but I couldn't ÅA-ü∑¿’-©†’ îª÷Ææ’-éÓ-´úøç ÅûªúÕ °æE. Ééπ\úø 3) They rushed him to hospital.
help giving it the miss. The work at
home was important. -Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 559 í∫´’-Eç-î√-Lq† N≠æߪ’ç, work (uncountable) =
job (countable) Åçõ‰ a job/ an urgent job/
´÷´‚-©’í¬ ´÷ö«x-úË-¢√-∞¡xèπÿ, NØË-¢√-∞¡xèπÿ ûÁL-Æœ†
N≠æ-ߪ’-¢Á’iûË, ÅC countable/ uncountable Å®·Ø√
(Ø√èπ◊ üΔEo í∫’Jç* ûÁ©’Ææ’. é¬F ´ü¿’-©’- two or three jobs ÅØÌa. 'the' ¢√úøû√ç.
éÓ-´úøç ûª°æp-™‰ü¿’.) éÀçü¿öÀ≤ƒJ ´’†ç Countables, I have two or three jobs to do before I go Where is the post office here? = Ééπ\úø post
Nishanth: But you went to temple as usual uncountables
to bed = °æúø’-éÓ-¶-ßË’-´·çü¿’ îËߪ÷-Lq† °æ†’©’ office áéπ\-úø’çC? (Post Office ÅúÕ-Íí-¢√-∞¡xèπÿ, îÁÊ°p-
í∫’Jç* ´’Sx
perhaps. ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç. Uncountables èπ◊ ¢√-∞¡xèπÿ Éü¿lJéà ûÁL-Æœ† N≠æߪ’ç 鬕öÀd, the Post
M.SURESAN
plural Öçúø-ü¿E, ¢√öÀ´·çü¿’ a/ an
È®çúø’ ´‚úø’-Ø√o®·.
(é¬F ´÷´‚©’í¬ í∫’úÕéÀ ´÷vûªç ¢Á∞«x- I am going out on an important job = Office. Å™«Íí The railway station/ the bus sta-
tion/ the MRO's Office etc.)
´-†’-èπ◊çö«.) ¢√úø-èπÿ-úø-ü¿F ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç.
Visisht: That I did of course. By then I had
Å™«çöÀ uncountables ´’J-éÌEo É°æ¤púø’ ûÁ©’-Ææ’- ã ´·êu- ¢Á’i† °æE-O’ü¿ •ßª’-öÀ-Èé-∞¡Ÿ-ûª’-Ø√o†’.
Å®·ûË éÌEo îÓ-ô’x, v°æüË-¨»©’ éÌEo v°æûËu-éπ-¢Á’i†
èπ◊çüΔç. ÉçéÓ N≠æߪ’ç: ¢ËÍ®y®Ω’ Å®√n-©’†o äÍé ´÷ô,
finished my work. äéπ Å®Ω nç ûÓ countable Å´¤-ûª’çC, ÉçéÓ Å®ΩnçûÓ °æ†’-©èπ◊ EÍ®l-Pç-*-†-Ní¬ Öçö«®·. Å™«ç-öÀ-îÓ-ôxèπ◊
Look at the following from the dialogue above:
(ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈ ¢Á∞«x. Å°æp-öÀéÀ Ø√ °æE °æ‹Jh- uncountable Å´¤-ûª’çC. Ç °æ†’-©èπ◊ ¢Á∞Ïx-ô-°æ¤púø’ ¢√öÀ ´·çü¿’ the ¢√úøç.
îË-Êƨ».) 1) I had work at home. Work èπ◊ ´÷´‚©’ Å®Ωnç °æE éπüΔ? Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ eg: Students and teachers go to school/
Nishanth: There's some thing more you 2) You missed an interesting demo on how work, uncountable ÅE ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç. Å®·ûË college (the school/ the college é¬ü¿’)
should know. In the chemistry lab, soap is made. work èπ◊ ÉçéÓ Å®Ωnç 'ví∫çü∑¿ç—/ '®Ω— ÅE- èπÿú≈ The devout (¶μºéÀh-éπ-©-¢√∞¡Ÿx) go to temple/
acid fell in Sai's eyes. Very unfortu- Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ work countable, Å°æ¤púø’ work church/ mosque (´’Æ‘ü¿’) (The temple/ the
nate, you know. They rushed him to N’í∫û√ uncountables èπ◊ ™«í¬ØË soap (Ææ•’s), ÖçC.
a/ an ®√´îª’a. Works (ví∫çü∑Δ©’) ÅE plur- church/ the mosque
work (°æE) èπÿú≈ uncountables. Åçõ‰ ¢√öÀéÀ
hospital. Fortunately the doctor
´·çü¿ ’ é¬ü¿’).
al ¢√úÌa. Students attend class (the class é¬ü¿’)
there assured us that his sight plurals Öçúø´¤. ¢√öÀ´·çü¿’ a/ an ®√ü¿’.
would be normal soon. a) Hamlet is a work by Shakespeare = Teachers take class (the class é¬ü¿’)
´’†ç shop ™ éÌØË Ææ•’s G∞¡x†’ A cake of Hamlet, Shakespeare ví∫çü∑¿ç/ ®Ω. Judges/ Advocates/ Litigants go to court (the
(†’´¤y ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√-LqçC Éçé¬ ÖçC. soap Åçö«ç, paper †’, a sheet/ sheets of
Chemistry lab ™ ≤ƒ®· éπçöx acid b) The works of Shakespeare are great = court
paper; a slip/ slips of paper ņoô’x.
é¬ü¿’).
°æúÕçC. ÅûªúÕE ÇÆæp-vAéÀ BÆæ’-Èé-∞«x®Ω’. Shakespeare ®Ωîª-†©’ íÌ°æpN.

P. Srinivasa Rao, Pithapuram Q. The difference between bribe and corrupt. Q. What is synergy school? and please define
Q. I would like to know the clarifications of the A. 1) Bribe' is the cash or anything given to a synergy.
following questions. person to make him do something illegal A. Synergy is a technical word. The meaning is,
The difference between moral val- (©çîªç); 2) To bribe means to give cash or the extra energy, power, success etc that we
ues and ethical values. kind given to some one to make them do can get when two or more people or compa-
A. Moral Values = Beliefs a soci-
ety has about what is moral and
illegal things.
Corrupt: Immoral; A corrupt person is
nies working together- Combinedly.
Synergy school = Two or more schools com-
-á-™¸.-â.Æœ.
what is not. bining with one another.
immoral and does illegal things- by accept-
™„j°∂ˇ Ɇ÷q-È®Ø˛q 鬮Ìp-Í®-≠æØ˛ (ᙸ.-â.Æœ.) ÇJn-éπçí¬
Ethical values = Beliefs the mem- Q. What is the usage of As to?
ing bribes, by doing bad things to please
¢Á†’-éπ-•-úÕ† (-É.-G.Æœ.-) NüΔu-®Ω’n-©èπ◊ ᙸ-âÆ‘
bers of a profession (doctors/
important people, and by earning money in A. As to = about/ regarding.
íÓ™„fØ˛ WHx ≤ƒ\©-®˝-≠œ°ˇ Æ‘\¢˛’†’ v°æéπ-öÀç-*çC.
teachers/ priests/ lawyers, etc) have about
what is right or wrong in their profession. bad ways. As to spoken English, the simpler your lan- Ñ °æü∑¿-éπç™ ¶μ«í∫çí¬ ü˨¡-¢√u-°æhçí¬ 1000
eg: A doctor with ethical values does not use Q. Please define concept school. guage is, the better it is = Talking about/ ´’çC NüΔu-®Ω’n-©èπ◊ ≤ƒ\©-®˝≠œ°ˇ©†’ ´’çW®Ω’
their knowledge to harm their patients. Referring to spoken English, the simpler the îË≤ƒh®Ω’.
A. There is no such thing as 'a concept school.
Q. He knows telugu as well as English. This is language is, the better it is. Å®Ω|-ûª©’: 2008–09 NüΔu Ææç´-ûªq-®Ωç™ Éçô-®˝™
In Andhra Pradesh certain institutes use the
a complex sentence. Please analyse the expression to mean, a school where stu- Q. In the dictionary 'pull up' is given such a way éπFÆæç 60 ¨»ûªç ´÷®Ω’\©’ §ÒçC Öçú≈L. OJ
main clause and subordinate clause in the dents are taught to understand a subject, as pull up (pull something up) to (cause to) ûªLx-ü¿ç-vúø’© èπ◊ô’ç• ÇüΔߪ’ç Ææç´-ûªq-®√-EéÀ
sentence. come to a stop. Here what is the meaning of ®Ω÷.60000 üΔô-èπÿ-úøü¿’.
different from a school which makes stu-
A. He knows Telugu as well as English - This is cause to?
dents learn by mugging up 'Concept'
(•-öÃd). ü¿-®Ω-ë«Ææ’h: ÇØ˛-™„j-Ø˛™ ´÷vûª¢Ë’ ü¿®Ω-ë«Ææ’h îËߪ÷L.
a compound sentence, because 'as well as' actually means the actual idea or a principle A. To cause to = to make/ to be the cause of. ü¿®Ω-ë«Ææ’h, Å®Ω|-ûª©’ ûªC-ûª®Ω N´-®√-©†’ ᙸ.-â.Æœ.
is a conjunction meaning 'and' To pull up (a car, etc) = To cause to (To
behind something. Teaching means teaching
¢Á¶¸-ÂÆj-ö¸™ îª÷úø-´îª’a. -™‰-üΔ ûª´’ ÆæO’°æ
The complex sentence for this is: make) stop a vehicle that a person is driving.
the concept and not, as most residential/
ᙸ.â.Æœ. v¶«ç<™ Ææçv°æ-Cç-îª-´îª’a.
He knows Telugu while he knows English. eg: He pulled up by the side of road = He ¢Á¶¸-ÂÆj-ö¸: www.licindia.in
public schools do, train student in mugging
But this sentence is rather odd and had not brought his car to a stop/ stopped his car by
up lessons. A good school is always a con- ü¿®Ω-ë«Ææ’hèπ◊ *´JûËC: Çí∫Ææ’d 16.
better be used. It is turning a sentence into the side of the road.
cept school.
complex just for the sake of turning.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


-Ç-C¢√®Ωç 9 -Çí∫Ææ’d 2009 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Hem: Hi Prem, (I have) not seen you for days. Prem: You can say it again and again. My b) In spite of the
You look run down too. What's the mat- head was in a bandage and both my heavy work at
ter? cheeks were in plaster. My ankle was in home, she is
(î√™« ®ÓV-™„jçC E†’o îª÷Æœ. F®Ω-Ææçí¬ èπÿú≈ a plaster cast. I had an injection twice never run down
éπE-°œ-Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤. àN’öÀ N≠æߪ’ç?) every day. = Éçöx Åçûª-°æE
Prem: I've been in bed for the past week. I am (Ç ´÷ô †’¢Áy-Eo-≤ƒ-È®kxØ√ ÅØÌa/ ´’Sx ´’Sx ÖçúÕ-èπÿú≈ Ç¢Á’
just out. ÅØÌa. ûª© ô÷d éπô’d. îÁç°æ©-O’ü¿ plas- F®Ω-Ææçí¬/ Å©-Æœ-
(í∫ûª¢√®Ωçí¬ Øˆ’ ´’çî√-†-°æ-ú≈f†’. É°æ¤púË ter. Ø√ <©-´’çúø – 鬩÷, §ƒü¿ç éπLÊ° éé’ §Ú-®·-†-ô’dç-úøü¿’.
– plaster éπô’d™ ÖçúÕ-§Ú-®·çC.) 4) To do with - ÉC
2) Bruise=
é¬Ææh •ßª’-ô-éÌ-î√a†’.)
Hem: But why? (à´’-®·çC?) Hem: (Are) you able to walk normally now? î√™« ≤ƒüμΔ-®Ω-ùçí¬ éπE-°œçîË phrasal verb, àüÁjØ√ ®√Ææ’-éÓ-´-úøç-´-©x-í¬F, ¢Ëí∫çí¬ ¢Á∞¡Ÿ-ûª’-
spoken English ™ DEE È®çúø-®√n-©ûÓ ¢√úøû√ç. †o-°æ¤púø’ éÀçü¿-°æ-úø-ôç-´©xí¬F Ωtç ™‰*-§Ú-´úøç/
Prem: I had an accident, not major though. I (´÷´‚©’í¬ †úø-´-í∫-©’-í∫’-ûª’-Ø√o¢√?)
i) î√©úøç (To be enough)/ î√©-†’-éÓ-´úøç/ ÆæJ-
úÓèπ◊\-§Ú-´úøç/ ®√-èπ◊-§Ú-´úøç.
escaped with just sprains and bruises, Prem: No. I limp a little even now. The doctor
When the bike brushed past him he had
but they were enough to keep me in told me not to mind it but just keep walk- °-ô’d-éÓ-´úøç.
bruises on his sides =
a) I can do with Rs. 15000 a month, but cer-
ing like that.
-¶„jé˙ Åûª-úÕE ®√Ææ’-èπ◊çô÷
bed. Thank God, I had no fractures.
tainly not with less than that. =
¢Á∞¡x-úøç-´©x, ÅûªE °æéπ\©’ úÓèπ◊\-§Ú-ߪ÷®·/ ®√--
(Ø√èπ◊ accident Å®·çC, *†oüË Å†’éÓ. (™‰ü¿’. É°æ¤púø’ èπÿú≈ é¬Ææh èπ◊çô’ûª÷ †úø’≤ƒh. ØÁ©èπ◊ 15000 èπ◊Ø√o®·.
®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’©’ î√©’ Ø√èπ◊/ Åçûª-öÀûÓ ÆæJ-°-ô’d-éÓ-
(Bruises Å®·†°æ¤púø’ Ωtç ™‰*-§Ú®· ´’çôí¬
¶„ù’-èπ◊©’, úÓèπ◊\-§Ú-´-úøçûÓ ûª°œpç--èπ◊-Ø√o†’. ú≈éπd®Ω’ üΔ†oçûª °æöÀdç--éÓ-èπ◊çú≈, Å™«Íí
é¬F Å¢Ë ††’o ´’çî√† °æúË-¨»®·. üË´¤úÕ †úø’Ææ÷h Öçúø-´’-Ø√oúø’.) í∫-©†’. Åçûª-éπçõ‰ ûªèπ◊\-´ûÓ Ø√´©x é¬ü¿’.
b) In these days of rising prices no body can
ÖçúÕ, éÌCl-®Ó-V© ûª®√yûª †©x-•-úø’-ûª’çC).
Hem: Good for you. Hope you'd be normal soon.
5) Cuts and scratches = éÓûª©’, UÆæ’-éÓ-´úøç, î√èπ◊-
ü¿ßª’-´©x á´·-éπ©’/ éÃ∞¡Ÿx N®Ω-í∫-™‰ü¿’.)
Hem: But how didn't I know it? No one told me (´’ç*üË. ûªy®Ω-™ØË ´÷´‚©’ ÆœnAéÀ ´≤ƒh-´E do with anything less than Rs.5000 a
of it. ÇP-Ææ’hØ√o.) month. ™«xçöÀ ¢√öÀ-´©x, ¢√£æ«-Ø√© Í®èπ◊©’ ûªí∫-©úøç ´©x
éπLÍí éÓûª©’, UÆæ’-èπ◊-§Ú-´-ú≈©’.
(Å®·ûË Ø√È陫 ûÁL-ߪ’- OöÀ-O’ü¿ ¢ËÊÆ band aid

You look r un down


™‰D N≠æߪ’ç? á´®Ω÷ ™«çöÀN. plaster = °æöÃd.
3) Fracture = á´·éπ (bone)
Ø√ûÓ îÁ°æp-™‰üË?)
Prem: The doctor wanted í¬F, éé’ (joint) í¬F N®Ω-
me to do with the í∫úøç.
fewest visitors. He
a) he had a fracture in the leg/ His leg was
didn't want me to be disturbed. He said
= fractured = ÅûªúÕ é¬©’ NJ-TçC.
the fewer visitors I had the earlier would
üμ¿®Ω©’ °®Ω’í∫’ûª’†o Ñ ®ÓV™x ØÁ©èπ◊ 5000
-Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 560
b) He had multiple fractures =
I be out of the hospital. So my people
®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’©’ à´÷vûªç î√-©-´¤/ á´®Ω÷ ØÁ©èπ◊ ÅûªúÕ á´·-éπ©’
alone knew about it.
5000 ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’-©ûÓ ÆæJ-°-ô’d-éÓ-™‰®Ω’. î√™«-îÓôx NJ-í¬®·.
ii) To do with èπ◊ È®çúÓ Å®Ωnç– to be connect- Bandage = á´·-éπ©’, éÃ∞¡Ÿx NJ-TØ√, ¶„ùÀ-éÀØ√
(ú≈éπd®˝ O™„j-†çûª ûªèπ◊\-´-´’çC Ææçü¿-®Ωz-èπ◊©’ Now look at the following
ed with = Ææç•çüμ¿ç Öçúøôç. í¬ßª÷-™„jØ√ ¢ËÊÆ éπô’d.
´îËa™« îª÷Ææ’-éÓ-´’-Ø√oúø’. áçûª ûªèπ◊\-´-´’çC expressions from the con-
a) The Court concluded that he had noth- Plaster cast = á´·éπ NJ-T-†-°æ¤púø’, Ç Å´-
´ÊÆh Åçûª ûªy®Ωí¬ Øˆ’ •ßª’-ô-°æ-úø-û√-†E versation above.
M.SURESAN ing to do with the murder = Åûª-úÕéÃ Ç ßª’´ç éπü¿-©-èπ◊çú≈ ÖçúËç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¢ËÊÆ °æöÃd
1) You look run down.
îÁ§ƒpúø’. Åçü¿’-éπE ´÷ ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ ûª°æp ÉçÈé-´-JéÃ
ûÁL-ߪ’-™‰ü¿’.) £æ«ûªuèπÿ à Nüμ¿-¢Á’i† Ææç•çüμ¿ç ™‰ü¿ØË éÓ®Ω’d (Plaster of Paris ûÓ– DØËo POP cast
2) I escaped with just sprains and bruises.
Hem: How serious was it? E®√l¥-Jç-*çC. Åçö«®Ω’.)
3) Thank God, I had no fractures. to do with †’ áèπ◊\-´í¬ not ûÓ, nothing ûÓ Sling = îË®· Bandage/ POP cast ™
(áçûª -Æ‘-J-ߪ’Æˇ àN’öÀ?)
4) The doctor wanted me to do with the fewest Ö†o°æ¤púø’ îËAE ¢Á’úø-ô÷d ¢Ë™«-úø-D-ÊÆç-ü¿’èπ◊
Prem: Not very. I had bruises, and an ankle Ææç•çüμ¿ç ™‰ü¿ØË Å®ΩnçûÓ ¢√úø-û√®Ω’.
visitors. b) I am a heart specialist. I have nothing to
¢ËÊÆ í∫’úøf.
sprain. There were cuts and scratches
5) There were cuts and scratches too. do with skin diseases = Heart spe- 6) To be run over = àüÁjØ√ ¢√£æ«-†ç-éÀçü¿ °æúøôç.
too. ؈’
6) I would have been run over by a lorry. cialist†’. Ø√èπ◊ Ωt-®Ó-í¬-©ûÓ Ææç•çüμ¿ç ™‰ü¿’. a) The child was run over by the car = Ç é¬®Ω’
(Åçûª Bv´-¢Á’i†¢Ëç 鬴¤. úÓèπ◊\§Ú-´úøç, <©-
´’çúø ¶„ù’èπ◊. éÓûª©÷, Uûª©÷ èπÿú≈.) 7) My head was in a bandage and my cheeks c) She is a maths lecturer. What has she to
éÀçü¿ Gúøf °æúÕ-§Ú-®·çC/ Gúøf-O’-ü¿-†’ç* é¬®Ω’
Hem: What exactly happened? were in plaster. do with English. Ç¢Á’Maths lecturer.
¢ÁR}-§Ú-®·çC.
(ÅÆ晉ç ïJ-TçC?) 8) My ankle was in a plaster cast. Ç¢Á’èπÿ English èπÿ Ææç•çüμ¿ç àN’öÀ? ¢√£æ«-Ø√© -ߪ÷éÀq-úÁç-ôxèπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cμç-*† ´÷ô©’.
Prem: While I was walking along the road, a 9) I limp a little even now. É°æ¤púø’ accidents ™«çöÀN ïJ-T-†-°æ¤púø’ éπLÍí Hit/ knock down = ¢√£æ«†ç úμŒ éÌôdúøç.
bike hit me from behind and I fell on the Ñ expressions ÅFo èπÿú≈ ÉC-´-®Ω™ ûÁ©’-Ææ’- ¶«üμ¿©’, üΔEéÀ Ææç•ç-Cμç-*† ´÷ô©’ English b) A lorry hit him/ knocked him down as he
road, fortunately I rolled to a side of the èπ◊-†o¢Ë. ´’®Ó-≤ƒJ í∫’®Ω’h-îË-Ææ’-èπ◊çüΔç by way of ™ îª÷üΔlç. was crossing the street = ®Ó-ú˛ üΔô’-ûª’çúøí¬
road and hit the pavement. Otherwise I revision. 2) Sprain= ¶„ù’èπ◊. ¶«í¬ ûªT-L† üÁ•s-´©x, °jéÀ éπE-
™«K ÅûªúÕo úμŒéÌ-öÀdçC.
would have been run over by a lorry. c) A lorry ran over him =
1) be/ look run down = F®Ω-Æœç*, E®Ω’-û√q-£æ«çí¬ °œç-îª-èπ◊çú≈, éπC-LûË éπLÍí ØÌ°œp, äéÌ\-éπ\-°æ¤púø’ ™«-K ÅûªúÕ O’ü¿ †’ç*
(؈’ ®Ó-ú˛ ¢Áç•úÕ †úø’-Ææ’hçõ‰ ¢Á†éπ †’ç* ¶„jé˙ éπE-°œç-îªúøç. ¢√°æ¤ûÓ. ¢ÁR}-§Ú-®·çC.-
úμŒéÌ-öÀdçC. ؈’ éÀçü¿-°æ-úÕ-§Ú-ߪ÷†’. a) There is a sprain in my neck = ¢Á’úø ¶«í¬ d) The bike rammed (into) the car =
a) After the bout of jaundice, he still looks
é¬®Ω’-†’
Åü¿%-≠d´æ ¨»ûª÷h ®Óúø’f-éÌ-éπ-¢Áj°æ¤ üÌJx Ê°-¢˛-¢Á’ç-ö¸ run down = 鬢Á’®Ωx ûª®√yûª èπÿú≈, Åûª-úÕçé¬ F®Ω- ¶„ùÀ-éÀçC. ¢Á†-éπ-†’ç* -¶„jé˙ úμŒéÌ-öÀdçC.
ü¿í∫_®Ω Çí¬†’. ™‰èπ◊çõ‰ ™«K éÀçü¿ °æúË-¢√úËo.)
b) Sprain of the knee joint = ¢Á÷é¬L éé’ e) The lorry rammed (into)/ hit the car head
Hem: Thank your stars.
Ææçí¬/ •©-£‘«-†çí¬/ Å©-Æœ-†ô’x éπE-°œ-Ææ’h-Ø√oúø’.
on =
(Bout = ¢√uCμ îËÊÆ üΔúÕ) ¶„ù’èπ◊. -™«-K áü¿’-®Ω’í¬ ´*a 鬮˝-†’ úμŒéÌ-öÀdçC.
(F Åü¿%≠ædç ¶«í∫’çC.)
G. Ashok, Godhur a) She has put in a lot of work, so that she Q. If Raju had been honest, he would have
A. Å´’%ûªç – DEo Åv´·ûªç ÅE ®√ߪ’ç. ´’%– ÉC
Q.
ü¿ßª’-îËÆœ éÀçC v°æ¨¡o-©èπ◊ Ææ´÷-üμΔ- can get a good score = marks
´’ç* Ææ秃- returned the money. have
Ñ ¢√éπuç™ Ö†o-
°æ‹Jhí¬, v´· ™« °æ©éπç – 'vN’—éÀ, 'v´·—èπ◊ ´’üμ¿u îÓôhas áçü¿’èπ◊ ®√èπÿ-úøüÓ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
Ø√©’ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. ¨¡•lç, éπ%≠æg™, 'éπ%—™« – É™« ´vô-Ææ’úÕ Ö†o ¨¡¶«l-©- Cç--éÓ-´-îªaØË ÖüËl-¨¡çûÓ Ç¢Á’ î√™« v¨¡´’-°æ-úÕçC.
Cash book ™ credit †’ Cr ÅE, b) He has already put in 10 years experience A Will, would, shall, should, can, could, may,
.
debit †’ Dr ÅE abbreviate
Eoç-öÀéÀ, 'i' ®√ߪ’-úø¢Ë’ correct. might, must, need 'has'
= ûª®√yûª á°æ¤púø÷ ®√ü¿’.
Q. Put off, put up, put on, put in- OöÀE ûÁ©’-í∫’™
Åûª-úÕ-°æp-öÀÍé °æüË∞¡x ņ’-¶μº´ç §ÒçC ÖØ√oúø’.
îËÆæ’hØ√oç. é¬F Dr ™ r ÅØË Åéπ~- Have 'has'
Q. What is the difference among ship, boat,
´÷vûª¢Ë’ ´Ææ’hçC.- ¢√úøôç ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’.
Q. What is the difference between map-picture,
ÖüΔ-£æ«-®Ω-ù-©ûÓ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
steamer, launchi.
®√Eo áéπ\-úÕ-†’ç* ûÁa-èπ◊Ø√oç?
A. Debit Åçõ‰ drawn amount 鬕öÀd Dr Åçö«®Ω’. A. Put off = Postpone (¢√®·üΔ ¢Ëߪ’úøç) divide-bifurcation, caution-warning, advice-
Don't put off till tomorrow what you can do to A Boat =
suggestion, cool-cold, heat-hot.
ÉC Accounts, Commerce, Banking èπ◊ . °æúø´ (´÷´‚©’ ûÁúøxûÓ †úÕ-Ê°C)
´÷vûª¢Ë’ °æJ-N’-ûª-¢Á’i† abbreviation. ´÷´‚©’ day. Ship =ÇN-J-¨¡éÀh/ diesel ûÓ †úÕîË ßª’çvûªç Ö†o A Map - The outline of the earth's surface or of
.
language ™ ÉC ¢√úø®Ω’. Put up = v°æü¿-Jzç-îªúøç (ØÁj°æ¤-ù«uEo, §Ú®√-ö«Eo, î√™« °ü¿l Ø√´ – Steamer - ÇN-J-¨¡éÀh ÇüμΔ-®Ωçí¬ a country or a place.
Q. What is Green Field Airport? etc) †úÕ î Ë Ø√´. Picture = any drawing – à ¶Ô-¢Á’i tØ√.
A Green field airport:
. ã N¨»-©-¢Á’i† v°æü˨¡ç, üΔE a) The enemy did not put up any fight. Launch = Diesel/ Petrol ûÓ †úÕîË *†o Ø√´ Bifurcate = to divide into two parts (Roads,
ü¿JüΔ-°æ¤™x à E®√t-ù«©÷, éπôd-ú≈©÷ ï®Ω-í∫EîÓôx b) The Indian team put up a great perfor- (Launchi é¬ü¿’.) rivers etc).
EJtçîË N´÷-Ø√-v¨¡ßª’ç. Éçü¿’™ í¬L, ¢Á©’-ûª’®Ω’ mance. Q. Do you know, did you know í∫’Jç* N´-Jç-îª- Divide = to separate into two or more parts.
´îËaç-ü¿’èπ◊ v§ƒüμΔ-†u-N’-≤ƒh®Ω’. O™„j-†çûª ûªèπ◊\´ Put on = •ôd©’ ¢ËÆæ’-éÓ-´úøç. í∫ - © ®Ω ’. Caution = Warning.
Nü¿’uû˝ ¢√úËô’x, áèπ◊\´ Ææ÷®Ωu-é¬çA, Ææ£æ«ï He put on his shirt and went out. A . Do you know = Fèπ◊ ûÁ©’≤ƒ? (É°æ¤púø’) Advice = Ææ©£æ…; Suggestion = Ææ÷
Did you know = Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çüË Fèπ◊ ûÁ©’≤ƒ? Cool = xE; Cold = îªL-í¬- Ö†o
¢Á©’-ûª’®Ω’ ´îËaô’x îª÷≤ƒh®Ω’.
Put in = DEéÀ î√™« Å®√n-©’-Ø√o®·. ÅEoöx
Q. Å´’%-ûª†’ Amrutha ÅE é¬èπ◊çú≈ Amritha ÅE
áèπ◊\-´í¬ ¢√úË Å®√n-©’ ¢√úøôç, v¨¡N’çîªúøç. (Do - present; did - past éπüΔ?) Heat = ¢ËúÕ; Hot = ¢ËúÕí¬ Ö†o.
®√≤ƒh-È®ç-ü¿’èπ◊?

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


-Ç-C¢√®Ωç 16 -Çí∫Ææ’d 2009 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

S.Satyanarayana Murthy, ii) the '...ing' form (going, coming, walking,


Q. Hat èπ◊ cap èπ◊
Kakinada etc. í∫´’EçîªçúÕ– ÉN Íé-´-©ç '...ing' forms
'be' form 'be'
´’üμ¿u ûËú≈ àN’öÀ?
Q. Can, could, will, would, shall, ´÷vûª¢Ë’. ´’Sx DE´·çü¿’ ´ÊÆh,
form, 'ing' form finite verb A. Hat – ´’çü¿ç áèπ◊\-
may, might, have, has - OöÀE éπL°œ Å´¤-ûª’çC.
v°æ¨¡o™x ¢√úÕ-†-°æ¤púø’ OöÀ ûª®√yûª eg: a) Going home - Ééπ\úø going Íé´©ç ´í¬ Öçúø-ô¢Ë’
á°æ¤púø÷ V1 ´Ææ’hç-ü¿-Ø√o®Ω’. v°æ¨¡o™x '...ing' form ´÷vûª¢Ë’. 鬕öÀd finite verb é¬èπ◊çú≈ í∫öÀdí¬ ÖçúÕ
èπÿú≈ Past, Present perfect tenses ™ has ´*a- é¬ü¿’. ûª© O’ü¿ØË é¬èπ◊çú≈,
†-°æ¤púø’ É™«Íí Öçô’çüΔ, N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. b) I am going home- Ééπ\úø 'going' †’ü¿’-®Ω’ûÓ §ƒô’ ûª©
A. Shall, should, will, would, can, could, may, ´·çü¿’, 'am' - be form ÖçC– am °æéπ\©, ¢Á†’éπèπ◊
Convent - Ñ °æüΔEo ´’† ü˨¡ç™ English
might, must, need (not), ought 1st
ûª®√yûª, going- Ééπ\úø verb. áçúø ûªí∫-©-èπ◊çú≈ Åç©’ Öçö«®·.
Medium School ÅØË ûª°æ¤p Å®ΩnçûÓ ¢√úø’-ûª’Ø√oç.
Regular Doing Word V1
(O’®ΩØË ´Ææ’hçC). Íé´©ç '...ing' form †’ present participle Cap – ¢Á’ûªhí¬ ÖçúÕ, †’ü¿’öÀéÀ ´÷vûª¢Ë’ áçúø
Convent èπ◊ ÆæÈ®j† Å®Ωnç Christian nuns
have to, has to, had to
ÅçûË-é¬-èπ◊çú≈, ûª®√yûª Åçö«ç. ûªí∫-©-èπ◊çú≈ Öçô’çC. Dictionary ™ ¶Ô´’t©’
1st Regular Doing Word
èπÿú≈ ´Ææ’hçü¿E iii) Past participle (PP) ÉçéÓ non-finite verb. îª÷úøçúÕ. (´’ûªç/ üË´¤úÕ ÊÆ´èπ◊ ÅçéÀ-ûª-¢Á’i-§Ú®·, @N-û√çûªç
1st Regular Doing Word taken, written, seen, loved, etc. ÉN èπÿú≈
éπ†u-©’í¬ ÖçúË¢√∞¡Ÿx; Mother Theresa èπÿú≈ äéπ
Q. Chatting, chit chat äéπ-õ‰Ø√?
îÁ§ƒpç. í∫´’EçîªçúÕ.
have, has, had have to, nun; ¢√JE sisters ÅE °œ©’≤ƒhç.) E´-Æ œçîË
´îËaC ûª®√yûª é¬ü¿’ finite verbs 鬴¤. OöÀ´·çü¿’ 'be' form
has to, had to (Have, has, had A. äéπõ‰. îÓô’. Convent èπÿ, school èπÿ à Ææç•çüμ¿ç
ûª®√yûª. © ¢√úÕûË, Å°æ¤púø’ 'be' form + PP, verb
to
ûª®√yûª ´ÊÆh, üΔE ûª®√yûª I RDW ´Ææ’hçC). Å´¤-ûª’çC Passive Voice ™. Q. Ç©Ææuç Å´’%ûªç N≠æç. EüΔ-†¢Ë’ v°æ-üμΔ†ç. Ñ ™‰ü¿’. ü˨¡ç™ ¢Á·ü¿öÀ English Medium
Perfect tenses ™ ´îËa have/ has/ had Schools, Ñ convents ™E sisters E®Ωy-£œ«ç-
Taken into custody by police- ≤ƒ¢Á’-ûª-©†’ ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ îÁ°æp-í∫-©®Ω’.
ûª®√yûª á°æ¤púø÷ past participle ´Ææ’hçC. Ééπ\úø 'taken' Íé´©ç PP ´÷vûª¢Ë’. finite A. OöÀéÀ ÆæJí¬_ ÆæJ-§ÚßË’ -¢√é¬u-©’ ÉçTx-≠ˇ™  ™‰´¤. îªúøç ´©x ¢√öÀE convent schools ÅØË-¢√∞¡Ÿx.
eg: They have to go (verb: have to + 1st verb é¬ü¿’. Q. ´’†-Ææ ’çõ‰ ´÷®Ω_-´·ç-ô ’çC. Ñ ≤ƒ¢Á ’-ûª† ’
®√†’ ®√†’, schools ÅØË ´÷ô §Ú®·, convent
RDW) school ÅØË Å®Ωnç-™ éÀ ´*açC.
He was taken into custody - was
Ééπ\úø ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
They have gone (verb: have + Past par- taken - taken 'be' form (was) Techno School - ÉC v°æûËuéπ Å®Ωnç Ö†o ´÷õ‰ç
´·çü¿’†o ûÓ A. Where there is a will, there is a way.
ticiple (PP) éπL°œwas taken verb Å´¤-ûª’çC. é¬ü¿’. Ñ schools ™ èπÿú≈ v°æûËu-éπûËç Öçúøü¿’.
She has to go (verb: has to + 1st RDW)

Wher e ther e is a will ther e is a way


She has gone (verb: has + pp)
They had to pay (verb: had to + 1st RDW)
They had paid (verb: had + PP)
Q. Verbs ™ finite, non-finite é¬èπ◊çú≈ ¢ËÍ® à¢Á’iØ√
ÖØ√oߪ÷? ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
A. Finite, non finite verbs é¬èπ◊çú≈ ´’Í® ®Ωéπ-¢Á’i† Q. Peripherals Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ? •£æ›¨» 6th standard †’ç* EAMCET/ IIT
verbs ™‰´¤. JEE, etc. °æK-éπ~-©èπ◊ Péπ~ù ÉîËa school ÅE
A. Computer ûÓ éπL°œ¢√úË Éûª®Ω ≤ƒüμ¿-Ø√©’
Finite verbs have 6 forms: -Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 561 Monitor, Printer, Fax ™«çöÀN. E®√y-£æ«-èπ◊© Å®Ωnç 鬶©’.
i) 'be' forms (am/ is/ are/ was/ were/ shall Q. ÇJnéπ´ ÷çü¿uç Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ? ÉçTx-≠ˇ™  Play school = pre school = •úÕ™  îËJpçîªûªí∫_
be, etc) ã sentence èπ◊ éπ*a-ûªçí¬ à´’ç-ö«®Ω’? ´ßª’Ææ’ ™‰E *Ø√o®Ω’©†’ ÇúÕçîË ÆæçÆæn©’. LKG/
ii) 'be' form + '...ing' form (am going/ will be UKG éπç-õ‰ ´·çü¿’ °œ©x-©èπ◊ Ñ schools. (British
finite verb Öçú≈L. üΔçûÓ- A. Economic depression - ûªßª÷-È®j† ´Ææ’h´¤-
dancing, etc) English - Play Group)
meaning complete
M.SURESAN
§ƒô’ ©èπ◊, ÊÆ´-©èπ◊ v°æï©´ü¿l úø•’s ™‰†ç-ü¿’† -T®√éÃ
iii) 'be' form + past participle (Is seen, shall sentence
鬢√L. Å°æ¤púË ÅC Q. Company, corporation, enterprise, organisa-
°æúÕ-§Ú®·, ¢√u§ƒ®Ωç ´’çü¿-Tç-îª-úøç. E®Ω’-
be done, etc) (Passive voice) tion, limited company, private limited com-
Å´¤-ûª’çC. üÓuí∫ç áèπ◊\´ 鬴úøç ™«çöÀN.
iv) shall, should pany, holding company .. Å®√n-©’ -ûÁ-©’°æí∫©®Ω’.
He came here yesterday. Q. Sub prime Åçõ‰ Å®Ωnç àN’öÀ?
will, would A. Corporation, Enterprize, Limited Company,
Éçü¿’™ came ÅØË finite verb ÖçC. Å®Ωnç °æ‹®Ωh- A. Sub prime - DEo sub prime lending ÅE Private Limited Company, Holding Company
can, could ®·uçC 鬕öÀd ÉC sentence. áèπ◊\´í¬ ¢√úø-û√®Ω’. Å®Ωnç: ÆæÈ®j† guarantee É´Fo èπÿú≈ company éÀçü¿èπ◊ ´≤ƒh®·. à
may, might + 1st RDW When he came here yesterday- Ñ group of (security) ™‰èπ◊çú≈, áèπ◊\´ ´úŒféÀ, áèπ◊\´ company
¢√u§ƒ®Ω ÆæçÆæn-ØÁjØ√ ÅØË Åçö«ç.
must, need (shall go, have to words ™, 'came' finite verb é¬F, Å®Ωnç °æ‹®Ωh-´- ¢Á·ûªhçûÓ, É*a† ®Ω’ùç AJT îÁLxçîªí∫©®Ó ™‰üÓ Corporation = î√-™« -°ü¿l company/ äéπ °ü¿l
have to, has to meet, etc) ™‰ü¿’. ÉC sentence é¬ü¿’, DEo clause Åçö«ç. ÅØË N≠æߪ’ç °æ‹Jhí¬ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓèπ◊çú≈ ÉîËa high company †úÕÊ° company © Ææ´‚£æ«ç.
had to, ought to (A clause is a group of words with a verb) risk ®Ω’ù«©’/ û√éπô’x.
Enterprize = company/ ¢√u§ƒ®Ω 鬮Ωu-éπ-™«-§ƒ©’/
v) The Doing Words: ™„éπ\ v°æ鬮Ωç Non finite verbs, verbs 鬴¤. Q. Wide spread Åçõ‰ Å®Ωnç àN’öÀ? °ü¿l ´®Ωhéπç.
The I Regular II RDW Past A. áèπ◊\´í¬ ¢√u°œç* Ö†o Private Limited company = Éçü¿’™ ¶μ«í∫-
Doing Word (RDW) doing word A.V.Subba rao, Onipenta
eg: go goes went Q. Bringing out Ææ’h©’ °æJ-N’-ûªç-í¬ØË Öçö«®Ω’. Éçü¿’-™E ¢√ö«©’
Q.
Public (v°æï©’) §ÒçüË O©’-™‰ü¿’.
éÀçC-¢√-öÀE ÖüΔ-£æ«-®Ω-ù-©ûÓ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
sing sings sang In any case, in that case, in the case of, A. î√™« Å®√n-©’-Ø√o®·. áèπ◊\´í¬ ¢√úË Å®Ωnç: äéπ
in case of.
äéπ Private Limited Company ¢√ö«©’ stock
kill kills killed N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo Ææ’©¶μºçí¬ éπE°œç-îËô’x, Å®Ωn-´’-ßË’uô’x
market ™ éÌØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ ´÷-´‚©’ v°æï-©èπ◊ O©’ç-
like likes liked A. In any case = àüË-¢Á’iØ√ îËߪ’úøç.
The job brings out the efficiency in him = Ç
úøü¿’. ¶μ«í∫-≤ƒy-´·-©ç-ü¿J Ææ´’t-A-ûÓØË éÌûªh ¶μ«í∫-≤ƒy-
smell smells smelt In any case he will be here tomorrow = ´·-©†’ BÆæ’-èπ◊ç-ö«®Ω’.
vi) have
àüË-¢Á’iØ√ Åûªúø’ Í®°œ-éπ\-úø’ç-ö«úø’. ÖüÓuí∫ç Åûª-úÕ-™E ≤ƒ-´’-®√n u-Eo •ßª’-ô-°-úø’-ûÓçC. Holding company = Éûª®Ω company ©†’ ûª†
In that case = Ç °æéπ~ç™/ Å™« ïJ-TûË Q. State wide Åçõ‰ Å®Ωnç ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
has °æ‹Jh/ §ƒéÀ~éπ °ô’d-•-úÕûÓ †úø’-°æ¤ûª÷, ûª† ≤Òçûª
A: I can not go with you (FûÓ Øˆ’ ®√™‰†’) A. ®√≠æZ-¢√u°æhçí¬. ¢√u§ƒ-®√Eo E®Ωy-£œ«ç--èπ◊ØË ¢√u§ƒ®Ω ÆæçÆæn.
had B: In that case I'll go alone (Ç °æéπ~ç™ ؈’ Q. That is it Å®Ωnç àN’öÀ? Organization = à ÆæçÆæn Å®·Ø√. ¢√u§ƒ®Ω ÆæçÊÆn
shall have äçôJí¬ ¢Á∞¡û√) 鬆-éπ\-®Ω-™‰ü¿’. Associations, Clubs, v°æñ«-£œ«ûª
A. ÅD Ææçí∫A.
should have In the case of = Ç N≠æ-ߪ÷-E-éÌÊÆh/ ÇN≠æ-ߪ’ç™
Q. v°æßÁ÷-ï-èπ◊úø’– Ñ ´÷ô†’ ÉçTx-≠ˇ™  ᙫ îÁ§ƒpL?
鬮Ωu-éπ-™«-§ƒ©’ E®Ωy-£œ«çîË ´uèπ◊h© Ææ´‚£æ«ç,
In the case of imported goods, there are
will have + PP. A. Worthy Guy/ man.
É™«çöÀ-´Fo ÆæçÆæn™‰.
taxes = Cí∫’-´’A îËÆæ’-èπ◊ØË ´Ææ’h-´¤© N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ Q. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transsexual – OöÀ
would have °æ†’o-©’ç-ö«®·. Q. By the way, by the by äéπ-õ‰Ø√? Å®√n©’ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
can have In case of = Å™« ïJ-TûË; A. äéπõ‰. A. Lesbian = Éûª®Ω Æ‘Y©ûÓ ÆæyLçí∫ Ææç°æ®Ω\ç ïJÊ°
could have In case of rain, the meeting will be put off = Æ‘Y. (Éûª®Ω Æ‘Y© °æôx sexual í¬/ ™„jçT-éπçí¬ Çéπ-J{-
Alexander G.G., Hyderabad.
may have
´®Ω{ç ´ÊÆh Ææ´÷-¢Ë¨¡ç ¢√®·üΔ °æúø’-ûª’çC. ûª’-®√©ßË’u Æ‘Y) (Homo sexual)
Q. What next, what is next - Ñ È®çúÕç-öÀ™ àC Q. Model school, convent, techno school, play Gay = ÆæyLçí∫ Ææç°æ®Ω\ üμÓ®ΩùÀ Ö†o °æ¤®Ω’-≠æflúø’
might have school ...
éπÈ®èπ◊d? OöÀ í∫’Jç* N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. (Homo sexual)
must have A. What next = What is next? A. Model School = í∫ûªç™ B.Ed. Colleges/ Bisexual = Éûª®Ω °æ¤®Ω’-≠æfl©/ Æ‘Y© °æôx Çéπ-J{-
°j´Fo finite verb forms. Q. Now Åçõ‰ É°æ¤púø’ ´’J right now Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ? Secondary School Teachers' Training ûª’©ßË’u °æ¤®Ω’-≠æfl-©’/ Æ‘Y©’. (Biology ™ Å®·ûË
Non finite verbs: A. Now = É°æ¤púø’; right now = É°æ¤púË Schools èπ◊ ņ’-•ç-üμ¿çí¬ †úÕÊ° schools †’ Æ‘Y, °æ¤®Ω’≠æ ©éπ~-ù«©’ Ö†oô’´çöÀ v§ƒùÀ.)
i) The infinitive (to + 1st RDW): Q. Fullers earth Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ? üΔEo áçü¿’èπ◊ Ö°æ- Model Schools ÅØË-¢√®Ω’. Ö§ƒ-üμΔuߪ’ Péπ~ù Trans sexual = Æ‘Yí¬ Öçú≈©E éÓ®Ω’-èπ◊ØË
to go, to come, to sing, etc. (äéÓ\-≤ƒJ ßÁ÷-T-≤ƒh®Ω’? §ÒçüË¢√®Ω’ Ééπ\úø ¶Cμç-î√Lq ´îËaC, practical °æ¤®Ω’≠æflúø’, ¨¡ÆæY*éÀûªq üΔy®√ Æ‘Yí¬ ´÷Í® °æ¤®Ω’-≠æflúø’/
experience éÓÆæç. É°æ¤púø’ Çü¿-®Ωz-´ç-ûª-¢Á’i† §ƒ®∏Ω-
1st RDW to
´·çü¿’, ™‰èπ◊çú≈ èπÿú≈ ´≤ƒh®·. A. ´≤ƒYEo ¨¡Ÿv¶μº-°æ-®Ω* üΔEo ´’çü¿çí¬ îËߪ’-ú≈-EéÀ ¢√úË °æ¤®Ω’-≠æfl-úÕí¬ Öçú≈-©E éÓ®Ω’èπ◊E ¨¡ÆæY *éÀûªq üΔy®√
plain infinite
Å°æ¤p-úøC Å´¤-ûª’çC) äéπ ®Ωéπ-¢Á’i† •çéπ-´’öÀd. ¨»© ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ schools Ê°®Ωx™ ¢√úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’. °æ¤®Ω’-≠æfl-úÕí¬ ´÷Í® Æ‘Y.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


-Ç-C¢√®Ωç 23 -Çí∫Ææ’d 2009 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

N. Siva, Ananthapur M. Ratna Kishore, Kotabommali


§Úûª’çC.
Q. ´·çü¿’ preposition ûª®√yûª Q.
Make/ pull a long
éÀçC ¢√é¬u-©†’ ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
verb ´îËa °æüΔ© Å®√n©’ ᙫ  Eïçí¬ ÅûªúÕ ï†t üμ¿†uç. face = éÓ°æçí¬/
Öçö«®·? ÖüΔ-£æ«-®Ω-ùèπ◊ offtake, off- A. His life is blessed. ÅÆæ-£æ«-†çí¬
beat Ñ °æüΔ© Å®√n-©†’ N´-Jç-îªçúÕ.  É°æp-öÀûÓ §ÚLÊÆh ´îËa °æC Ææç´-ûªq-®√™x ¢Ájñ«í˚ îª÷úøôç.
A. Å™«çöÀ ´÷ô©èπ◊ ´îËa Å®√n©’ ïØ√¶μ« °æC È®ô’x °®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’çC. When asked to
´·çü¿’†o preposition †’ •öÀd Öçö«®·. A. The population of Vizag in ten years from wait for a few
e.g.: off = Å´-ûª-LéÀ, ü¿÷®√-EéÀ É™« î√™« Å®√n-©’- now will be ten times its present minutes he
Ø√o®· éπüΔ. Å®·ûË offtake ÅØË ´÷ô ™‰ü¿’. Ééπ population. pulled/ made a long face = é¬ÊÆ°æ¤ Öçúø´’ØËÆæ- ã (´·êuçí¬ îÁúø’) °æJ-Æœn-AE ¶μºJçîË ÆœnA™
offbeat N≠æߪ’ç - beat (beaten) Åçõ‰ éÌûªh-  îËÊÆÆœ Öçö«úø’ – éπ*a-ûªçí¬ îËÆœ Öçö«úø’, îËÆœ Öçúøôç.
JéÀ Åûªúø’ éÓ°æçí¬ îª÷¨»úø’.
ü¿†ç-™‰E/ §ƒûªC ÅE. off = Å´-ûª-LéÀ/ Ç´© ÅE Öçú≈-LqçC – ÅúÕT Öçú≈-LqçC – ÅúÕT It pours cats and dogs = èπ◊çúø-§Ú-ûªí¬ ´®Ω{ç verbal = ´÷ô-©ûÓ, abuse = Aô’x/ •÷ûª’©’
Å®Ωnç. 鬕öÀd offbeat = §ƒûª-•-úÕ† üΔEéÀ ü¿÷®Ωçí¬ Öçö«úø’ – ÅúÕ-ÍíÆœ Öçú≈-LqçC. èπ◊®Ω’-Ææ’hçC. Aô’x á°æ¤púø÷ ´÷ô-™xØË Öçö«®· 鬕öÀd verbal
= éÌûªh-ü¿†ç Ö†o/ ´÷´‚©’ é¬E – É™« A. îËÊÆÆœ Öçö«úø’ = éπ*aûªçí¬ îËÆ œ Öçö«úø’. abuse Åçûª ÆæÈ®j† ´÷ô é¬ü¿’.
Q. It has been boon for the last 7 years.
´≤ƒh®·, É™«çöÀ ´÷ô© Å®√n©èπ◊ ´’®Ó ÖüΔ-£æ«-®Ωù = He must have done it.
Present Perfect Continuous Tense ing form
Intake. In = ™/ ™°æ© éπüΔ. 鬕öÀd Intake = He should
('¢Á÷ûª •®Ω’´¤—™« – ¢Á÷ûª ÅØ√o •®Ω’´¤ ÅØ√o
îËÆœ Öçú≈-LqçC (é¬F îËߪ’-™‰ü¿’) = (has been + ing)
ûÓ °æ‹®Ωh-¢√yL. Ñ ¢√éπuç™ äéπ\õ‰ éπüΔ?) abuse Åçõ‰ î√©’.
™°æ-LéÀ BÆæ’-èπ◊ØË -Å-ØË Å®Ωnç (ǣ慮Ωç/ äéπ ÆæçÆæn™ have done it.
àö« îË®Ω’a-èπ◊ØË NüΔu-®Ω’n© Ææçêu etc.) ´Ææ’hçC. Å™« 鬙‰ü¿’. ü¿ßª’-îËÆœ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.  He was quoted as seeing.
ÅúÕT Öçú≈-LqçC (é¬F Åúø-í∫-™‰ü¿’) = He should A. It has been a boon for the last 7 years = í∫ûª A. He was quoted as saying (seeing
Q. éÀçC ¢√é¬u-©†’ ÉçTx-≠ˇ™  ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. have asked ÅúÕT Öçö«úø’ (Ææçü¿-®√s¥Eo•öÀd) =
é¬ü¿’) =
 úμÕMxéÀ ØËØÌ-éπ\-úÕF ¢Á∞¡x-™‰éπ E†’o ¢Áçô-¶„-ô’d-èπ◊E
àúË-∞¡Ÿxí¬ ÅüÓ ´®Ω癫 ÖçC. Ééπ\úø verb, 'has Çߪ’† Ç ´÷ô©’ ņoô’xí¬ îÁ§ƒp®Ω’.
He might have asked = Perhaps he has been' - ÉC 'be' form - 'Öçúøôç— ÅØË Å®Ωnç  I hold a degree in B.Com. from S.K.U.
§Ú´úøç ™‰ü¿’, FûÓ Å´-Ææ®Ωç ´*a °œ©’-èπ◊ asked. ´Ææ’hçC. having taken the exam in 2007.
§Úûª’Ø√o†’.  He must have stolen the amount. Has been + ... ing - has been working/ has A. I hold a degree in B.Com I hold a
DE
A. I am taking you to Delhi not because I ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’.
Å®Ωnç àN’öÀ? been singing present perfect tense - B.Com degree I hold a
can't go on my own, but because I need
ÉC ÉC ÅØ√L, ™‰üΔ
A. He must have stolen the amount =
you on the journey/ in Delhi.


An individual is their own master


؈’ •ôd©’ èπ◊öÀdç-î√†’.
A. I had some clothes stitched.
Q. éÀçC ¢√é¬u-©†’ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
 It would be lovely to go to U.S.A.
A. -Å-¢Á’-Jé¬ ¢Á∞¡xúøç áçûª Ææ®Ω-üΔØÓ!
 He took the friday off to get the work
Bachelor's degree in Commerce
done.
'°æEE— ûÁ©’-°æ¤-ûª’çC. – 'Öçúøôç— ÅØË Å®Ωnç ÅØÁjØ√
é¬èπ◊çú≈ Has been ('be' form) èπÿú≈ present
A. (àüÓ) °æE °æ‹Jh îË®·ç--èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¨¡Ÿvéπ-¢√®Ωç -Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 562 perfect í¬-F, present perfect continuous
ÅØ√L. I hold a degree in Commerce, hav-
ing taken the exam in 2007 = 2007 † ïJ-T†
tense í¬F Å´¤-ûª’çC.
úø÷uöà †’ç* ÂÆ©´¤ BÆæ’-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’.
 In addition to B.Com degree
°æKéπ~ ®√Æœ, §ÒçüΔ†’.
Q. Betray, appraises, deplate, prosperity,
A. üΔEéÀ ûÓúø’.  He sealed his first ever open french title.
adversity, mars, extol, voluminous, pen-
Åûªú≈ ≤Ò´·t†’ éπ*aûªçí¬
 We did not call it a festival for nothing. A. French open title
ûª† @N-ûªç™ ¢Á·ü¿-öÀ-≤ƒJ
etrative, salubrious
üÌçT-LçîË Öçö«úø’.
A.  You must have informed
Ñ °æüΔ-©†’ ÖüΔ-£æ«-®Ω- (Tennis match)
M.SURESAN
Ü®Ω-éπØË üΔEo °æç-úøí∫ ņúøç ™‰ü¿’. (°æçúøí∫ ù-©ûÓ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. ™ Nïߪ’ç Ææ秃-Cç--
ÅØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ •©-¢Á’i† 鬮Ωùç ÖçC.) me. èπ◊Ø√oúø’.
A. betray =
Ñ ¢√é¬u-EéÀ ûÁ©’-í∫’™
Q. Individual èπ◊ áEo Å®√n-©’-Ø√o®·. Å®Ωnç ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. vüÓ£æ«ç îËߪ’úøç/ äéπJ ®Ω£æ«-≤ƒu©’ Q. éÀçC °æ-üΔ-©†’ ÖüΔ-£æ«-®Ω-ù-©ûÓ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
A. 1) (äéπ) ´uéÀh 2) ´uéÀh-í∫-ûª-¢Á’i† A. You must have informed me =
¢√J ¨¡vûª’-´¤-©èπ◊ îÁ°æpúøç.
†’´¤y Ø√èπ◊  In the first place
a) An individual is their own master = äéπ appraise = äéπ Ææç°∂æ’-ô†/ °æJ-Æ œn-AE í∫’Jç* N´-
îÁÊ°p Öçö«´¤ (é¬F, ؈’ ´’Ja-§Ú-ߪ÷-ØË¢Á÷) ®√©’ ûÁ©-°æúøç. A. 1) ¢Á·ü¿-öÀí¬/ ¢Á·ü¿öÀ N≠æߪ’ç/ ÅÆæ©’.
a) I like him for more than one reason. In the
´uéÀh ûª†èπ◊ û√ØË ßª’ï-´÷E. ÅØË Ææçü¿-®Ωs¥ç™.
b) Individual freedom is the important Q. Direct speech †’ç* Indirect speech ™éÀ The constable appraised the S.I. of the facts of
the case = first place, he helps everyone. In the sec-
aspect of a democracy = ´÷Í®a-ô-°æ¤púø’ v°æ¨¡o™ ÖçúË verbs ¢√öÀ corre- áÆˇ.â.éÀ Ç ÍéÆæ’ í∫’Jç* ߪ’üΔ-®√n-©†’
ond place, he is quite simple, etc.
´uéÀhí∫ûª (Åûª-
≤ƒyûªçvûªuç v°æñ«-≤ƒy-´’uç™ ´·ë«u稡ç. spondence past tense ™éÀ ´÷®Ω-û√®·. Need, é¬EÊÆd-•’™¸ N´-Jç-î√úø’/ ûÁL-§ƒ-úø’.
dare, ought to, must deplete (deplate é¬ü¿’) – ûªT_-§Ú-´úøç/ éÃ~ùÀç-îªúøç- †çõ‰ É≠æd-°æ-úËç-ü¿’èπ◊ î√™« 鬮Ω-ù«™‰ ÖØ√o®·.
K. Srikumar, Bapatla OöÀ N≠æߪ’ç
The water in the tank is depleting = tank™E ¢Á·ü¿-öÀC Åûªúø’ Åçü¿-Jéà ≤ƒßª’-°æ-úø-û√úø’;
Q. éÀçC ¢√é¬u-©†’ éπÈ®-é˙d-îËÆœ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. ûÁ©’°æí∫©®Ω’. È®çúø’...)
 I do not know that she will pass. A. Need, dare ©†’ helping verb í¬ ¢√úÕûË ¢√öÀE F∞¡Ÿx ûªT_-§Ú-ûª’-Ø√o®·.
prosperity = ¢Áj¶μº´ç/ Ææç°æü¿/ ÅGμ-´%Cl¥.America b) In the first place, how a man in jail could
A. I do not know whether/ if she will/ pass áèπ◊\-´í¬ not ûÓØË ¢√úøû√ç. Å°æ¤p-úø-°æ¤púø’ ques- get a cell phone?
is a country of prosperity = Å¢Á’-Jé¬ Ææç°æ-†o-¢Á’i†
.
tions ™†÷ ¢√úøû√ç. Å™«ç-ô-°æ¤púø’ did + not +
(ÅÆæ©’ -ñ„j-©’-™ -Ö-†o -´uéÀhéÀ
 She prays the goddess.
A. She prays to the goddess need í¬ ¢√úøû√ç. ü˨¡ç/ Ææç°æü¿ Ö†o ü˨¡ç X Adversity (éπ≥ƒd©’). ÂÆ-™¸-§∂Ú-Ø˛ ᙫ ´*açC?)
. mar = Ø√¨¡†ç îËߪ’úøç. The cyclone has marred  Under review
 Open page 150. e.g. : a) DS: He said, 'she need not come here'.
the farmers = ûª’§ƒ†’ È®jûª’-©†’ Ø√¨¡†ç îËÆ œçC. A. under review = ÆæO’-éπ~™ Öçúøôç.
A. Open at page 150 . IS: He said that she did not need to come
extol = ¨»x°∂œ’ç, §Òí∫úø’. The implementation of the Rajiv Arogyasri
 I believe God. there.
People extolled his performance in the movie = Pathakam is under review =
A. I believe in God. (Believe = b) DS: He said, 'she dare not come here'.
äéπ®Ω’ îÁ°œpçC/ ®√@¢˛ Ç®Ó-í∫uX
Believe in =
äéπ N≠æߪ’ç †´’túøç; äéπ üΔE IS: He said that she did not dare to come
ÆœE-´÷™ ÅûªúÕ †ô-††’ Åçü¿®Ω÷ ¢Á’a-èπ◊-Ø√o®Ω’. °æü∑¿éπç ÆæO’-éπ~™ ÖçC. (áçûª´®Ωèπÿ ÆæJí¬ Å´’-©-
ÖEéÀ/ ´’ç*-ûª†ç O’ü¿ N¨»yÆæç Öçúøôç) there. voluminous = ¶«í¬ °ü¿l-üÁj† 1) °æ¤Ææhéπç 2) TØÁo/ ´¤-ûÓçC, ™Ææ’-í∫’-™‰çöÀ, -¢Á’®Ω’-í∫’-°æ-J-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊ BÆæ’-éÓ-
 This tastes well. c) ought to (DS)/ must - had to (IS)
§ƒvûª 3) ´’† °æJ´÷ùç éπçõ‰ ¶«í¬ °ü¿lí¬ ÖçúË ¢√-Lq† Ωu©’ – OöÀ°j Ωa = review)
A. This tastes good. ü¿’Ææ’h©’.  So called
 Flowers smell sweetly. penetrate = îÌa-èπ◊-§Ú-´úøç. A. So called = The so called leader
ņ-•úË.
V. Ashok, Kareemnagar of the poor has earned a lot of money =
A. Flowers smell sweet. No arrow could penetrate Karna's armour -
Q. We are all indebted to him for holding not (so called)
 She told the truth. éπ®Ω’gúÕ éπ´-î√Eo à ¶«ù´‚ îμËCç-îª-™‰ü¿’. Hü¿-¢√-∞¡x Ø√ߪ’-èπ◊-úÕí¬ °œ©-´-•úË
only high moral values but also rendering
A. She spoke the truth. salubrious - ´·êuçí¬ äéπ v°æüË-¨¡°æ¤ Ç®Ó-í∫u-éπ-®Ω- Åûªúø’ î√™« úø•’s Ææ秃-Cç--èπ◊-Ø√oúø’ (ÅûªúÕE
dedicated service.
 He had only few rupees left.
Ñ ¢√éπuç-™E ûª°æ¤p†’ ¢Á’i†¢√û√-´-®Ωùç. Ø√ߪ’-èπ◊-úøç-ö«®Ω’. Eïçí¬ é¬éπ-§Ú-´îª’a/ Å®Ω|ûª
A. He had only a few rupees left.
ûÁ©’°æí∫-©®Ω’. Ooty has a salubrious climate. ™‰éπ-§Ú-´îª’a).
 She had a little sense. A. We are all indebted to him not only for hold-  In response to
A. She had a little sense - OK. ing high moral values but also for rendering S. Anukrishna, Anantapur
A. In response to - I did not
üΔEéÀ Ææpçü¿-†í¬.
 Draw map of India. dedicated service not only, but also
(Ééπ\úø - Q. éÀçC ¢√é¬u™x Åçúø-®˝-™„jØ˛ îËÆ œ† °æüΔ-©†’ get any reply in response to my enquiry =
A. Draw the map of India. 'for' placement
Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-îª-úøç-™, -™ -ûª°æ¤p- ÖüΔ£æ«®Ωù-©ûÓ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. Ø√ Nî√-®Ωùèπ◊ Ææpçü¿-†í¬ Ø√èπ◊ à •ü¿’©÷
 She is a M.L.A. ©’Ø√o®·. )  She gave me a knowing wink. ®√™‰ü¿’.
A. She is an M.L.A. Q. éÀçC °æüΔ©†’ ÖüΔ-£æ«-®Ω-ù-©ûÓ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. A.
 approach
'N≠æߪ’ç ûÁ©’Ææ’— ÅE ûÁL-Ê°ç-ü¿’èπ◊ éπ†’o-éÌ-ôdúøç.
 The foot ball is a good game. To lose face, To make a long face, it pours  They are often on the receiving end of A. 1. ÆæO’-°œç-îªúøç; 2. ≤ƒßª’ç éÓÆæç äéπJ ü¿í∫_-®Ωèπ◊
A. Football is a good game. cats and dogs. verbal amuse from angry customers. ¢Á∞¡xúøç; 3. ¢ÁjêJ.
 Do not make noise. A. To lose face = A. On the receiving end of verbal abuse
The car approached the post offfice and
Å´-´÷-†-°æ-úøôç/ °æ®√-¶μº´ç
A. Do not make a noise. If I withdraw from the contest now, (amuse é¬ü¿’) = î√™«-≤ƒ®Ω’x éπÆd-´æ ’®Ωx Aô’x ¶μºJçîË stopped =
îÁçü¿úøç.
 Let him finish the work ( Passive voice I shall lose face = É°æ¤púø’ ؈’ §Úöà †’ç* N®Ω- °æJ-Æœn-A™ Öçúøôç. é¬®Ω’ §Ú≤ƒd-°∂‘-Ææ’†’ ÆæO’-°œç* (ü¿í∫_-®Ω-
™éÀ ´÷Ja ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’). N’ç--èπ◊çõ‰ Å´-´÷-†çí¬ Öçô’çC/ °æ®Ω’´¤ As/ on the receiving end (of something) =
éÌ*a) ÇTçC.
A. Let the work be finished (by him).

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


-Ç-C¢√®Ωç 30 -Çí∫Ææ’d 2009 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

G. Shankar, Keshavapatnam. This is its tail -


Q. Ñ Ææ´’-Ææu†’ ÅûªúË Ææ%≠œdç-î√úø’ ņúøç éπçõ‰ Ñ
Q. Which article is suitable for Ééπ\úø its - pos-
Ææ´’ÊÆu Åûª-úÕE Ææ%-≠œdç-*çC ņúøç Ææ´’ç-ï-Ææçí¬ sessive adjective.
represent whole nationality? Öçô’ç-üË¢Á÷?
eg: The elephant is a huge This tail is its -
A. It would be correct to say/ wouldn't it be
animal. Its - pos-
correct to say that the problem created
Ééπ\úø
sessive pronoun.
Dog is a faithful animal. him rather than to say he created the prob-
- This is
lem (?)
(§Ú©açúÕ
A. 'The' before a countable singular represents
his book - 'his'
a whole class, as in the sentence. Q.
possessive
††’o AöÀdç-î√-©E v°æߪ’-Aoç-îªèπ◊. Ééπ\úø 4. He seems to be coming from the hotel.
The elephant is a huge animal A. Don't try to make me scolded. adjective; This book is his - 'his' pos-
Ééπ\úø 5. He seems to have come from the hotel.
A before a countable singular means 'any' - Q. sessive pronoun) 6. He seems to have been coming from the
†’´¤y Åúøfç ÖØ√o´¤ é¬Ææh °æéπ\èπ◊ ûª°æ¤péÓ.
A dog is a faithful animal = Any dog is a A. You are in my way. Please step aside. I was born in 1979 born, was born,
– Ééπ\úø, hotel.
faithful animal. verb to be born finite 7. He appeared to be coming from the hotel.
P. Aruna Ramesh, Julapally.
™ ¶μ«í∫ç– èπ◊ ®Ω÷°æç–
So as in the examples above, a or the was born.Å®·ûË born passive
á°æ¤púø÷ ™ØË 8. He appeared to have come from the
before a countable singular can be used to Q. Please explain in detail, which sentence is ¢√úøû√ç. hotel.
refer a whole class in general. In effect they correct? 9. He appeared to have been coming from
He is a born actor - Ééπ\úø born adjective.
mean the same. However, not to use either 1) I am requesting you to kindly grant me the hotel.
born verb, adjective
one day leave (present continuous)
'a' (an) or 'the' before a countable singular is
鬕öÀd, ÅØËC, – È®çúø÷ 10. He seemed to be coming from the hotel.
correct.
wrong. 2) I request you to kindly grant me one day 11. He seemed to have come from the hotel.
leave (simple present) K.Ganesh, Komatipally
Q. Recently I have passed M.A.(Eng). I want to 12. He seemed to have been coming from
do a course at EFLU in Hyderabad. Which A. Both are correct, but I request you to is used Q. Please explain below words. the hotel.
course shall I do? Could you suggest me. more frequently. However, as 'to kindly grant That's what, that's how, whosoever. A. I appear = seem
A. The best thing for you to do will be Diploma me' is a split infinite, some people do not A. That's what = ÅüË, (ÅüË ÅE ØÌéÀ\ îÁ°æp-úøç) 1) He appears to be coming from the hotel
in Teaching English (DTE) at the University accept it, but it is not so much an error now That's what I am saying = ؈’ îÁ°æ¤h-†oD ÅüË. = Åûªúø’ £æ«Ùô™¸ †’ç* ´Ææ’h-†o-ô’x-Ø√oúø’ =
of English and Foreign Languages. a days. (That's what = That is what) 4) He seems to be coming from the Hotel.
2) He appears to have come from the hotel
= = He

He is a bor n actor
Åûªúø’ £æ«Ùô™¸ †’ç* ´*a-†-ô’x-Ø√oúø’
seems to have come from the hotel.
3) He appears to have been coming.... =
6) He seems to have been coming... = Åûªúø’
hotel †’ç* (í∫ûªç™) ´Ææ’h-†oô’x éπE-°œç-î√úø’.
R. Lakshmi, Mandapeta.
That's how = Å™«ØË. 7) He appeared to be coming... =
Q. éÀçC ûÁ©’í∫’ ¢√é¬u-©†’ ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. That's how he makes money = 10) He seemed to be coming... =
-Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 563
Åûªúø’ úø•’s Åûªúø’
´÷ Ŷ«s®· °æ¤öÀd† ûª®√yûª ´÷èπ◊ ¶«í¬ éπLÆœ Ææ秃-CçîËC Å™«ØË/ Åûªúø’ Å™«ØË úø•’s îËÆæ’- (í∫ûªç™ á°æ¤púÓ) £æ«Ùô™¸ †’ç* ´Ææ’h-†oô’x éπE-
´*açC. èπ◊ç-ö«úø’. (That's how = That is how) °œç-î√úø’.
A Our son's birth augured well for us/ Our
. Ch. Govardhan, Pidathapolur. É™«çöÀ Éûª®Ω expressions: 8) He appeared/ seemed .... = (11) to have
son's birth turned our fortunes (for the bet- Q. I can speak English - -Ñ - That's why = That is why = Åçü¿’-éπØË come from the hotel = Åûªúø’ (í∫ûªç™ á°æ¤púÓ)
ter) ¢√éπuç structure °æ®Ωçí¬ à That's why I like him = Åçü¿’-éπØË Åûª-úøçõ‰
£æ«Ùô™¸ †’ç* ´*a-†ô’x éπE-°œç-î√úø’.
tense Will, M.SURESAN 9) He appeared/ seemed .... = (12) to have
Q. ´÷ Å´÷t®· °æ¤öÀd† ûª®√yûª ´÷èπ◊ ü¿Jvü¿ç éÀçCéÀ ´Ææ’hçC? Ø√éÀ≠dçæ .
shall modals à tense éÀçCéÀ been coming from the hotel = £æ«Ùô™¸ †’ç*
That's where we can meet him = ÅûªúÕE
°æöÀdçC. é¬èπ◊çú≈ N’í∫û√
A Our daughter's birth augured ill for us/ the
. ´≤ƒhßÁ÷ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. ´’†ç éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓí∫LÍíC Åéπ\úË. (í∫ûªç™) ´Ææ’h-†oô’x éπE-°œç-î√úø’.
A. Can, may, must – ÉN present tense éÀçü¿Íé Appear = seem = éπ†-°æ-úøôç/ ÅE°œçîªúøç
birth of our daughter turned our fortunes for That's when = Å°æ¤púË
the worse.
´≤ƒh®·. Å®·ûË ÉN simple present tense That's when we met each other = -¢Ë’N’ü¿l®Ωç
He appears/ seems tired = Åûªúø’ Å-L-Æ œ-§Ú-®·-
verbs ™«í¬ definite future †’ èπÿú≈ ûÁ©’-°æ¤- †ô’x éπE-°œ-Ææ’h-Ø√oúø’.
Q. Backroom boys Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ? éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊†oü¿°æ¤púË.
û√®·. She appears/ seems to know the truth =
A äéπ ´uéÀh/ ÆæçÆæn/ v°æü¿-®Ωz† íÌ°æpûªØ√-EéÀ 鬮Ωèπ◊™„j whosoever = á´-È®jØ√ ÆæÍ®/ á´-J-Èéj-Ø√-ÆæÍ®/ á´-
Q. I can speak English.
. Eïç ûÁL-Æœ-†õ‰d ÅE-°œ-≤ÚhçC Ç¢Á’èπ◊.
¢Á†-éπ†’ç* †úÕ-Ê°-¢√∞¡Ÿx. ¢√∞¡x éπ%≠œ v°æï-©èπ◊ ûÁL-ߪ’- I can speak in English
J-ØÁj-Ø√-ÆæÍ® (whoever -Å-F -¢√-úÌa)
K.R.Achari, Vykunthapuram
OöÀ™ àC éπÈ®èπ◊d? whosoever (whoever) crosses the line will
éπ-§Ú-´îª’a. ÖüΔ-£æ«-®Ω-ùèπ◊ ã ÆœE´÷ v°æñ«-ü¿-®Ω-ùèπ◊ I can speak English - (É°æ¤púø’) ؈’ ÉçTx≠ˇ
ûÁ®Ω°j éπE-°œçîË †öÃ-†-ô’™‰ 鬮Ωùç é¬ü¿’ éπüΔ? ûÁ®Ω be punished = á´-È®jØ√ (ÆæÍ®) Uûª üΔöÀûË Péπ~ Q. Unless you work hard, you can't pass.
´÷ö«x-úø-í∫-©†’. °æúø’-ûª’çC.
¢Á†éπ ÖçúË §∂Òö-ví¬-°∂æ®Ω’x, Uûª ®Ωîª-®·-ûª©’, ÆæçUûª She can reach here tomorrow - Ç¢Á’ Ééπ\-úÕéÀ
Ñ ¢√éπuç Å®Ωn-´’-®·uçC. é¬F äéπ ví¬´’®˝ •’é˙™
whosoever (whoever) = á´È®j o-Ø√-ÆæÍ® 'Unless' expresses a condition. It means if
ü¿®Ωz-èπ◊©’ èπÿú≈ v°æï-©èπ◊ ûÁL-ߪ’-èπ◊çú≈ 鬮Ωùç Í®°æ¤ îË®Ω-í∫-©ü¿’ (future) Whosoever he taught liked his teaching =
Å´¤-û√®Ω’. O∞¡xç-ü¿®Ω÷ backroom boys. ÅçûË not. Unless is negative in sense. So, it
é¬èπ◊çú≈ ã ¢√u§ƒ®Ω ÆæçÆæn íÌ°æpûªØ√-EéÀ ûª´’ ´‹u£æ«- Å™«Íí They may be there now Åûªúø’ á´-JéÀ ¶Cμç-*Ø√ ¢√∞¡x-ûª-úÕ ¶üμ¿† should never be followed by not ÅE ÖçC.
®Ω- üΔy®√ •ßª’ôèπ◊ ûÁL-ߪ’èπ◊çú≈ 鬮Ω-èπ◊-©-ßË’u- ¢√∞¡x-éπ\úø ÖçúÌa É°æ¤púø’ (Present) É≠æd°æú≈f®Ω’. ü¿ßª’-îËÆœ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
They may come tomorrow- ¢√∞¡Ÿx Í®°æ¤ ®√´îª’a
¢√®Ω’ backroom boys. Whosoever he met here told him the same A. 'Unless' should not be followed by not Åçõ‰,
(future)
Q. ®√üμ¿ ´’†Ææ’ §ƒÍ®-Ææ’-èπ◊çC. thing = Åûª-úÕ-éπ\úø á´JE éπL-ÆœØ√ ÅüË îÁ§ƒp®Ω’. unless clause
ÖçúË not ™ ®√èπÿ-úø-ü¿E. ÅçûË-
'Must' unless sentence not
A. Radha has lost her heart. (to some one)
èπÿú≈ ÅçûË. Å®·ûË whosoever ≤ƒ-üμΔ®Ω-ùçí¬/ á°æ¤púø÷ îªôd é¬F, Ö†o ™ ®√èπÿ-úø-ü¿-E-
He must come here at 6 everyday. (v°æA-®ÓW -°æ-J-¶μ«≠æ (Legal language) ™†÷, official com- é¬ü¿’.
Q. §ÚLçí˚ àéπ-°æ-éπ~çí¬ ≤ƒTçC. Present
Åûª-úÕ-éπ\-úÕéÀ ÇJç-öÀéÀ ®√¢√L)– 鬴a/ munications ™†÷ ´÷vûª¢Ë’ ¢√úø-û√®Ω’. ´÷´‚- Unless you work hard, you can't pass
A. The poling was one-sided. future present tense
鬴a– DEo-èπÿú≈ éÀçü¿ ©’í¬ Å®·ûË whoever ÅØË ®√≤ƒhç/ Åçö«ç. – Ñ sentence 'unless clause'
™ àC?
Q. Nïߪ’ç ¢√J-ü¿lJ ´’üμ¿u é¬ÊÆ°æ¤ üÓ•÷--™«-úÕçC. ¢√úøû√ç. Q. I do swear, I do believe DEéÀ •ü¿’©’ I swear, Unless you work hard clause
éπ-üΔ – -Ñ ™
A. Victory swayed between the two for a while. present past I believe ®√ßÁ·îª’a éπüΔ. not rule
®√ü¿’. ÅD Å®Ωnç.
Q. Åúø-èπ◊\ç-ú≈ØË üË´¤úø’ Ø√èπ◊ ´®Ωç Éî√aúø’. can could A. I do swear = ؈’ (ûª°æpéπ) v°æ´÷ùç îËÆæ’h-Ø√o†’.
may might N.Samson, Kamdlagunta.
A. God has offered it to me (without my asking I do believe = ؈’ (éπ*a-ûªçí¬) †´·t-û√†’.
for it) must had to Q.
I swear, I believe éπçõ‰, I do swear, I do
éÀçC ¢√é¬u-©†’ ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
will would believe ņúøç éπ*a-ûªçí¬/ ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈ ÅØË Å®Ωnç 
Q. ´÷çÆæç ®Ω’* ´’J-T† °æ¤L í∫úÕf Açô’çüΔ? -†’-´¤y àO’ ņ’-éÓ-èπ◊çõ‰ ؈’ E†’o äéπ N≠æߪ’ç
A. Does a tiger having tasted flesh go for shall should ´Ææ’hçC. Åúø-í∫-ü¿-©’--èπ◊-Ø√o†’.
(old fashioned) A. If you don't mind, I wish to ask you one
grass? I did see him here yesterday = E†o ØË-†’
thing.
Q. present Å-ûª-úÕ-E-éπ\úø éπ*aûªçí¬ îª÷¨»†’.

Çví¬ Å†-í¬ØË ´’†èπ◊ ¢ÁçôØË í∫’®Ω’h-éÌ-îËaC OöÀE ¢ËÍ® Å®√n-©ûÓ ™ èπÿú≈ ¢√úøû√ç.
I can speak English =
É™«çöÀN Ø√èπ◊ ÅÆæ©’ †îªa´¤.
K.Ramakrishna, Ongole.
û√ñ¸-´’-£æ«™¸. Ø√èπ◊ ÉçTx≠ˇ´îª’a. A. I don't like at all such things/ I don't like such
A. The mention of Agra brings the Tajmahal to I can speak in English = ؈’ ÉçTx≠ˇ™ 
Q. éÀçC ¢√é¬u™x appear, seem ´’üμ¿u ûËú≈†’ things at all.
our mind. ´÷ö«x-úø-í∫-©†’ (O’èπ◊ ûÁ©’í∫’ Å®Ωnç é¬éπ-§ÚûË)  ´÷C °æ™„x-ô÷®Ω’. ™‰üΔ ¢Ë’´· °æ™„x-ô÷J E¢√-Ææ’©ç.
Q. Its ÅØË possessive pronoun Ö†oô’x îÁ§ƒp®Ω’.
N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. ¢√é¬u-©†’ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
Q. v°æ´÷ü¿ç Ø√Íé áçü¿’èπ◊ ï®Ω-í¬L? ´’È®-´-J-ÈéjØ√ 1. He appears to be coming from the hotel. A. We are villagers/ we are from the village
Its †’ Íé´©ç possessive adjective í¬ØË
ïJ-í∫’ç-úÌ-a-éπüΔ? 2. He appears to have come from the hotel. side.

¢√úø-û√®Ω’ éπüΔ. ü¿ßª’-îËÆœ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
A. Why should I alone face all this (trouble/ 3. He appears to have been coming from éπ•’®Ω’x îÁ°æp-´ü¿’l.
A. Its - possessive pronoun í¬†÷, possessive
danger, etc)? Why not others? the hotel. A. Stop all this such useless talk.
adjective í¬†÷ È®çúø’ NüμΔ-©’í¬ ¢√úøû√ç.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm

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