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Proper Grounding, Bonding,

Lightning & Surge Protection


By: Jeff Regan Telecom Market
Manager
ERICO INTERNATIONAL
CO O
CORPORATION
O

WHAT IS GROUNDING AND


WHY DO WE DO IT?

GROUNDING ((IEEE 100))


Definition:
A conducting connection, whether intentional or accidental,
by which an electric circuit or equipment is connected to
the Earth, or to some conducting body of relatively large
extent that serves in place of the Earth.
Purpose:
Used for establishing and maintaining the potential of the
Earth (or other conducting body) or approximately that
potential on conductors connected to it,
potential,
it and for conducting
ground current to and from the Earth (or other conducting
body).

Step
p Potential

Why
y gground?
Equipment Protection
Operate overcurrent device during a ground
fault.
Essential to proper operation of SPDs
Noise Control (Computer Grounding)
Lightning Dissipation

Why
y do we ground?
g
Required by CODE (NEC Article 250)
Personnel Safety
Reduce
d
potential
i l differences
diff
between
b
noncurrent carrying parts (enclosures) and
b
between
non-current carrying
i parts andd
Earth.

SIX POINT PROTECTION


PLAN
POINT FOUR
BOND TO CREATE AN EQUIPOTENTIAL
GROUND PLANE

What is Bonding?
g
Interconnectingg of all Ground Electrode Systems
y
Electrical Grounding System
Lightning

g t g Grounding
G ou d g Syste
System
Telecommunications Grounding System
Cable Grounding System
Connect all conductive objects together both internal
and external to the facility
Provides near zero voltage difference during ground
potential rise
p

Characteristics of a good ground system


Must comply with all local and national codes
* NEC only contains minimum requirements
Good electrical conductivity
y
* Low impedance and resistance
Resistant to corrosion
* Copper is most commonly used material
Mechanically robust and reliable
(
* Must pperform for life of the facilityy (40
years minimum)

Copper
pp vs. Galvanized Rods
Corrosion properties
Life expectancy
UL requirements

The Connections

Often overlooked in grounding system design


Location and function of connectors
Out of site, out of mind is the general rule
What is the worst type
yp of ground?
g

Types
yp of Connectors
Brazed
Mechanical (compression, bolted, wedge)
Rely on physical pressure to maintain connection

Exothermic Welding
Molecular Bond

HOW DO I LOWER MY
RESISTANCE?

Add more rods to the System


y
ilproper rod , 2 x rod length. Minimum 1 x length
o maintain proper rod spacing
Ideally, 2 x rod length. Minimum

1 x length
l
h

Alter The Soil Properties


p
Use a ground enhancement material
Bentonite Clayy
Dependent upon moisture. Will wash away.
New IEC 62561-7 GEM ground enhancement material
Hygroscopic, permanent, lower resistivity

Lightning Protection
Lightning Protection is Necessary! Required?

Examples
p of Lightning
g
g Damage
g

Lightning
g
g Protection Requirements
q
A system that will take a direct
li ht i strike
lightning
t ik
A system that conducts lightning from
the building into the ground
A system
y
that eliminates massive
structural damage and fire
A system that helps stop the
infiltration of lightning along building
systems

How
o Lightning
g t g Forms
o s

E Fields 5-15kV/m

E Fields >200kV/m

NFPA780-2000
Grounding/Bonding Techniques
Bond (Ground) Metallic Paths Entering StructureStructure
Water, Gas, Sanitary Sewer, Fire Prot., El. Grnd.,
Comm. Grd (Telephone, etc.), Process Piping

NFPA780-2000 Grounding/Bonding
Techniques
Difference of Potential
between
grounded building
systems and
the lightning protection
system

Current Distribution in non-ideal


Faraday Cage
Lightning Protection
System - Multiple
Paths

Lightning Protection - Maintenance


System should be checked every two years
Allll air
i terminals,
i l b
bases, cables
bl iin place
l
OHM resistance checked on system
New roof-top equipment needs to be added to
system
Check
h k structures for
f signs off physical
h
ld
damage
Re-roofed? System should be inspected by LP
i t ll and/or
installer
d/ UL
UL.
Building additions/attachments needed to be
incorporated into lightning protection system
system.

What killed the Cows?

Copper
pp Theft - A BIG Problem!

Lose of Ground Connection!

Stolen Ground Bar

Solutions to Theft
ERICOs Solutions to Reduce Copper Theft

ERICO o ffers two types of solutions aimed at minimi zing or e liminati ng theft of
copper from
f
grounding
di
systems
t
in
i ttelecommunications.
l
i
ti
1) Alternative Conductors to Copper
2) Alternative Ground Bars to Copper
All of the so lutions sho uld be comp limented with clear signage at the site stating
that the conductors are not copper
copper.

Alternative Conductors to Copper


pp
is not substituted easily
y with other mate rials beca use of its unique
q
Copper
properties in terms
of its co nd ucti vity a nd corrosio n. Ho we ver there are a number of co nd uctor
solutions a vailab le that can retai n the use of the copper properties but yet
cha nge the composition so that it is of little or no scrap value. The co nd uctors
discussed here a re we ll suitab le for gro unding applications. These newer
conductors are also suited for other non-grounding applications.

Theft Deterrent Composite Cable. TDCC

This is a ba re co nce ntric stra nded co nd ucto r that co nsists of perip heral
galva ni zed mag ne tic steel stra nding, which p rotects a nd co nceals the internal
tinned copper sta nds. This co nd uctor is ideal for e xposed locations where copper
the ft ma y occur. The co nd uctor is difficult to cut with ha nd tools, a nd the o uter
steel stra ndi ng is ferro us, which further deters thie ves looking for copper. Copper
stra nding inside o f cond uctor increases co nd ucti vity and co nd uctor fle xibility.
Copper stranding is tinned for superior corrosion protection

Theft Deterrent Cables

Copper
pp Bonded Steel Conductors
High carbon steel core, low
scrap value!

Above or below grade use

Ground Bar Replacements


p
-TDSGA

Alarms sometimes work!

Are You Prepared?


p
Lose of ground media to your site can be
d
devastating!
i !
Do a maintenance check on all ground
systems. Check Ohm readings, visually check
for stolen conductors, bars, etc.
Replace ground systems with Theft Deterrent
conductors and assemblies.
One lightning strike can damage equipment
and lose of life: Be Prepared!

Thank You!

COMMENTS, QUESTIONS?