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Anti-radiation missile

aircraft also carry cluster bombs, which can be used to


ensure that, after the ARM disables the SAM systems
radar, the command post, missile launchers, and other
components or equipment are also destroyed to guarantee
that the SAM site stays down.
Early ARMs, such as the AGM-45 Shrike, were not particularly intelligent; they would simply home in on the
source of radiation and explode when they got near it.[3]
SAM operators learned to turn their radar o when an
ARM was red at them, then turn it back on later, greatly
reducing the missiles eectiveness. This led to the development of more advanced ARMs like the AGM-78 Standard ARM and AGM-88 HARM missiles, which have
inertial guidance systems (INS) built-in. This allows them
to remember the radars direction if it is turned o and
continue to y towards it. ARMs are less likely to hit the
radar if the radar is turned o shortly after the missile is
launched, as the longer the radar is o (and assuming it
never turns back on), the more error is introduced into the
missiles course. The ALARM even has an added loiter
mode, with a built in parachute, enabling it to descend
slowly until the radar lights up, when the rocket motor
will re-ignite. Even a temporary shut down of the enemys missile guidance radar can be of a great advantage
to friendly aircraft during battle.

HARM on a US Navy F/A-18C

2 Surface-to-surface
ALARM under the wing of a Tornado

Several surface-to-surface missiles, like the Hormoz, P700 Granit, P-500 Bazalt, MM40 Exocet, B611MR, and
Otomat, include a home-on-jam capability wherein the
receiver component of their active radar homing is used
to home in on enemy radar, ECM or communications.
This makes these missiles signicantly harder to defeat
with ECM and distraction countermeasures, and makes
the use of semi-active missiles against them dangerous.

An anti-radiation missile (ARM) is a missile designed


to detect and home in on an enemy radio emission
source.[1] Typically, these are designed for use against an
enemy radar, although jammers[2] and even radios used
for communications can also be targeted in this manner.

Air-to-surface
3 Surface-to-air

Most ARM designs to date have been intended for use


against ground-based radars. Commonly carried by specialist aircraft in the Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses
(SEAD) role (known to the United States Air Force as
"Wild Weasels"), the primary purpose of this type of missile is to degrade enemy air defenses in the rst period of
a conict in order to increase the chances of survival for
the following waves of strike aircraft. They can also be
used to quickly shut down unexpected surface-to-air missile (SAM) sites during an air raid. Often, SEAD escort

Due to experiences with jamming by US-built aircraft


in Vietnam and during Middle Eastern wars in the late
1960s, the Soviets designed an alternative tracking mode
for their S-75 (SA-2) missiles, which allowed them to
track a jamming target without needing to actively send
out any radar signals. This was achieved by the SAM
sites radar receiver locking on to radio noise emissions
generated by an aircrafts jamming pod. In cases of
1

heavy jamming, missiles were often launched exclusively


in this mode; ironically, this passive tracking meant that
SAM sites could track targets without needing to emit
any radar signals, and so American anti-radiation missiles
could not be red back in retaliation. Recently, the Peoples Republic of China developed the FT-2000 system to
counter AEW and AWACS targets. This system is based
on the HQ-9, which is in turn based on the S-300PMU.
These anti-radiation missile systems have been marketed
to Pakistan and various other countries.

Air-to-air

More recently, air-to-air ARM designs have begun to appear, notably the Russian Vympel R-27EP. Such missiles
have several advantages over other missile guidance techniques; they do not trigger radar warning receivers (conferring a measure of surprise), and they can have a longer
range (since the battery life of the seeker head is the limiting factor to the range of most active radar homing systems).
In the 1970s, Hughes Aerospace had a project called
BRAZO (Spanish for ARM). Based on a Raytheon AIM7 Sparrow, it was meant to oer an air-to-air capability against proposed Soviet AWACS types and also some
other types with extremely powerful radar sets, such as
the MiG-25. The project did not proceed.

References

[1] Raytheon Company: High-Speed Anti-Radiation Missile


(HARM)". Retrieved 20 May 2014.
[2] AGM-88 HARM. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
[3] http://www.designation-systems.net/dusrm/m-45.html

Reuben Johnson (February 2006). Improved Russian radar may level playing eld. Asian Aerospace.
Archived from the original on 2006-06-14. Retrieved 2006-07-10.
Russian site on the S-75 from Said Aminov Vestnik
PVO (Russian) Google translation

REFERENCES

Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

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