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Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW

Applied Project:
Literature Review
Takako Kobayashi
Arizona State University

Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW

History of Teacher Evaluations


The purposes for classroom observations have been changing, aligning with the
development of observation instruments (Lamb & Swick, 1975). Based on their analysis of the
historical overview of classroom observation, Lamb and Swick (1975) concluded that the
primary purpose of classroom observation has been shifted to teachers professional development
alongside the improvement of educational accountability.
Previous studies have revealed the effect of teacher quality on student learning outcomes
(Aaronson, Barrow, & Sander, 2007; Rivkin, Hanushek, & Kain, 2005; Rockoff, 2004; Slater,
Davies, & Burgess, 2012). Thus, improving the teacher quality seems to be a promising
direction (Slater et al., 2012, p. 643). Instructional coaching has been a viable approach to raise
teacher quality, which will be discussed more below.
Instructional Coaching
Instructional coaching has referred to offer intensive, differentiated support to teachers
so that they are able to implement proven practice (Knight, 2008, p. 29). Guiney (2001)
illustrated the impact of instructional coaches (ICs) on standards-based reform implemented in
schools across Boston. The classroom teachers increased their practical instructional skills and
knowledge through trustful relationships with their ICs. Furthermore, the teachers frequently
started exchanging constructive knowledge such as their teaching experiences with each other.
Indeed, the significant improvements of student achievements were observed in Bostons schools
after ICs worked with their classroom teachers.
Many researchers have emphasized the unique features of IC position. That is, it is
essential to build a trustful relationship between the classroom teachers and ICs (Guiney, 2001;

Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW

Pennsylvania Institute for Instructional Coaching, n.d.). Knight (2008) gave the detailed
qualification of IC as follows:
They are skilled communicators, or relationship builders, with a repertoire of excellent
communication skills that enable them to emphasize, listen, and build trusting
relationships. ICs also encourage and support teachers reflection about their classroom
practices. Thus, they must be skilled at unpacking their collaborating teachers
professional goals so that they can help them create a plan for realizing those goals, all
with a focus on improving instruction. (pp. 30-31).
Overall, instructional coaching should not be a judgmental process. The ultimate aim of
instructional coaching is to improve teaching as well as student learning (Guiney, 2001;
Pennsylvania Institute for Instructional Coaching, n.d.).
Partnership Approach for Instructional Coaching
Knight (2008) identified the seven partnership principles as the theoretical framework for
instructional coaching. The brief summary of each principle is described below.
Equality. According to the principle, a partnership is based on the relationship between
equals (Knight, 2008). Thus, ICs and their collaborating teachers are equal, which means
that ICs intend to learn and understand their teachers, treating their thoughts as valuable
instead of expecting to persuade.
Choice. Knight (2008) stated, In a partnership, one individual does not make decisions
for another (p. 32). Therefore, ICs do not force their teachers to think in the same
manner. Rather, ICs are willing to provide teachers with choices.
Voice. As a primary benefit of a partnership, Knight (2008) emphasized that Each
individual has access to many perspective rather than the one perspective of a leader (p.
32). In other words, ICs are responsible to encourage the collaborating teachers to share

Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW

their perspectives with each other. The process of instructional coaching is, therefore, to
enable teachers to find their voice.
Dialogue. In order to come to decisions that partners can accept together in a partnership,
it is important to have a dialogue between partners (Knight, 2008). That is, ICs and their
teachers engage in dialogue in order to think about content and learn together.
Reflection. In the partnership based on the principles identified above, it is important for
the collaborating teachers to make their own decisions (Knight, 2008). ICs emphasize the
importance of reflective thinking through their partnerships with the classroom teachers.
Praxis. In a partnership, it is essential for individuals to apply their learning into real
actions (Knight, 2008). Thus, according to Knight (2008), For ICs this means that in
partnership with collaborating teachers, they focus their attention on how to use ideas in
the classroom as those ideas are being learned (p. 33).
Reciprocity. In a partnership, all individuals gain from their contributions (Knight,
2008). Hence, ICs also strive for their development along with their collaborating
teachers such as acquiring a variety of perspectives regarding teacher strategies.
Despite the persistent existence of classroom observation in educational institutions, scholars and
researchers suggested the improvement of existing teacher evaluation systems (Daley & Kim,
2010; Darling-Hammond, Jaquith, & Hamilton, 2012). Darling-Hammond et al. (2012)
emphasized the necessity of an overhaul in teacher evaluation below:
Existing systems rarely help teachers improve or clearly distinguish those who are
succeeding from those who are struggling. The tools that are used do not always represent
the important features of good teaching. It is nearly impossible for principals, especially
in large schools, to have sufficient time or content expertise to evaluate all of the teachers
they supervise, much less to address the needs of some teachers for intense instructional
support. And many principals have not had access to the professional development and

Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW

support they need to become expert instructional leaders and evaluators of teaching.
Thus, evaluation in its current form often contributes little either to teacher learning or to
accurate, timely information for personnel decisions. (p. 1).
As the future direction of teacher evaluation, therefore, the concept of instructional coaching
should be integrated as a basis of a new teacher evaluation system as well as instructional
coaching instruments.
Video-Based Evidence in Teacher Reflection
Research has been conducted in order to investigate the effectiveness of video recording
on teacher reflection (Lofthouse & Birmingham, 2010; Rosaen, Lundeberg, Cooper, Fritzen, &
Terpstra, 2008). Lofthouse and Birminghams study (2010) found that the use of video
recordings seemed to help improve student teachers instructional performance. They also
revealed that video recordings enhanced meaningful conversation between student teachers and
their mentors at the meetings. Rosan et al. (2008) conducted a study to examine the difference of
teacher reflection between video recordings and their memory. They concluded the results as
follows:
First, interns tended to make more specific observations in the video condition. Second,
interns discussed instructional elements of their teaching more than behavior
management when using video. Third, in the video condition interns paid more attention
to the children in terms of instruction, student achievement, and listening to the students,
thus moving the focus away from self and onto the children. (p. 353, emphasis in
original).

Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW

In addition, video coaching platform could improve school professional development programs
(Lauer, 2016). Therefore, the advantages of video recording as a tool of observing instructional
performance seem to support the theoretical framework of instructional coaching.
Social Networking
As the primary element of this applied project, it is necessary to deepen the
understanding of social media and its function. According to Universities and Colleges
Information System Association (2015), social media, also known as social networking, has been
identified as a general term for a range of internet-based applications that allow people to
create, co-create, share and interact with information (p. 8). Apparently, social media has been a
new marketing strategy these days, changing the entire marketing ecosystem of influence. The
distinguished feature of social media as a new marketing strategy is customer connectivity and
interactivity (Hanna, Rohm, & Crittenden, 2011, p. 266). In other words, social media has
empowered consumers to interact more freely, which requires marketers to reflect on the way to
engage in social networking.
Schultz (2007) illustrated the social media ecosystem (Figure 1). According to Corcoran
(2009), the ecosystem can be divided into three kinds of media: owned media which the
company controls (e.g., corporation website), paid media that the marketer purchased (e.g.,
display advertising), and earned media which is controlled by customers (e.g., word-of-mouth).
Furthermore, Li and Bernoff (2008) identified seven categories of social behaviors performed by
participants in the ecosystem. They are: creators (e.g., publishing a website),
conversationalists (e.g., posting updates), critics (e.g., posting reviews), collectors (e.g.,
RSS feed), joiners (e.g., visiting social networking sites), spectators (e.g., reading blogs),
and inactives (e.g., none of social behaviors; Li & Bernoff, 2008, p. 43). Based on the analysis

Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW

of the different platforms as well as social behaviors, Hanna et al. (2011) suggested that
Marketers must therefore learn to navigate and integrate these multiple platforms, while
understanding differences among consumers in the various social behavior segments (p. 269).

Figure 1. Social media ecosystem. Adapted from Deb Schultz: Technology changes; humans
don't, by D. Schultz, 2007, Retrieved February 24, 2016 from
http://www.deborahschultz.com/photos/uncategorized/2007/11/13/ecosystem_latest_2.jpg
Copyright 2007 by Deb Schultz. Adapted with permission.
Based on the literature review described above, the theoretical framework of instructional
coaching can be communicated with ICs, collaborating teachers, and internal stakeholders via
different types of social media platforms. In this applied project, EyeObserve, a new iOS app,

Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW


will be introduced into prospective users such as ICs and classroom teachers via various social
media in order to foster the future direction of teacher evaluation.

Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW

9
References

Aaronson, D., Barrow, L., & Sander, W. (2007). Teachers and student achievement in the
Chicago public high schools. Journal of Labor Economics, 25(1), 95135.
doi:10.1086/508733
Corcoran, S. (2009, December 16). Defining earned, owned, and paid media [Web log post].
Retrieved February 24, 2016, from
http://blogs.forrester.com/interactive_marketing/2009/12/defining-earned-owned-andpaid-media.html
Daley, G., & Kim, L. (2010). A teacher evaluation system that works [PDF document]. Retrieved
from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED533380.pdf
Darling-Hammond, L., Jaquith, A., & Hamilton, M. (2012). Creating a comprehensive system
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Guiney, E. (2001). Coaching isnt just for athletes: The role of teacher leaders. Phi Delta
Kappan, 82(10), 740743. doi:10.1177/003172170108201006
Hanna, R., Rohm, A., & Crittenden, V. L. (2011). Were all connected: The power of the social
media ecosystem. Business Horizons, 54(3), 265273. doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2011.01.007
Knight, J. (2008). Instructional coaching [PDF document]. In J. Knight (Ed.), Coaching:
approaches and perspectives. Retrieved from
http://www.instructionalcoach.org/images/downloads/research-pubs/Chapter2.pdf
Lamb, M. L., & Swick, K. J. (1975). A historical overview of classroom teacher observation. The
Educational Forum, 39(2), 238247. doi:10.1080/00131727509339059

Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW

10

Lauer, D. (2016, February 2). How peer video coaching is completely changing how our teachers
teach [Web log post]. Retrieved February 17, 2016, from
http://www.eschoolnews.com/2016/02/02/how-peer-video-coaching-is-completelychanging-how-our-teachers-teach/
Li, C., & Bernoff, J. (2008). Groundswell: Winning in a world transformed by social
technologies. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press.
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tool for professional development of student teachers [PDF document]. Retrieved from
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Pennsylvania Institute for Instructional Coaching. (n.d.). What is an instructional coach? [Web
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Rivkin, S. G., Hanushek, E. A., & Kain, J. F. (2005). Teachers, schools, and academic
achievement. Econometrica, 73(2), 417458. doi:10.2307/3598793
Rockoff, J. E. (2004). The impact of individual teachers on student achievement: Evidence from
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Rosaen, C. L., Lundeberg, M., Cooper, M., Fritzen, A., & Terpstra, M. (2008). Noticing noticing:
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Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW

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Slater, H., Davies, N. M., & Burgess, S. (2012). Do teachers matter? Measuring the variation in
teacher effectiveness in England. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 74(5),
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