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Electrical & Electronics Engineering

Submitted By
DEPPENDER KUMAR(06696504912)
VINOD KUMAR(08796504912)
RAMAN PAL(09496504912)
DISHANT CHAUHAN(09896504912)

Under the Supervision of

Mr. Ajay Dahiya
(Assistant Professor in EEE Dept.)


May 2016


WE hereby declare that this submission of thesis on REGENERATIVE BRAKING

SYSTEM is our own work and that, to the best of my knowledge and, it contains no material
previously published or written by another person nor material which has been accepted for the
award of any other degree of the university or other institute of higher learning, except where
due acknowledgment has been made in the text.

DEPPENDER KUMAR(06696504912)
VINOD KUMAR (08796504912)
RAMAN PAL(09496504912)
DISHANT CHAUHAN(09896504912)


This is to certify that the Major Project Report entitled REGENERATIVE BRAKING
(08796504912),RAMAN PAL(09496504912),DISHANT CHAUHAN(09896504912) students
of B.TECH, HMR Institute of Technology and Management, during the year 2012-2016, in
partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Technology
and that the project has not formed the basis for the award previously of any degree, diploma,
associate ship, fellowship or any other similar title.

Signature of the supervisor

(Assistant Professor)
HMR Institute of Technology & Management
The B.TECH VivaVoice Examination of DEV YADAV (08196504912), has been held on
Signature of HOD
(Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering)





We wish to express our deep sense of gratitude to our PROJECT SUPERVISOR, MR.
AJAY DAHIYA and HOD of Electrical & Electronics Engineering Department, HMR
Institute of Technology & Management, Delhi for his guidance, encouragement and
useful suggestions, which helped us in completing the project work in time. We consider
ourself very fortunate for having been associated with him. His affection, guidance and
scientific approach served a veritable incentive for completion of this work.
Although it is not possible to name individually, We cannot forget our all-wishes at HMR
Institute of Technology &Management, Delhi and outsiders for their persistent support
and cooperation which needed during this work.
We shall ever remain indebted to the faculty members of HMR Institute of Technology
&Management, Delhi.
Finally, yet importantly, We would like to express our heartfelt thanks to our beloved
parents for their blessings, our friends/classmates for their help and wishes for the
successful completion of this project. This acknowledgement will remain incomplete if
we fail to express our deep sense of obligation to our parents and God for their consistent
blessings and encouragement.




When riding a vehicle, a great amount of kinetic energy is lost when braking, making start
up fairly strenuous. The goal of our project was to develop a product that stores the energy
which is normally lost during braking, and reuses it to help propel the rider when starting.
This was accomplished with a Generator fitted with rubber wheel whose parameters were
optimized based on engineering, consumer preference, and manufacturing models. The
resulting product is one which is practical and potentially very profitable in the
marketplace. In this project we use the heat energy by lightening the LED which is lost by
applying brakes. After applying brake on the wheel the kinetic energy of wheel is
transferred to the rubber wheel attached to the generator which is then transformed in the
electrical energy. This electrical energy is used to lightening the LED. We can also use this
energy for other purpose by storing in the battery.



1.1 A regenerative brake is an apparatus, a device or system which

allows a vehicle to recapture part of the kinetic energy that would
otherwise be lost to heat when braking and make use of that power
either by storing it for future use or feeding it back into a power
system for other vehicles to use.
1.2 Brakes as an Electrical Generator
Regenerative brakes are a form of dynamo generator, originally
discovered in 1832 by Hippolyte Pixii. The dynamo's rotor slows
as the kinetic energy is converted to electrical energy through
electromagnetic induction. The dynamo can be used as either
generator or brake by converting motion into electricity or be
reversed to convert electricity into motion.
Using a dynamo as a regenerative brake was discovered coincident with the modern electric motor. In 1873, Znobe Gramme
attached the wires from two dynamos together. When one dynamo
rotor was turned as a regenerative brake, the other became an

electric motor.
It is estimated that regenerative braking systems in vehicles
currently reach 31.3% electric generation efficiency, with most of
the remaining energy being released as heat; the actual efficiency
depends on numerous factors, such as the state of charge of the
battery, how many wheels are equipped to use the regenerative
braking system, and whether the topology used is parallel or serial
in nature.
1.3 Dynamic and Regenerative Electrical Brakes
Electric brakes have been used in vehicles with electric motors
since the early-20th century on record, The Warner Electric Brake
Corporation was using electric brakes in 1927; but it is possible
that they were using electric brakes even earlier.
Regenerative brakes in electric railway vehicles feed the generated
electricity back into the grid. In battery electric and hybrid electric
vehicles, the energy is stored in a battery or bank of capacitors for
later use.
It is usual for vehicles to include a 'back-up' system so that friction
braking is applied automatically if the connection to the power
supply is lost. Also, in a DC system or in an AC system that is not
directly grid connected via simple transformers, special provision
must also be made for situations where more power is being
generated by braking than is being consumed by other vehicles on

the system.
A small number of mountain railways have used 3-phase power
supplies and 3-phase induction motors and have thus a near
constant speed for all trains as the motors rotate with the supply
frequency both when giving power or braking.
A brake is a device for slowing or stopping the motion of a
machine or vehicle, and to keep it from starting to move again. The
kinetic energy lost by the moving part is usually translated to heat
by friction. Alternatively, in regenerative braking, much of the
energy is recovered and stored in a flywheel, capacitor or turned
into alternating current by an alternator, then rectified and stored in
a battery for later use.
Brakes of some description are fitted to most wheeled vehicles,
including automobiles of all kinds, trucks, trains, motorcycles, and
bicycles. Baggage carts and shopping carts may have them for use
on a moving ramp. Some airplanes are fitted with wheel brakes on
the undercarriage. Some aircraft also feature air brakes designed to
slow them down in flight. Notable examples include gliders and
some WWII-era fighter aircraft. These allow the aircraft to
maintain a safe speed in a steep descent. The Saab B 17 dive
bomber used the deployed undercarriage as an air brake.

Early braking systems, used to stop vehicles with steel rimmed

wheels, consisted of a curved wooden block designed to bear
against the steel tire when manipulated by a single leverage system
from the drivers seat.
This "brake shoe" was the normal way of braking either a horse
drawn vehicle or steam locomotive. Many varieties of
arrangements of levers, rods and pivots were utilized to bring them
into operation.
In 1895 the Michelin Brothers had begun the move towards
replacing steel rimmed wheels with the pneumatic rubber tire
forcing them to think of a new braking system as "brake shoes"
were no longer satisfactory.
A new method of braking was required and two early devices
attempted to apply the force of friction to the axle or to a drum on
the axle or transmission shaft. This type of brake was actuated by
the driver depressing a pedal or operating a lever. Heavier pressure
caused the bands to contract more tightly around the drum giving
greater retardation.
One included the use of a wooden block inside a flexible
contracting metal band which when pressed together would tighten
around the drum causing friction between the drum, which is
connected to the wheel, and the wooden blocks and therefore
slowing down the wheel.

The other was an inner wheel or brake drum which was added with
an external contracting band meant to bear against the drum to
retard the vehicle. However, continuous replacement of drum and
band combined with poor friction quality, soon led to the lining the
band with a replacement friction material. Lead, cotton and camel
hair were used as lining, but they burned out too quickly which led
Herbert Frood to produce an asbestos fabric in 1908.
In 1899 Daimler had a cable wound around a drum and anchored
to the chassis so that when the cable was tightened while the car
was moving forwards the rotation of the drum increased the
tightness and grip of the cable, therefore reducing the amount of
force required to pull the lever or press on the pedal in order to
stop the vehicle. However, in reverse it tended to work against the
pull of the cable and loosen its grip.
The "added" braking efficiency called "servo assistance" is still an
important factor in the design of drum brakes today. Most modern
cars have vacuum assisted braking.
The external band brake was vulnerable to road dirt and
weathering which caused rapid wear of lining, loss of efficiency
and on occasions "automatic" brake application due to drum
expansion. To overcome these problems the internal expanding
shoe brake was developed, in which the brake shoes were inside a
'brake drum' (protected from weather and dust).

Its first appearance seems to have been with Louis Renault in 1902
and remained the basic principle for the next fifty years.
Originally, motor car brakes were operated by mechanical means
and became known as "mechanical" brakes i.e. a mechanical
system was used to transform the effort of the driver's foot on the
brake pedal into expansion of the brake shoes against the drum.
(On depressing the brake pedal, the cam is rotated by a lever
connected to the pedal and forces the shoes into contact with the
brake drum. Springs attached to both shoes return the shoes to the
original "off" position when the brakes are released.)
Rear cantilever brake assembly on a bicycle.
To this day, bicycles have mechanical brakes, operated by hand
lever and cable. This closes calipers, containing the friction pads,
onto the rim of the wheel.
One solution, by Maurice Farman 1920, to the challenge of
increasing the "servo action" was to connect two shoes with a pivot
and secure the other end of the "trailing" shoe, with a pivot, to the
back plate. This in effect made both shoes "leading shoes".
Early brakes were operated by a linkage system of fixed rods and
levers supplement by Bowden cables (Cables were invented in
1906 and were developed for the bicycle). The linkage system of
rods and levers were not easy to keep in good operating order.
Equalizing brake pressure on the wheels also presented a number

of problems, many of which were solved by the introduction of the

hydraulic system, using fluid to transfer the force applied to the
brake pedal.
Hydraulic systems make use of the fact liquids cannot be
compressed to any appreciable degree and that pressure applied at
any points within a closed system is transmitted equally throughout
(Pascal's law).
In a basic hydraulic braking system all the cylinders and brake
lines form one closed system filled with brake fluid. The master
cylinder has a single piston, whiles each wheel cylinder has two
opposed pistons. All pistons have rubber cups to maintain pressure
and prevent loss of fluid. The pressure generated in the master
cylinder is transmitted with equal and undiminished force to the
pistons of each wheel cylinder so that pressures applied to all brake
shoes are identical.
Most modern cars now have disc brakes. The brake pads are
mounted within the jaws of a caliper, which grips a brake disc,
providing the necessary friction. Performance cars are fitted with
larger wheels, to permit larger brake discs.