Anda di halaman 1dari 9

1.

Data Collection and preparation

A. Data Quality
ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi Mineral

Precision:

Data Collection and


Preparation

(Swan, ARH., Sandilands, M., 1995, Introduction to Geological


data Analysis, Blackwell Science Ltd)

repeated measurements are similar.


replicates are identical prepared from the some
source.
the error involved is random.

Accuracy:

close to the true value

Asep HP Kesumajana

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi Mineral

1. Data Collection and preparation

1. Data Collection and preparation

Precision vs Accuracy:

B. Handling Data
Object and variables:
Precision

Accuracy
(True value=50)

High
Low

High

Low

49 50 50 52 50 49 51 50

55 47 50 52 44 53 57 47

54 55 55 57 55 54 56 55

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi Mineral

60 52 55 57 49 58 62 52

Each model will be a measurement of a


specified property of one particular entity.

Entity: some geological object or sample:

hand specimens of granite

a soil sample

a thin sector of sandstone

trilobite specimens

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi Mineral

1. Data Collection and preparation

1. Data Collection and preparation

Entity

B. Handling Data

A single data set:

contain information on many variables and many


objects.

Column = variable
Row = objects

The entire column will be analysis together


must be same comparing like with like
Must be measured under the same strict definition of
variable

unit must be same of every entry


the same data retrieval procedure
unique to paleontology : problem homology

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi Mineral

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi Mineral

1. Data Collection and preparation

1. Data Collection and preparation

Visualization: Effects Scale Changes

Effects Scale Changes:

data display can be change by changing scale


data original:

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi Mineral

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi Mineral

1. Data Collection and preparation

1. Data Collection and preparation

Effects Scale Changes:

Effects Scale Changes:

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi Mineral

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi Mineral

1. Data Collection and preparation

1. Data Collection and preparation

Effects Scale Changes:

Effects Scale Changes:

Log-Normal

vs

Normal-Normal

Compare 2 curve:
different vertical scale

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi Mineral

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi Mineral

1. Data Collection and preparation

1. Data Collection and preparation

Effects Scale Changes:

Typically a data set

Compare 2 curve:
same vertical scale

DEPT.F
50.00000
50.50000
51.00000
51.50000
52.00000

SP.MV
-999.25000
-999.25000
-999.25000
-999.25000
-999.25000

RHOB.G/C3
-999.25000
-999.25000
-999.25000
-999.25000
-999.25000

GR.GAPI
-999.25000
-999.25000
-999.25000
-999.25000
-999.25000

DT.US/F
-999.25000
-999.25000
-999.25000
-999.25000
-999.25000

1368.50000
1369.00000
1369.50000
1370.00000

-999.25000
-999.25000
-999.25000
28.30800

-999.25000
-999.25000
-999.25000
1.74500

-999.25000
-999.25000
-999.25000
52.70900

-999.25000
-999.25000
-999.25000
56.06900

9166.50000
9167.00000
9167.50000
9168.00000
9168.50000
9169.00000

-28.94400
-999.25000
-999.25000
-999.25000
-999.25000
-999.25000

2.70900
2.70800
2.70800
2.70800
2.70800
2.70800

78.25100
78.25100
78.25100
78.25100
-999.25000
-999.25000

65.42900
63.55700
51.70000
40.15600
-999.25000
-999.25000

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi Mineral

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi


Mineral

1. Data Collection and preparation

1. Data Collection and preparation

Compiling the data set

Missing data:

Missing data:

can not be=0 * or 99.99

(-999.25000 represented a missing data)

Reference numbers labels and code:

Data enty and data formats ASCII (American


Standart Code Information Interchange). e.g. LAS
Data File

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi Mineral

~Version Information
VERS .
2.0
:CWLS Log Ascii Standard - Version 2.0
WRAP .
NO
:One line per depth step
~Well Information Block
#MNEM.UNIT
Data Type
Information
#----------------------------------------------STRT .F
50.00000
:START DEPTH
STOP .F
9200.00000
:STOP DEPTH
STEP .F
0.50000
:INCREMENT
NULL .
-999.25
:NULL DATA VALUE
COMP .
EEEEEEEEEE OIL
:COMPANY
WELL .
XXXX-1
:WELL
FLD
.
KKKKKKK
:FIELD
SRVC .
SLB
:SERVICE COMPANY
~Parameter Information Block
#MNEM.UNIT
Value
Description
#----------------------------LONG .DEG
100.080243
:Well Surface Location
LATI .DEG
2.291829
:Well Surface Location
XWELL .M
620116.012000
:X-coordinate of Well Head
YWELL .M
253363.510000
:Y-coordinate of Well Head
~Curve Information Block
#MNEM.UNIT API Code Curve
Description
#-------- -------- --- ------------------DEPT .F
:0 Index
SP
.MV
:1 Spontaneous Potential
RHOB .G/C3
:2 Bulk Density
GR
.GAPI
:3 Gamma Ray
DT
.US/F
:4 Delta-T (also called Slowness or Interval Transit Time)
~Ascii Data Section
50.00000
-999.25000 -999.25000 -999.25000 -999.25000
50.50000
-999.25000 -999.25000 -999.25000 -999.25000
51.00000
-999.25000 -999.25000 -999.25000 -999.25000
51.50000
-999.25000 -999.25000 -999.25000 -999.25000
52.00000
-999.25000 -999.25000 -999.25000 -999.25000

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi Mineral

1. Data Collection and preparation

1. Data Collection and preparation

C. Types of Geological Data

Concept of Data Type

1. Ratio scale data:

e.g. length, weight, porosity, density

2. Interval scale data:

the 0 not a fundamental termination of scale e.g. C, F

-3

-2

-1

(%)/ppm expression of proportion of fix total (in geochemistry)

10

10

Closed

in angle bearing, strike, dip

2 3

678

5. Ordinal scale data:

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

4. Directional data:

Interval

3. Closed data:

Ratio

10

11

Ordinal

constant interval scale data the scale not regular.


to place observation in relative order (not valid -, +, /, *)
e.g. Mhos hardness scale, Richter, time in stratigraphic position
used non parametric method
analyse data on basis of rank order only

N
360o 0o

Directional
S

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi Mineral

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi Mineral

1. Data Collection and preparation

1. Data Collection and preparation

Directional data

Ordinal scale: Mohs Scale


Mineral
Talc
Gypsum
Calcite
Fluorite
Apatite
Orthoclase
Quartz
Topaz
Corundum
Diamond

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi


Mineral

Knoop
NA
61
141
181
483
621
788
1190
2200
8000

Vickers
1
3
9
21
48
72
100
200
400
1600

Mohs'
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi Mineral


From: http://www.geocities.com/unforbidden_geology/rock_properties.htm

1. Data Collection and preparation

1. Data Collection and preparation

Ordinal scale: Richter Scale (Power of Ten)

Types of Geological Data(cont.)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

1
10
100
1,000
10,000
100,000
1,000,000
10,000,000
100,000,000

1 x 100
1 x 101
1 x 102
1 x 103
1 x 104
1 x 105
1 x 106
1 x 107
1 x 108

6. Discrete data:

has a special frequency distribution


e.g. number of fossils in a 1m2

7. Nominal or categorical data:


e.g. list of minerals or fosils

information presented in the form of names


Converted to numerical value 1 present 0 absent

Source: http://www.nyu.edu/projects/mstep/amnh/earthquake.htm

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi Mineral

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi Mineral

1. Data Collection and preparation

1. Data Collection and preparation

Continous and Discrete data

Nominal or categorical data


Fossils
No

Name

L.A

300

330

360

370

380

Globigerinoides ruber

9.5

0.0

Globigerina bulloides bulloides

8.3

0.0

Globorotalia (T.) obesa

31.6

0.0

Globorotalia (T.) acostaensis acostaensi

9.5

1.8

Orbulina universa

15.2

0.0

Globoquadrina altispira altispira

25.2

1.8

Globigerina praebulloidess

38.2

5.3

Globigerinoides extremus

9.5

1.8

Pulleniatina primalis

7.0

3.8

Globoquadrina baroemoensis

25.2

3.8

1
1

10

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi Mineral

Depth interval
F.A

11

Hastigerina aequilateralis

12.0

0.0

12

Sphaeroidinella dehiscens dehiscens

4.7

0.0

13

Sphaeroidinellopsis seminulina seminulin

18.7

3.8

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi


Mineral

1
1
1

1. Data Collection and preparation

1. Data Collection and preparation

D. Type of Analysis

Univariate:

Bivariate:
y

45

Statistic and data analysis:


must always be aware that the general data analytical
method do not give definitive answers,
leave some interpretation to the user

40
35
30
25

10

15

20

20

25
x

15
10

Univariate:

Statistical with one variable

10

15

20

0.37

25
x

Porosity (fraction)

Bivariate:

Statistical with two variable

0.365

Time/space series:

some can be treated as simple bivariate data with one as


time or space

0.3

1500

0.345

2000
2500
3000
3500

0.34

4000
4500

0.335
1

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi Mineral

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi Mineral

1. Data Collection and preparation

1. Data Collection and preparation

Time/space series

D. Type of analysis

4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0

0.2

1000

0.355

0.35

0.1

0
500

0.36

Depth (ft)

5000

Spatial:

3 or 4 variable analysis together with 2 or 3 are spatial


coordinate;
grid refference
logitude/latitude with or without depth

Time

Multivariate: > 3 variable

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi


Mineral

the prime object is to reduce the dimensionality so the


shape of data scatter can be viewed
relationship between variable can also be investigated.

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi Mineral

0.4

1. Data Collection and preparation

1. Data Collection and preparation

Spatial

E. Population and Sample

not primarily interested in the properties of the bits of rock that measured.
interested in the properties of the large body of rock
measurements are representative of the population.

The population:

is the total set of measurements

hypothetically be taken from the entity being studies.

the limit of the population defined by the geologist at the beginning of the
project.

The statistical:

sample is the collection of objects or measurements

are a subset of the population of interest

are taken to represent that population.

Bias:

For any data analytical investigation to be valid it is essential that the sample
is an unbiased

subset of the population.

There are always a pitfalls in the measurement process due to instrumental


or procedural error.

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi


Mineral

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi Mineral

1. Data Collection and preparation

1. Data Collection and preparation

Defining the geological population

Sampling Strategy

Sample size

Depends on the degree of subtlety of the problems being


addressed and often not known in advance
It is good practice to investigate the properties of a small
pilot sample before deciding on the definitive sample size
required.

Spatial sampling scheme

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi


Mineral

Random
Uniform
Regular or gridded
Clustered
Traverse

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi Mineral

1. Data Collection and preparation

1. Data Collection and preparation

Spatial sampling scheme


Regular

Characteristic overall population parameters

Uniform

Random

Clustered

Geological population may have internal variation: randomly or


systematic variation
Must be concentrate to overall characteristics of the population
Examples:
Coal mine
Copper ore body with opencast bulk extraction

Traverse

Characteristic variation with in population

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi Mineral

if heterogeneity in the population is visible in advance should be


broken into subpopulation and sampled and analyzed separately.

ET-3104 Evaluasi Statistik dalam Eksplorasi Mineral

Anda mungkin juga menyukai