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# DISCUSSION

The purpose of the experiment was to study the characteristics curves of a reaction
turbine. Turbine are generally used in hydroelectric power plants to generate power from
reservoir of water, steam and gas. The theory of scheme is it develops torque by reacting
to the pressure or weight of fluid and the operation of reaction turbines is described by
Newton's third law of motion which the action and reaction are equal and opposite. The
graphs obtained were compared with standard graph that explained the exact curves of
efficiency (%), Power (Watt), Pressure and Torque vs Speed.

## Figure 3: Torque (Ncm) against Speed (1/min)

The flow rate was started by set the regulator valve with the lowest value which is
3000rpm 200 rpm. After the flow rate is stable, result is started to record. By referring
Figure 3, it shows that the torque (Ncm) against Speed (1/min) is decreasing. Torque is
resulted from the force vector and displacement vector at which the torque is measured to
the point the force is applied. The increase and decrease pattern of graph showed the
force applied is unstable. At speed (1/min) 2500 , the graph is vigorously fluctuating as
the regulatory valve is closed quickly. The speed (1/min) is dropped from 2034.88 to
1215.332 and it gives high different about 819.548 (1/min). The optimum difference must
be 500rpm to shows the stability of the rotation object in the axis. At torque 0.571289
(Ncm) the speed is dropped from 1215.332 (1/min) to 586.9141 (1/min) and it gives
628.4179 (1/min) in difference.

## Figure 4: Electrical Power against Speed

Based on figure 4, Electrical power (Watt) against Speed (1/min) at 3000rpm
200 rpm is obtained. It shows that when the speed is decreasing from 3140.625 (1/min) to
3079.102 (1/min) the Electrical Power is also decreasing. The power is related to the the
speed and torque as when the speed decrease, the torque also decrease and effected to the
power to be dropped. The consistent of 0 Watt from 3088.379 (1/min) describe there is no
electric generate. The ascending pattern is being seen at speed 3065.918 (1/min) as it
gives the highest electrical power at 220.3125 (watt). By comparing to the standard
reaction curve, the ascending and descending curve obtained from Electrical Power is
relevant as when the speed in increased, the power will also increase and when it hits to
the optimum level the power will be decreased.

## Figure 5: Efficiency (100%) against Speed (1/min)

Other than that, Figure 5 showed the efficiency is 0.181706 % at speed 2903.02
hyd
(1/min) and this gives the highest efficiency. Efficiency is related to the power of

x100

el
hydraulic over power of electrical multiple
by 100.

From the graph obtained, it can concluded the efficiency at 3000rpm 200 rpm is
relevant compare with the actual curve as mention is Figure 1 and 2. However the
fluctuating in the curve Figure 5 is due to the inconsistency of the flowrate is not being
control carefully. This will be affected the electrical power and also the speed of
performance. Based on theory, the consistent and higher efficiency is important to
determine the performance of the machine. In this case, a good efficiency cannot be
obtained as it is not have a stable performance.
Next, Figure 6,7 and 8 showed the Torque (Ncm), Electrical Power (Watt) and
Efficiency (%) against Speed (1/min) at flowrate 4000rpm 200rpm. From graph 6, the
torque have similarity with the graph at Figure 3 as it is a descending curve. The torque is
consistent reducing from 500 (1/min) to 4000 (1/min) and it gives the stable performance.
The highest different in speed can be obtained from 2124.512 (1/min) to 1145.996
(1/min) as it is 978.516 (1/min) different. This is because the regulatory valve is suddenly
tight and cannot control.

## Figure 8: Efficiency against Speed at flowrate 4000rpm 200rpm

The comparison of Figure 7 and Figure 1 is made to check the difference and
similarity between both graph. A similar curve of electrical power from the experiment
with the standard curve is obtained from speed 0 to 3500 (1/min). It showed the
consistency of the performance is achieved during this time. As water moves over the
runner the shaft rotates and turns the generator thus producing electricity. However the
graph shows fluctuating line occurs as the flowrate is remained constant or no many
change during controlling the valve. The efficiency based on Figure 8 at this flowrate is
effected by the speed as the flowrate at 4000 (1/min) to 3500 (1/min) has no big
difference. The highest declination of efficiency can be seen at speed 4065.43 to
4063.965 (1/min) as the efficiency is 0.052459 % and 0.09164% respectively.

## Figure 9: Torque against Speed at flowrate 5000rpm 200rpm

At flowrate 5000rpm 200rpm the torque (Ncm) against Speed (1/min) based on
Figure 9 has no much difference with Figure 1 and 2. The similarity showed that force
and displacement vector are at the ideal value. Howsoever, the curve at Figure 10 gives
malformed as the electrical power is not have similar characteristic with Figure 2. This is
because the value of electrical power at this stage is on off due to the there is no water
moves over the runner shaft and rotates to generate the electricity. Meanwhile, the
efficiency showed in Figure 11 is achieved the standard curve.

## Figure 11: Efficiency against Speed at flowrate 5000rpm 200rpm

Other than that, the lowest value for Torque and highest value for both Electrical
Power and Efficiency from each different value of Water Flowrate, n (3000rpm, 4000rpm
& 5000rpm) were obtained as in Figure 12. The lowest torque is seen at water flowrate
5000rpm as the torque is 0.2 (Ncm). This is because the reaction turbine is depends on
the speed. When there is higher speed, the torque will be lower as low of force and
displacement vector. There are closed similarity of torque at water flowrate 4000 and
3000 rpm. This is due to the error during water flowrate 4000rpm. The torque should be
less than 0.035 (Ncm).

Figure 12: Lowest value for Torque against three different Water Flowrate

Furthermore the highest value for both Electrical Power and Efficiency against three
different Water Flowrate, (3000rpm, 4000rpm & 5000rpm) is obtained at Figure 13 and
14. The highest value For Electrical Power is 300Watt at water flowrate 5000rpm. This is
because when there are high water moves, it gives high flowrate then will generate more
electricity. Thus, the higher the water flowrate, the higher the electrical power to generate
electricity.

Figure 13: The highest value for Electrical Power against three different water
flowrate
Besides, the highest efficiency from three different water flowrate is obtained at
Figure 14. It is showed that the highest efficiency is at water flowrate 5000rpm. This is
because the Pressure of Hydraulic and Pressure of Electrical Power at water 5000rpm is
the lowest among other flowrate. When there are high water flowrate, the pressure will be
decrease, it gives the performance more efficient as it is remain stable and constant
efficient. At this stage potential energy available in the water and the amount of power to
be generated are higher due to high water flowrate.

## Figure 14: The highest Value of efficiency at different water flowrate

There were few possible errors were the students are not control the regulatory
valve consistently as it effected speed. The computer window is too old as it cannot
capture the result immediately.
In a nutshell, the water flowrate affect the torque, electrical power and efficiency.
When there are higher water flowrate, all the variable will have more efficient than low
water flowrate. The more efficient the process, electricity produce will be higher and
constant.

## CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

In conclusion, the objectives of the experiment was to study the characteristic of curves
of a reaction turbine. Twelve graph were obtained from this experiment to compare the
standard turbine curves with the experiment curve. The graphs are included toque,
electrical power, efficiency against speed in different water flow rate. Other than that,
graph of the lowest value of torque against three different flowrate, the highest value of
electrical power and efficiency against water flowrate are obtained. Based on the results
obtained , it can deduce that high water flowrate gives the highest efficiency to generate
electricity. This is because when water flowrate is higher, the efficiency is also higher.
Therefore, it can conclude that efficiency is affected by the torque, pressure, speed and
water flowrate. Overall, it can deduce that the highest water flowrate generate more
power from water.

There was recommendation to overcome the possible errors. Firstly, student must control
the regulatory valve correctly to avoid more or less water flowrate produce. Secondly,
student need to wait for the reading to stable before record the result from the computer.
Thirdly, the experiment need to do for three or four times above to get the best result.
Finally, student need to be patient when handling the valve as it can be loose and tight
without control. Thus, the ideal expected results could be achieved.