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Soal Tes TOEFL (Structure 2) dan Jawaban

Di bawah ini kami kembali menyediakan Soal Tes TOEFL (Structure 2) dan Jawaban sebagai versi ke
dua yang bersumber dari buku TOEFL CLiff (Preparation Guide for the TOEFL Test). Sementara
pada postingan sebelumnya telah kami posting versi ke satu dari Soal-soal TOEFL dari Cliff yang
judulnya tidak jauh beda dengan postingan kali ini yaitu Soal Tes TOEFL (Structure 1) dan Jawaban.
Soal Tes TOEFL

1. The attorney told his client that _________________________


A. They had little chance of winning the case.
B. The case was of a small chance to win
C. It was nearly impossible to win him the case.
D. The case had a minimum chance to be won by him.

2. One of the professors greatest attributes is _______________


A. when he gives lectures
B. how in the manner that he lectures
C. the way to give lectures
D. his ability to lecture

3. The bank sent a notice to its customers which contained _______________


A. a remembrance that interest rate were to raise the following month
B. a reminder that a raise in interest rates was the month following
C. to remember that interest rates were going up next month
D. a reminder that interest rates would rise the following month.

4. ______________ was the day before yesterday.


A. The Frances Independence Day
B. The day of the French independence
C. Frenchs Independence Day
D. Frances Independence Day

5. It was not until she had arrived home ______________ remembered her appointment with the
doctor.
A. when she
B. that she
C. and she
D. she

6. George would certainly have attended the proceedings ________________


A. if he didnt get a flat tire
B. if the flat tire hadnt happended.
C. had he not had a flat tire
D. had the tire not flattened itself.

7. _______________ received law degrees as today.


A. Never so many women have
B. Never have so many women
C. The women arent ever
D. Women who have never

8. The students liked that professors course because _____________________


A. there was few if any homework
B. not a lot of homework
C. of there wasnt a great amount of homework
D. there was little or no homework.

9. George ______________ he could improve his test scores, but he didnt have enough time to study.
A. knew to
B. knew how
C. knew how that
D. knew how to

10. _________________ he would have come to class.


A. If Mike is able to finish his homework
B. Would Mike be able to finish his homework
C. If Mike could finish his homework
D. If Mike had been able to finish his homework.

11. Lee contributed fifty dollars, but he wishes he could contribute _______________
A. one other fifty dollars
B. the same amount also
C. another fifty
D. more fifty dollars

12. The people at the party were worried about Janet because no one was aware _____________ she
had gone.
A. where that
B. of where
C. of the place where
D. the place

13. Freds yearly income since he changed professions has _________________


A. nearly tripled
B. got almost three times bigger
C. almost grown by three times
D. just about gone up three times

14. Nancy hasnt begun working on her Ph.D, ________________ working on her masters.
A. still because she is yet
B. yet as a result she is still
C. yet because she is still
D. still while she is already

15. The director of this organization must know _____________________


A. money management, selling, and able to satisfy the stockholders
B. how to manage money, selling his product, and be able to satisfy the stockholders
C. how to manage money, sell his product, and satisfy the stockholders
D. money management, selling, the idea of being able to satisfy the stockholders.

Kunci Jawaban
1. A
2. D
3. D
4. D
5. B
6. C
7. B
8. D
9. B
10. D
11. C
12. B
13. A
14. C
15. C
http://berita-english.blogspot.co.id/2014/02/soal-tes-toefl-structure-2-dan-jawaban.html
Soal Tes TOEFL (Structure 3) dan Jawaban
Di bawah ini kami kembali menyediakan Soal Tes Toefl (Structure 3) dan Jawaban sebagai versi ke
dua yang bersumber dari buku TOEFL CLiff (Preparation Guide for the TOEFL Test). Sementara
pada postingan sebelumnya telah kami posting versi ke satu dari Soal-soal TOEFL dari Cliff yang
judulnya tidak jauh beda dengan postingan kali ini yaitu Soal Tes TOEFL (Structure 1) dan
Jawaban dan Soal Tes TOEFL (Structure 2) dan Jawaban.
Soal TOEFL (Structure Test 3)

1. After the funeral, the residents of the apartment building __________.


(a) sent faithfully flowers all weeks to the cemetery.
(b) sent to the cemetery each week flowers faithfully.
(c) sent flowers faithfully to the cemetery each week.
(d) sent each week faithfully to the cemetery flowers.

2. Because the first pair of pants did not fit properly, he asked for __________.
(a) another pants

(c) the others one

(b) other pants

(d) another pair.

3. The committee has met and __________.


(a) they have reached a decision.
(b) it has formulated themselves some opinions.
(c) its decision was reached at.
(d) it has reached a decision.

4. Alfred adams has not __________.


(a) lived lonelynessly in times previous.
(b) never before lived sole.
(c) ever lived alone before.
(d) before lived without the company of his friends.

5. Johns score on the test is the highest in the class; __________.


(a) he should study last night.
(b) he should have studied last night.
(c) he must have studied last night.
(d) he must had to study last night.

6. Henry will not be able to attend the meeting tonight because __________.
(a) he must to teach a class. (c) of he will teach a class.
(b) he will be teaching a class. (d) he will have teaching a class.

7. Having been served lunch, __________.


(a) the problem was discussed by the members of the committee.
(b) the committee members discussed the problem.
(c) it was discussed by the committee members the problem.
(d) a discussion of the problem was made by the members of the committee.

8. Florida has not yet ratified the equal rights amendment, and __________.
(a) several other states hasnt either.
(b) neither has some of the others states.
(c) some other states also have not either.
(d) neither have several other states

9. The chairman request that __________.


(a) the member studied more carefully the problem.
(b) the problem was more carefulnessly studied.
(c) with more carefulness the problem could be studied.
(d) the members study the problem more carefully.

10. California relies heavily on income from fruit crops, and __________.
(a) florida also.

(c) florida is as well

(b) florida too.

(d) so does florida

11. The professor said that __________.


(a) the student can turn over their report on the monday.
(b) the report on monday could be received form the students by him.
(c) the students could hand in their reports on monday.
(d) the student will on monday the reports turn in.

12. This year will be difficult for this organization because __________.
(a)they have less money and volunteers than they had last year.
(b) it has less money and fewer volunteers than it had last year.
(c) the last year it did not have as few and little volunteers and money.
(d) there are fewer money and volunteers that in the last year there were.

13. The teacher have had some problem deciding __________.


(a)when to the students they shall return the final papers.
(b) when are they going to return to the students the final papers.
(c) when they should return to the final papers to the students.
(d) the time when the final papers they should return for the students.

14. She wanted to serve some coffee to her guests; however, __________.
(a) she hadnt many sugar.
(b) there was not great amount of the sugar.
(c) she did not have much sugar.
(d) she was lacking in amount of the sugar.

15. There has not been a great response to the sale, __________?
(a) does there (b) hasnt there (c) hasnt it (d) has there

Kunci Jawaban Soal TOEFL


1. C
2. D
3. D
4. C
5. C
6. B
7. B
8. D
9. D
10. D
11. C
12. B
13. C
14. C
15. D

Soal Tes TOEFL (Structure 4) dan Jawaban


Di bawah ini kami kembali menyediakan Soal Tes Toefl (Structure 4) dan Jawaban sebagai versi ke
dua yang bersumber dari buku TOEFL CLiff (Preparation Guide for the TOEFL Test). Sementara
pada postingan sebelumnya telah kami posting versi ke satu dari Soal-soal TOEFL dari Cliff yang
judulnya tidak jauh beda dengan postingan kali ini yaitu Soal Tes TOEFL (Structure 1) dan
Jawaban, Soal Tes TOEFL (Structure 2) dan Jawaban. dan Soal Tes TOEFL (Structure 3) dan
Jawaban.
Soal TOEFL (Structure Test 4)

Directions: Question 1-15 are incomplete sentences. Beneath each sentence you will see four words or
phrases, marked (A), (B), (C), and (D). Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the
sentences. Then on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the space that
corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen. Fill in the space so that the letter inside the
oval cannot be seen.

1. The Cyclist _______ he crossed the main street


(A) Looked with caution after.
(B) Had looked cautiously before.
(C) Was looked cautions when.
(D) looks cautious when.

2. Here_______ notebook and report that I promised you last week


(A) Is the.
(B) Are the.
(C) Was the.
(D) Has been a.

3. Neither Jane nor her brothers _______ a consent from for tomorrow's field
(A) Need.
(B) Needs.
(C) Is needing.
(D) Has need.
4. Cuba is _______ sugar-growing areas in the world
(A) One of the larger.
(B) One of largest.
(C) One of the largest.
(D) Largest.

Trip

5. The skiers would rather _______ through the mountains than go by bus
(A) To travel on train.
(B) Traveled by train.
(C) Travel by train.
(D) Travelling by the train.

6. That magnificent _______ temple was constructed by the Chinese


(A) eight-centuries-old.
(B) Eight-centuriess-old.
(C) Old-eight centuries.
(D) eight-century-old.

7. There were two small rooms in the beach house, _______ served as as a kitchen.
(A) The smaller of which
(B) The Smallest of which.
(C) The Smaller of them.
(D) Smallest of that.

8. Pioneer men and women endured terrible hardships, and _______


(A) So do their children.
(B) Neither did the children.
(C) Also the Childs.
(D) Had he studied more.

9. Mr. Duncan _______ his brother, who has a better position.


(A) Twice as much as.
(B) Twice more than.
(C) Twice as many as.
(D) Twice as more as.

10. _______, he would have been able to pass the exam.


(A) If he studied more.
(B) If he were studying to a greater degree.
(C) Studying more
(D) He had studied more.

11. Mr. Duncan does not know _______ the lawn mower after they had finished using it.
(A) When did they put.
(B) When they did put.
(C) Where they put.
(D) Where to put.

12. The facilities of the older hospital _______


(A) is as good of better than the new hospital.
(B) Are as good or better than the new hospital.
(C) Are as good as or better than the new hospital.
(D) Are as good as or better than those of the new hospital.

13. Our flight from Amsterdam to London was delayed _______.


(A) Write a composition on their.
(B) To write composition about the.
(C) wrote some composition of his or her.
(D) Had written any composition for his.

14. The teacher suggested that her students _______ experiences with ESP.
(A) Write a composition on their.

(B) To write composition about the.


(C) wrote some composition of his or her.
(D) Had written any composition for his.

15. Of the two new teachers, one is experienced and _______


(A) The others are not.
(B) Another is inexperienced.
(C) The other is not.
(D) Other lacks experience.

Kunci Jawaban Soal TOEFL (Structure 4)

1. B
2. B
3. A
4. C
5. C
6. D
7. A
8. D
9. A
10. D
11. C
12. D
13. A
14. A
15. C

Soal Tes TOEFL (Structure 5) dan Jawaban

Di bawah ini kami kembali menyediakan Soal Tes Toefl (Structure 5) dan Jawaban sebagai versi ke
dua yang bersumber dari buku TOEFL CLiff (Preparation Guide for the TOEFL Test). Sementara
pada postingan sebelumnya telah kami posting versi ke satu dari Soal-soal TOEFL dari Cliff yang
judulnya tidak jauh beda dengan postingan kali ini yaitu Soal Tes TOEFL (Structure 1) dan
Jawaban, Soal Tes TOEFL (Structure 2) dan Jawaban, Soal Tes TOEFL (Structure 3) dan
Jawaban dan Soal Tes TOEFL (Structure 4) dan Jawaban.
Soal TOEFL (Structure Test 5)

DIRECTIONS
Questions 1 15 are incomplete sentence. Beneath each sentence you will see four words of phrases,
marked (A), (B), (C), and (D). Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the sentence. Then
on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to the
letter of the answer you have chosen. Fill in the space so that the letter inside the oval cannot be seen.

1.

I understand that the governor is considering a new proposal ______________

a.

What would eliminate unnecessary writing in government

b.

Who wants to cut down on the amount of writing in government

c.

That would eliminate unnecessary paperwork in government

d.

To cause that the amount of papers written in government offices will be reduced

2.

The doctor told his receptionist that he would return ________________

a.

As early as it would be possible

b.

At the earliest that it could be possible

c.

As soon as possible

d.

At the nearest early possibility

3.

George belongs to the _____________________

a.

Class of the upper middle

b.

Upper middle class

c.

Class from the center up

d.

High medium class

4.

A good student must know ___________________________

a.

To study hard

b.

To be a good student

c.

How to student effectively

d.

The way of efficiency in study

5.

Jane changed her major from French to business,_________________

a.

With hopes to be able easier to locate employment

b.

Hoping she can easier get a job

c.

With the hope for being able to find better a job

d.

Hoping to find a job more easily

6.

He has received several scholarships _____________________

a.

Not only because of his artistic but his academic ability

b.

For both his academic ability as well as his artistic

c.

Because of his academic and artistic ability

d.

As resulting of his ability in the art and the academic

7.

Harvey will wash the clothes, ________________

a.

Iron the shirt, prepare the meal dusting the furniture

b.

Running the shirt preparing the meal, and dusting the furniture

c.

Iron the shirt, prepare the meal, and dusting the furniture

d.

To iron the shirt, prepare the meal, and dust the furniture

8.

_________________ that new information to anyone else but the sergeant.

a.

They asked him not to give

b.

They asked him to dont give

c.

They asked him no give

d.

They asked him to no give

9.

_________________ he would have signed his name in the corner.

a.

If he painted that picture

b.

If he paints that picture

c.

If he had painted that picture

d.

If he would have painted that picture

10. The doctor insisted that his patient ______________


a.

That he not work too hard for three months

b.

Take it easy for three months

c.

Taking it easy inside of the three months

d.

To take some vacations for three months

11. The manager was angry because somebody ______________


a.

Had allowed the photographers to enter the building

b.

Had let photographers to enter into the building

c.

Permitting the photographers enter the building

d.

The photographers let into the building without the proper documentations

12. Richard was asked to withdraw from graduate school because ____________
a.

They believed he was not really able to complete research

b.

He was deemed incapable of completing his research

c.

It was decided that he was not capable to complete the research

d.

His ability to finish the research was not believed or trusted

13. The committee members resented __________


a.

The president that he did not tell them about the meeting

b.

The president not to inform them of the meeting

c.

The presidents not informing them of the meeting

d.

That the president had failed informing themselves that there was going to be a meeting

14. _____________ did Arthur realize that there was danger.


a.

Upon entering the store

b.

When he entered the store

c.

After he had entered the store

d.

Only after entering the store

15. The rabbit scurried away in fright __________________


a.

When it heard the movement in the bushes

b.

The movement among the bushes having been heard

c.

After it was hearing moving inside of the bushes

d.

When he has heard that something moved in the bush

Kunci Jawaban Soal TOEFL (Structure 5)

1. C
2. C
3. B
4. C
5. D
6. C
7. C
8. A

9. C
10. B
11. A
12. B
13. C
14. D
15. A

Soal Tes TOEFL (Structure 6) dan Jawaban


Di bawah ini kami kembali menyediakan Soal Tes Toefl (Structure 6) dan Jawaban sebagai versi ke
dua yang bersumber dari buku TOEFL CLiff (Preparation Guide for the TOEFL Test). Sementara
pada postingan sebelumnya telah kami posting versi ke satu dari Soal-soal TOEFL dari Cliff yang
judulnya tidak jauh beda dengan postingan kali ini yaitu Soal Tes TOEFL (Structure 1) dan
Jawaban, Soal Tes TOEFL (Structure 2) dan Jawaban, Soal Tes TOEFL (Structure 3) dan
Jawaban, Soal Tes TOEFL (Structure 4) dan Jawaban dan Soal Tes TOEFL (Structure 5) dan
Jawaban.
Soal TOEFL (Structure Test 6)

DIRECTIONS
Questions 1 15 are incomplete sentence. Beneath each sentence you will see four words of phrases,
marked (A), (B), (C), and (D). Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the sentence. Then
on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to the
letter of the answer you have chosen. Fill in the space so that the letter inside the oval cannot be seen.

1. George did not do well in the class because _______________


A. he studied bad
B. he was not good studywise
C. he was a badly student
D. he failed to study properly

2. This university's programs __________________ those of Harvard.


A. come second after
B. are second only to
C. are first except for
D. are in second place from

3. The more she worked _____________________


A. the less she achieved
B. she achieved not enough
C. she did not achieve enough
D. she was achieving less

4. _____________ the best car to buy is a Mercedes Benz.


A. Because of its durability and economy,
B. Because it lasts a long time, a it is very economical.,
C. Because of its durability and it is economical,
D. Because durably and economywise it is better than all the others,

5. When Henry arrived home after a hard day at work, ______________


A. his wife was sleeping
B. his wife slept
C. his wife has slept
D. his wife has been sleeping

6. He gave ________________________
A. to the class s a tough assignment
B. the class a tough assignments
C. a tough assignment for the class
D. an assignment very tough to the class

7. People all over the world are starving __________________________


A. greater in numbers
B. in most numbers
C. more numerously
D. in greater numbers

8. It was not until she arrived in class__________ realized she had forgotten her book
A. when she
B. and she
C. that she
D. She

9. John has not been able to recall where ____________________


A. does she live
B. she lives
C. did she live
D. lived the girl

10. Ben would have studied medicine if he___________to a medical school.


A. could be able to enter
B. had been admitted
C. was admitted
D. were admitted

11. He entered a university_________________


A. when he had sixteen years
B. when sixteen years were his age
C. at the age of sixteen
D. at age sixteen years old

12. The jurors were told to _________________________


A. talk all they wanted
B. make lots of expressions
C. speak freely
D. talk with their minds open

13. Those students do not like to read novels_________test books.


A. in any case
B. forgetting about
C. leaving out of the question
D. much less

14. He____________looked forward to the new venture.

A. eagerly
B. with great eagernes
C. eagernessly
D. in a state of increasing eagerness

15. The families were told to evacuate their houses immediately _____.
A. at the time when the water began to go up to
B. when the water began to rise
C. when up was going the water
D. in the time when the water raised

Kunci Jawaban Soal TOEFL (Structure 6)

1. D
2. B
3. A
4. A
5. A
6. B
7. D
8. C
9. B
10. B
11. C
12. C
13. D
14. A
15. B

Questions 1-9

Carbon tetrachloride is a colorless and inflammable liquid that can be produced by combining carbon
disulfide and chlorine. This compound is widely used in industry today because of its effectiveness as
a solvent as well as its use in the production of propellants.

Despite its widespread use in industry, carbon tetrachloride has been banned for home use. In the past,
carbon tetrachloride was a common ingredient in cleaning compounds that were used throughout the
home, but it was found to be dangerous: when heated, it changes into a poisonous gas that can cause
severe illness and even death if it is inhaled. Because of this dangerous characteristic, the United
States revoked permission for the home use of carbon tetrachloride in 1970. The United States has
taken similar action with various other chemical compounds.

1. The main point of this passage is that


A. carbon tetrachloride can be very dangerous when it is heated
B. the government banned carbon tetrachloride in 1970
C. although carbon tetrachloride can legally be used in industry, it is not allowed in home products.
D. carbon tetrachloride used to be a regular part of cleaning compounds

2. The word widely in line 2 could most easily be replaced by


A. grandly

B. extensively
C. largely
D. hugely

3. The word banned in line 4 is closest in meaning to


A. forbidden
B. allowed
C. suggested
D. instituted

4. According to the passage, before 1970 carbon tetrachloride was


A. used by itself as a cleanser
B. banned in industrial use
C. often used as a component of cleaning products
D. not allowed in home cleaning products

5. It is stated in the passage that when carbon tetrachloride is heated, it becomes


A. harmful

B. colorless
C. a cleaning compound
D. inflammable

6. The word inhaled in line 7 is closest in meaning to


A. warmed
B. breathed in
C. carelessly used
D. blown

7. The word revoked in line 8 could most easily be replaced by


A. gave
B. granted
C. instituted
D. took away

8. It can be inferred from the passage that one role of the U.S. government is to
A. regulate product safety

B. prohibit any use of carbon tetrachloride


C. instruct industry on cleaning methodologies
D. ban the use of any chemicals

9. The paragraph following the passage most likely discusses


A. additional uses of carbon tetrachloride
B. the banning of various chemical compounds by the U.S. government
C. further dangerous effects of carbon tetrachloride
D. the major characteristic of carbon tetrachloride

Questions 10-19

The next artist in this survey of American artist is James Whistler; he is included in this survey of
American artist because he was born in the United States, although the majority of his artwork was
completed in Europe. Whistler was born in Massachusetts in 1834, but nine years later his father
moved the family to St. Petersburg, Russia, to work on the construction of a railroad. The family
returned to the United States in 1849. Two years later Whistler entered the U.S. military academy at
West Point, but he was unable to graduate. At the age of twenty-one Whistler went to Europe to study
art despite familial objections, and he remained in Europe until his death.

Whistler worked in various art forms, including etchings and lithographs. However, he is most famous
for his paintings, particularly Arrangement in Gray and Black No. 1: Portrait of the Artists Mother or
Whistlers Mother, as it is more commonly known. This painting shows a side view of Whistlers
mother, dressed I black and posing against a gray wall. The asymmetrical nature of the portrait, with
his mother seated off-center, is highly characteristic of Whistlers work.

10. The paragraph preceding this passage most likely discusses


A. A survey of eighteenth-century art
B. a different American artist
C. Whistlers other famous paintings
D. European artists

11. Which of the following best describes the information in the passage?
A. Several artists are presented
B. One artists life and works are described
C. Various paintings are contrasted
D. Whistlers family life is outlined.

12. Whistler is considered an American artist because


A. he was born in America

B. he spent most of his life in Americat


C. he served in the U.S. military
D. he created most of his famous art in America

13. The world majority in line 2 is closest in meaning to


A. seniority
B. maturity
C. large pices
D. high percentage

14. It is implied in the passage that Whistlers family was


A. unable to find any work at all in Rusia
B. highly supportive of his desire to pursue art
C. working class
D. military

15. The word objections in line 7 is closest in meaning to


A. protests

B. goals
C. agreements
D. battles

16. In line 8, the etchings are


A. a type of painting
B. the same as a lithograph
C. an art form introduced by Whistler
D. an art form involving engraving

17. The word asymmetrical in line 11 is closest in meaning to


A. proportionate
B. uneven
C. balanced
D. lyrical

18. Which of the following is NOT true according to the passsage?


A. Whistler work with a variety of art forms.

B. Whistlers Mother is not the official name of his painting.


C. Whistler is best known for his etchings.
D. Whistlers Mother is painted in somber tones.

19. where in the passage does the author mention the types of artwork that Whistler was involved in?
A. Lines 1-3
B. Lines 4-5
C. Lines 6-7
D. Lines 8-10

Questions 20-30

The locations of stars in the sky relative to one another do not appear to the naked eye to change, and
as a result stars are often considered to be fixed in position. Many unaware stargazers falsely assume
that each star has its own permanent home in the nighttime sky.

In reality, though, stars are always moving, but because of the tremendous distances between stars
themselves and from stars to Earth, the changes are barely perceptible here. An example of a rather
fast-moving star demonstrates why this misconception prevails; it takes approximately 200 years for a
relatively rapid star like Bernard's star to move a distance in the skies equal to the diameter of the

earth's moon. When the apparently negligible movement of the stars is contrasted with the movement
of the planets, the stars are seemingly unmoving.

20. Which of the following is the best title for this passage?
a. What the eye can see in the sky
b. Bernard's star
c. Planetary Movement
d. The Evermoving stars

21. The expression "naked eye" in line 1 most probably refers to


a. a telescope
b. a scientific method for observing stars
c. unassisted vision
d. a camera with a powerful lens

22. According to the passage, the distances between the stars and Earth are
a. barely perceptible
b. huge
c. fixed

d. moderate

23. The word "perceptible" in line 5 is closest in meaning to which of the following?
a. noticeable
b. persuasive
c. conceivable
d. astonishing

24. In line 6, a "misconception" is closest in meaning to a (n)


a. idea
b. proven fact
c. erroneous belief
d. theory

25. The passage states that in 200 years Bernard's star can move
a. around Earth's moon
b. next to the earth's moon
c. a distance equal to the distance from earth to the moon

d. a distance seemingly equal to the diameter of the moon

26. The passage implies that from earth it appears that the planets
a. are fixed in the sky
b. move more slowly than the stars
c. show approximately the same amount of movement as the stars
d. travel through the sky considerably more rapidly than the stars

27. The word "negligible" in line 8 could most easily be replaced by


a. negative
b. insignificant
c. rapid
d. distant

28. Which of the following is NOT true according to the passage?


a. starts do not appear to the eye to move.
b. the large distances between stars and the earth tend to magnify movement to the eye
c. Bernard's star moves quickly in comparison with other stars

d. although stars move, they seem to be fixed

29. The paragraph following the passage most probably discusses


a. the movement of the planets
b. Bernard's star
c. the distance from earth to the moon
d. why stars are always moving

30. This passage would most probably be assigned reading in which course?
a. astrology
b. geophysics
c. astronomy
d. geography

Questions 31-40

It has been noted that, traditionally, courts have granted divorces on fault grounds: one spouse is
deemed to be at fault in causing the divorce. More and more today, however, divorces are being
granted on a no-fault basis.

Proponents of no-fault divorces argue that when a marriage fails, it is rarely the case that one marriage
partner is completely to blame and the other blameless. A failed marriage is much more often the
result of mistakes by both partners.

Another argument in favor of no-fault divorce is that proving fault in court, in a public arena, is a
destructive process that only serves to lengthen the divorce process and that dramatically increases the
negative feelings present in a divorce. If a couple can reach a decision to divorce without first
deciding which partner is to blame, the divorce settlement can be negotiated more easily and equitably
and the postdivorce healing process can begin more rapidly.

31. What does the passage mainly discuss?


a. Traditional grounds for divorce
b. Who is at fault in a divorce
c. Why no-fault divorces are becoming more common
d. The various reasons for divorces

32. The word "spouse" in line 1 is closest in meaning to a


a. judge
b. problem
c. divorce decree
d. marriage partner

33. according to the passage, no-fault divorces


a. are on the increase
b. are the traditional form of divorce
c. are less popular that they used to be
d. were granted more in the past

34. It is implied in the passage that


a. there recently has been a decrease in no-fault divorces
b. not all divorces today are no-fault divorces
c. a no-fault divorce is not as equitable as a fault divorce
d. people recover more slowly from a no-fault divorce

35. The word "proponents" in line 4 is closest in meaning to which of the following?
a. Advocates
b. Recipients
c. Authorities
d. Enemies

36. The passage states that a public trial to prove the fault of one spouse can
a. be satisfying to the wronged spouse
b. lead to a shorter divorce process
c. reduce negative feelings
d. be a harmful process

37. Which of the following is NOT listed in this passage as an argument in favor of no-fault divorce?
a. Rarely is only one marriage partner to blame for a divorce
b. A no-fault divorce generally costs less in legal fees
c. Finding fault in a divorce increases negative feelings
d. A no-fault divorce settlement is generally easier to negotiate

38. The word "present" in line 9 could most easily be replaced by


a. existing
b. giving
c. introducing
d. resulting

39. The word "settlement" in line 10 is closest in meaning to


a. development
b. serenity
c. discussion
d. agreement

40. The tone of this passage is


a. emotional
b. enthusiastic
c. expository
d. reactionary

Questions 41-50

Whereas literature in the first half of the eighteenth century in America had been largely religious and
moral in tone, by the latter half of the century the revolutionary fervor that was coming to life in the
colonies began to be reflected in the literature of the time, which in turn served to further influence the
population. Although not all writers of this period supported the Revolution, the two best-known and
most influential writers, Ben Franklin and Thomas Paine, were both strongly supportive of that cause.

Ben Franklin first attained popular success through his writings in his brother's newspaper, the New
England Current. In these articles he used a simple style of language and common sense
argumentation to defend the point of view of the farmer and the Leather Apron man. He continued
with the same common sense practicality and appeal to the common man with his work on Poor
Richard's Almanac from 1733 until 1758. Firmly established in his popular acceptance by the people,
Franklin wrote a variety of extremely effective articles and pamphlets about the colonist's
revolutionary cause against England.

Thomas Paine was an Englishman working as a magazine editor in Philadelphia at the time of the
Revolution. His pamphlet Common Sense, which appeared in 1776, was a force in encouraging the
colonists to declare their independence from England. Then throughout the long and desperate war
years he published a series of Crisis papers (from 1776 until 1783) to encourage the colonists to
continue on with the struggle. The effectiveness of his writing was probably due to his emotional yet
oversimplified depiction of the cause of the colonists against England as a classic struggle of good
and evil.

41. The paragraph preceding this passage most likely discusses


a. how literature influence the population
b. religious and moral literature
c. literature supporting the cause of the American Revolution
d. what made Thomas Paine's literature successful

42. The word "fervor" in line 2 is closest in meaning to


a. war
b. anxiety
c. spirit
d. action

43. The word "time" in line 3 could best be replaced by


a. hour
b. period
c. appointment
d. duration

44. It is implied in the passage that


a. some writers in the American colonies supported England during the Revolution
b. Franklin and Paine were the only writers to influence the Revolution
c. because Thomas Paine was an Englishman, he supported England against the colonies
d. authors who supported England did not remain in the colonies during the Revolution

45. The pronoun "he" in line 8 refers to


a. Thomas Paine
b. Ben Franklin
c. Ben Franklin's brother
d. Poor Richard

46. The expression "point of view" in line 9 could best be replaced by


a. perspective
b. sight
c. circumstance
d. trait

47. According to the passage, the tone of Poor Richard's Almanac is


a. pragmatic
b. erudite
c. theoretical
d. scholarly

48. The word "desperate" in line 16 could best be replaced by


a. unending
b. hopeless
c. strategic
d. combative

49. Where in the passage does the author describe Thomas Paine's style of writing?
a. lines 4-6
b. lines 8-9
c. lines 14-15
d. lines 18-20

50. The purpose of the passage is to


a. discuss American literature in the first half of the eighteen century
b. give biographical data on two American writers
c. explain which authors supported the Revolution
d. describe the literary influence during revolutionary America

Kunci Jawaban
CBAC ABDA BBBA DCAD BCDD CBAC DDBB ACCD ABAD BADC BCBA BAAB DD
http://berita-english.blogspot.co.id/2014/01/soal-toefl-reading-dan-kunci-jawabanpre-testlongman.html

Beowulf
Historical Background
--> The epic poem Beowulf, written in Old English, is the earliest existing Germanic epic and one of
four surviving Anglo-Saxon manuscripts. Although Beowulf was written by an anonymous
Englishman in Old English, the tale takes place in that part of Scandinavia from which Germanic
tribes emigrated to England. Beowulf comes from Geatland, the southeastern part of what is now
Sweden. Hrothgar, king of the Danes, lives near what is now Leire, on Zealand, Denmarks largest
island. The Beowulf epic contains three major tales about Beowulf and several minor tales that reflect
a rich Germanic oral tradition of myths, legends, and folklore.
--> The Beowulf warriors have a foot in both the Bronze and Iron Ages. Their mead-halls reflect the
wealthy living of the Bronze Age Northmen, and their wooden shields, wood-shafted spears, and
bronze-hilted swords are those of the Bronze Age warrior. However, they carry iron-tipped spears, and
their best swords have iron or iron-edged blades. Beowulf also orders an iron shield for his fight with
a dragon. Iron replaced bronze because it produced a blade with a cutting edge that was stronger and
sharper. The Northmen learned how to forge iron in about 500 B.C. Although they had been superior

to the European Celts in bronze work, it was the Celts who taught them how to make and design iron
work. Iron was accessible everywhere in Scandinavia, usually in the form of bog-iron found in the
layers of peat in peat bogs.
The Beowulf epic also reveals interesting aspects of the lives of the Anglo-Saxons who lived in
England at the time of the anonymous Beowulf poet. The Germanic tribes, including the Angles, the
Saxons, and the Jutes, invaded England from about A.D. 450 to 600. By the time of the Beowulf poet,
Anglo-Saxon in English was neither primitive nor uncultured. [A]
--> Although the Beowulf manuscript was written in about A.D. 1000, it was not discovered until the
seventeenth century. [B] Scholars do not know whether Beowulf is the sole surviving epic from a
flourishing Anglo-Saxon literary period that produced other great epics or whether it was unique even
in its own time. [C] Many scholars think that the epic was probably written sometime between the late
seventh century and the early ninth century. If they are correct, the original manuscript was probably
lost during the ninth-century Viking invasions of Anglia, in which the Danes destroyed the AngloSaxon monasteries and their great libraries. However, other scholars think that the poets favorable
attitude toward the Danes must place the epics composition after the Viking invasions and at the start
of the eleventh century, when this Beowulf manuscript was written.
--> The identity of the Beowulf poet is also uncertain. [D] He apparently was a Christian who loved
the pagan heroic tradition of his ancestors and blended the values of the pagan hero with the Christian
values of his own country and time. Because he wrote in the Anglian dialect, he probably was either a
monk in a monastery or a poet in an Anglo-Saxon court located north of the Thames River.
Appeal and Value
Beowulf interests contemporary readers for many reasons. First, it is an outstanding adventure
story. Grendel, Grendels mother, and the dragon are marvelous characters, and each fight is unique,
action-packed, and exciting. Second, Beowulf is a very appealing hero. He is the perfect warrior,
combining extraordinary strength, skill, courage, and loyalty. Like Hercules, he devotes his life to
making the world a safer place. He chooses to risk death in order to help other people, and he faces
his inevitable death with heroism and dignity. Third, the Beowulf poet is interested in the
psychological aspects of human behavior. For example, the Danish heros welcoming speech
illustrates his jealousy of Beowulf. The behavior of Beowulfs warriors in the dragon fight reveals
their cowardice. Beowulfs attitudes toward heroism reflect his maturity and experience, while King
Hrothgars attitudes toward life show the experiences of an aged nobleman.

Finally, the Beowulf poet exhibits a mature appreciation of the transitory nature of human life
and achievement. In Beowulf, as in the major epics of other cultures, the hero must create a
meaningful life in a world that is often dangerous and uncaring. He must accept the inevitability of
death. He chooses to reject despair; instead, he takes pride in himself and in his accomplishments, and
he values human relationships.
1. According to paragraph 1, which of the following is true about Beowulf?
A. It is the only manuscript from the Anglo-Saxon period.
B. The original story was written in a Germanic dialect.
C. The author did not sign his name to the poem.
D. It is one of the several epics from the first century.
2. The word which in the passage refers to
A. Tale
B. Scandinavia
C. Manuscripts
D. Old English
3. Why does the author mention bog-iron in paragraph 2?
A. To demonstrate the availability of iron in Scandinavia
B. To prove that iron was better than Bronze for weapons
C. To argue that the Celts provided the materials to make iron
D. To suggest that 500 B.C. was the date that the Iron Age began
4. Which of the sentences below best expresses the information in the underlined statement in the
paragraph 3? The other choices change the meaning or leave out important information.
A. Society in Anglo-Saxon England was both advanced and cultured.
B. The society of the Anglo-Saxons was not primitive or cultured.
C. The Anglo-Saxons had a society that was primitive, not cultured.
D. England during the Anglo-Saxon society was advanced, not cultured.
5. The word unique in the passage is closet is meaning to :
A. Old
B. Rare
C Perfect
D. weak

6. According to paragraph 4, why do many scholars believe that the original manuscript for Beowulf
was lost?
A. Because it is not like other manuscripts
B. Because many libraries were burned
C. Because the Danes were allies of the Anglo-Saxons.
D. Because no copies were found in monastaries
7. According to paragraph 4, why do many scholars believe that the original manuscript for Beowulf
was lost?
A Because it is not like other manuscripts
B. Because many libraries were burned
C. Because the Danes were allies of the Anglo-Saxons
D. Because no copies were found in monasteries
8. Why does the author of this passage use the word apparently in paragraph 4?
A. He is not certain that the author of Beowulf was a Christian.
B. He is mentioning facts that are obvious to the readers.
C. He is giving an example from a historical reference.
D. He is introducing evidence about the author of Beowulf.
9. The author compared the Beowulf character to Hercules because
A. They are both examples of the ideal hero
B. Their adventure with a dragon are very similar
C. The speeches that they make are inspiring
D. They lived at about the same time
10. The word exhibits in the passage is closest in meaning to
A. Creates
B. Demonstrates
C. Assumes
D. Terminates
11. The word reject in the passage is closest in meaning to
A. Manage
B. Evaluate
C. Refuse
D. Confront

12. Look at the four squares [ ] that show where the following sentence could be inserted in
the passage.
Moreover, they disagree as to whether this Beowulf is a copy of an earlier manuscript.
Where could the sentence be added?
Click on a square [ ] to insert the sentence in the passage.
13. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below.
Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas
in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that
are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
Beowulf is the oldest Anglo-Saxon epic poem that has survived to the present day.

Answer Key with Explanation for the TOEFL iBT Reading (Beowulf)
(A) The Northmen were adept in crafting tools and weapons made of bronze, but the Celts were
superior in designing and working in iron.
(B) In the Viking invasions of England, the Danish armies destroyed monasteries, some of which
contained extensive libraries.
(C) King Hrothgar and Beowulf become friends at the end of their lives, after having spent decades
opposing each other on the battlefield.
(D) The poem chronicles life in Anglo-Saxon society during the Bronze and Iron Ages when
Germanic tribes were invading England.
(E) Although Beowulf was written by an anonymous poet, probably a Christian, about 1000 A.D., it
was not found until the seventeenth century.
(F) Beowulf is still interesting because it has engaging characters, an adventurous plot, and an
appreciation for human behavior and relationships.
1. C Beowulf was written by an anonymous [author unknown] Englishman in Old English." Choice A
is not correct because it is one of lour surviving manuscripts. Choice B is not correct because it was
written in old English about Germanic characters. Choice 0 Is not correct because scholars do not
know it it is the sole surviving epic: from about A.O. 1000.

2. B ''Although Beowulf was written by an anonymous Englishman in Old English, the tale takes
place in that part of Scandinavia from which [that part of Scandinavia] Germanic tribes emigrated to
England."
3. A "Iron was accessible everywhere in Scandinavia, usually in the form of 'bog iron' found in the
layers of peat In peat bogs.' Choice B Is not correct because the author had already stated that the best
swords had iron or Iron-edged blades. Choice C Is not correct because the Celts taught the Northmen
how to use the materials, but they did not provide the bog iron. Choice D is not correct because the
bog iron does not relate to the date. although 500 B.C. is mentioned as the time when the Northmen
learned how to forge Iron.
4. A Society in Anglo-Saxon England paraphrases 'Anglo-Saxon society.' . .. both advanced
paraphrases '"neither primitive,' and cultured paraphrases"nor "nor uncultured." Two negatives [Nor
and -un] produce an affirmative meaning.
5. B In this passage, rare is a synonym for 'unique.' Context comes from the reference 10 the "sole
surviving epic" in the beginning of the same sentence.
6. B ' . .. the original manuscript was probably lost during the ninth century .. . , in which the Danes
destroyed the Anglo-Saxon monasteries and their great libraries.' Choice A is true but it Is not the
reason that scholars believe the original manuscript was lost. Choice C is not correct because the
Danes were Invaders. not poets. Choice D is not correct because the location of the discovery is not
mentioned, although the author may have been a monk.
7. D Although the Beowulf manuscript was written In about A.D. 1000, it was not discovered until the
seventeenth century.' Choice A is not correct because the first century was the data the manuscript as
written. not discovered. Choice B Is not correct because the ninth century was the date when the
original manuscript may have been lost. Choice C is not correct because some scholars think that the
manuscript was written in the eleventh century.
8. A Because the word "apparently" means "appearing to be so,' the author is expressing doubt about
the information that follows, ' . .. [the BeowuIf poet] was a Christian.' Choice B is not correct because
the word "obviously" would be used. Choice C is not correct because the phrases "for example" or for
Instance' would Signal an example. Choice D Is not correct because evidence would not be presented
as "appearing to be so.'

9. A ' ... Beowulf is a very appealing hero . . . Like Hercules.' Choice B is not correct because a light
with a dragon is mentioned in reference to Beowulf but not to Hercules. Choice C Is not correct
because the Danish hero's welcome is the only reference to a speech, and It was jealous, not Inspiring.
Choice D is not correct because the lime period for the of Hercules is not mentioned.
10. B In this passage, demonstrates is a synonym for "exhibits.'
11 . C In this passage, refuse Is a synonym for 'reject: Context comes from the contrast with "accept"
in the previous sentence.
12. B Addition Is a transitional device that connects the Insert sentence with the previous sentence.
Moreover signals that additional, related Information will follow. " ... they (scholars) disagree" refers
to "Scholars do not know" In the previous sentence.
13. E, D, F summarize the passage. Choice A Is true, but it Is a minor point that establishes the time
period for the poem and refers to major point D. Choice B is true, but it is a detail that refers to major
point E and explains why there may be only one manuscript. Choice C is not clear from the
Information In the passage.

Thermoregulation
--> Thermoregulation Mammals and birds generally maintain body temperature within a narrow
range (36-38C for most mammals and 39-42C for most birds) that is usually considerably warmer
than the environment. Because heat always flows from a warm object to cooler surroundings, birds
and mammals must counteract the constant heat loss. This maintenance of warm body temperature
depends on several key adaptations. The most basic mechanism is the high metabolic rate of
endothermy itself. Endotherms can produce large amounts of metabolic heat that replace the flow of
heat to the environment, and they can vary heat production to match changing rates of heat loss. Heat
production is increased by such muscle activity as moving or shivering. In some mammals, certain
hormones can cause mitochondria to increase their metabolic activity and produce heat instead of
ATP. This nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) takes place throughout the body, but some rnammals
also have a tissue called brown fat in the neck and between the shoulders that is specialized for rapid
heat production. Through shivering and NST, mammals and birds in cold environments can increase
their metabolic heat production by as much as 5 to 10 times above the minimal levels that occur in
warm conditions.

--> Another major thermoregulatory adaptation that evolved in mammals and birds is insulation (hair,
feathers, and fat layers), which reduces the flow of heat and lowers the energy cost of keeping warm.
Most land mammals and birds react to cold by raising their fur or feathers, thereby trapping a thicker
layer of air. (A) Humans rely more on a layer of fat just beneath the skin as insulation; goose bumps
are a vestige of hair-raising left over from our furry ancestors. (B) Vasodilation and vasoconstriction
also regulate heat exchange and may contribute to regional temperature differences within the animal.
(C) For example, heat loss from a human is reduced when arms and legs cool to several degrees
below the temperature of the body core, where most vital organs are located. (D)
--> Hair loses most of its insulating power when wet. Marine mammals such as whales and seals have
a very thick layer of insulation fat called blubber, just under the skin. Marine mammals swim in water
colder than their body core temperature, and many species spend at least part of the year in nearly
freezing polar seas. The loss of heat to water occurs 50 to 100 times more rapidly than heat loss to air,
and the skin temperature of a marine mammal is close to water temperature. Even so, the blubber
insulation is so effective that marine mammals maintain body core temperatures of about 36-38C
with metabolic rates about the same as those of land mammals of similar size. The flippers or tail of a
whale or seal lack insulating blubber, but countercurrent heat exchangers greatly reduce heat loss in
these extremities, as they do in the legs of many birds.
--> Through metabolic heat production, insulation, and vascular adjustments, birds and mammals are
capable of astonishing feats of thermoregulation. For example, small birds called chickadees, which
weigh only 20 grams, can remain active and hold body temperature nearly constant at 40C in
environmental temperatures as low as -40Cas long as they have enough food to supply the large
amount of energy necessary for heat production.
Many mammals and birds live in places where thermoregulation requires cooling off as well as
warming. For example, when a marine mammal moves into warm seas, as many whales do when they
reproduce, excess metabolic heat is removed by vasodilation of numerous blood vessels in the outer
layer of the skin. In hot climates or when vigorous exercise adds large amounts of metabolic heat to
the body, many terrestrial mammals and birds may allow body temperature to rise by several degrees,
which enhances heat loss by increasing the temperature gradient between the body and a warm
environment.
--> Evaporative cooling often plays a key role in dissipating the body heat. If environmental
temperature is above body temperature, animals gain heat from the environment as well as from
metabolism, and evaporation is the only way to keep body temperature from rising rapidly. Panting is

important in birds and many mammals. Some birds have a pouch richly supplied with blood vessels in
the floor of the mouth; fluttering the pouch increases evaporation. Pigeons can use evaporative
cooling to keep body temperature close to 40C in air temperatures as high as 60C, as long as they
have sufficient water. Many terrestrial mammals have sweat glands controlled by the nervous system.
Other mechanisms that promote evaporative cooling include spreading saliva on body surfaces, an
adaptation of some kangaroos and rodents for combating severe heat stress. Some bats use both saliva
and urine to enhance evaporative cooling.
Glossary
ATP: energy that drives certain reactions in celss
mitochondria: a membrane of ATP
1. According to paragraph 1, the most fundamental adaptation to maintain body temperature is
(A) the heat generated by the metabolism
(B) a shivering reflex in the muscles
(C) migration to a warmer environment
(D) higher caloric intake to match heat loss
Paragraph 1 is marked with an arrow [-->]
2. Based on information in paragraph 1, which of the following best explains the term " thermogenesis
"?
(A) Heat loss that must be reversed
(B) The adaptation of brown fat tissue in the neck
(C) The maintenance of healthy environmental conditions
(D) Conditions that affect the metabolism
Paragraph 1 is marked with an arrow [-->]
3. Which of the sentences below best expresses the information in the highlighted statement in the
passage? The other choices change the meaning or leave out important information.
(A) An increase in heat production causes muscle activity such as moving or shivering.
(B) Muscle activity like moving and shivering will increase heat production.
(C) Moving and shivering are muscle activities that increase with heat.
(D) When heat increases, the production of muscle activity also increases

4. The word minimal in the passage is closest in meaning to


(A) most recent
(B) most active
(C) newest
(D) smallest
5. In paragraph 2, the author explains the concept of vasodilation and vasoconstriction by
(A) describing the evolution in our ancestors
(B) giving an example of heat loss in the extremities
(c) comparing the process in humans and animals
(D) identifying various types of insulation
Paragraph 2 is marked with an arrow [-->]
6. The word regulate in the passage is closest in meaning to
(A) protect
(B) create
(C) reduce
(D) control
7. According to paragraph 3, why do many marine animals require a layer of blubber?
(A) Because marine animals have lost their hair during evolution
(B) Because heat is lost in water twice as fast as it is in air
(C) Because dry hair does not insulate marine animals
(D) Because they are so large that they require more insulation
8. Paragraph 3 is marked with an arrow [-->]
9. The word those in the passage refers to
(A) marine animals
(B) core temperatures
(C) land mammals
(D) metabolic rates
10. Why does the author mention chickadees in paragraph 4?
(A) To discuss an animal that regulates heat very well
(B) To demonstrate why chickadees have to eat so much

(C) To mention an exception to the rules of thermoregulation


(D) To give a reason for heat production in small animals
Paragraph 4 is marked with an arrow [-->]
11. In paragraph 6, the author states that evaporative cooling is often accomplished by all of the
following methods EXCEPT
(A) by spreading saliva over the area
(C) by panting or fluttering a pouch
(D) by immersing themselves in water
Paragraph 6 is marked with an arrow [-->]
12. The word enhance in the passage is closest in meaning to
(A) simplify
(B) improve
(C) replace
(D) interrupt
Look at the four squares [] that show where the following sentence could be inserted in the passage.
The insulating power of a layer of fur or feathers mainly depends on how much still air the layer
traps.
Where could the sentence best be added?
Click on a square [] to insert the sentence in the passage
13. Directions: An introduction for a short summary of the passage appears below. Complete the
summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that mention the most important points in the
passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not
included in the passage or are minor points from the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
Thermoregulation is the process by which animals control body temperatures within healthy limits.

Answer Choices
(A) Although hair can be a very efficient insulation when it is dry and it can be raised, hair becomes
ineffective
(B) Some animals with few adaptations for thermoregulation migrate to moderate climates to avoid
the extreme weather in the polar regions and the tropics.
(C) Mammals and birds use insulation to mitigate heat loss, including hair and feathers that can be
raised to trap air as well as fat or blubber underthe skin.
(D) Sorne birds have a special pouch in the mouth, which can be fluttered to increase evaporation and
decrease their body temperatures by as much as 20C.
(E) Endotherms generate heat by increasing muscle activity, by releasing hormones into their blood
streams, or by producing heat in brown fat tissues.
(F) Panting, sweating, and spreading saliva or urine on their bodies are all options for the evaporative
cooling of animals in hot environmental conditions
Answer Key with Explanation for the TOEFL iBT Reading (Thermoregulation)
1.

"The most basic mechanism [for maintenance of warm body temperature) is the high metabolic rate.
Choice B, C, and D are all ways to maintain body temperature, but they are not the most fundamental
adaptation.

IS.

2.

0
D

"In some mammals. certain hormones can cause mitochondria 10 Increase their metabolic activity and
produce heal Instead of ATP. This nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) ... ." Choice A Is not correct
because thermogenesis is the activity that generates heat, not the heat loss. Choice B Is not correct
because brown fat is one example of a more generalized process. Choice C is not correct because
thermogenesis is a response to the environment to maintain the health of the animal, not a process that
maintains

the

environmetn.

3.
B A passive grammatical structure In the passage Is paraphrased by an active grammatical structure In
the
4.

answer

choice.
D

In

this

passage, smallest is

synonym

for

"minimal."

5.

"For example, heat loss from a human is reduced when arms and legs cool." Choice A is not correct
because goose bumps, not heat loss in the extremities, is a vestige of our evolution. Choice C is not
correct because no direct comparisons of these processes are made in the paragraph. Choice D is not
correct because the types of Insulation are mentioned before the concept of vasodilatation and
vasoconstriction

are

introduced.

6.

In this passage, control is a synonym for "regulate." Context comes from the reference to
"temperature

differences"

at

the

end

of

the

same

sentence.

7.
B "The loss of heat to water occurs 50 to 100 times more rapidly than heat loss to air." Choice A Is not
correct because hair loses Insulating power when wet. but the evolution of marine animals Is not
mentioned. Choice C is not correct because dry hair Insulates better than wet hair. Choice D Is not
correct

because

there

are

land

animals

that

are

of

similar

size.

8.

" ... marine mammals maintain body core temperatures of abot 36-38 C with metabolic rates about
the

same

as

those

[metabolic

rates]

of

land

mammals

of

similar

size."

9.

" . .. capable of astonishing feats of thermoregulation. For example, small birds called chickadees . . .
hold body temperature nearly constant" Choice B Is not correct because the food supply
supports thermoregulation which Is the main point of the example. Choice C is not correct because
chickadees are capable of astonishing feats of thermoregulation. Choice D Is not Correct because the
reason for heat production In animals Is explained before the example of the chickadee.
10.D
Choice A is mentioned in paragraph 6, sentence 7. Choice B is mentioned in paragraph 6, sentence 8.
Choice

Is

mentioned

In

paragraph

6,

11.

sentences

and

4.
B

In this passage, improve Is a synonym for "enhance: Context comes from the reference to "promote"
In

the

previous

sentence.

12.

Reference is a transitional device that connects the insert sentence with the previous sentence. " ." ... a
layer of fur or leathers" and "how much still air the layer [of fur or feathers] traps" in the insert
sentence refers to" . .. fur or feathers" and "a thicker layer of air" in the previous sentence.
13. E, C, F summarize the passage. Choice A is a minor point that supports major point C. Choice B is
true but it is not mentioned in the passage. Choice D is a minor point that supports major point F. -

1 inch / inchi / inc / inci = sama dengan = 25,4 mm = 2,54 cm

1 feet / ft / kaki = sama dengan = 12 inch = 0,3048 m = 30,48 cm

1 yard = sama dengan = 3 feet = 0,9144 m = 91,44 cm

1 mile / mil = sama dengan = 5.280 feet = 1,6093 km

1 mil laut = sama dengan = 6.080 feet = 1,852 km


1. 1 mikron = 0,000001 m

2. 1 elo lama = 0,687 m


3. 1 pal jawa = 1.506,943 m
4. 1 pal sumatera = 1.851,85 m
5. 1 acre = 4.840 yards2
6. 1 cicero = 12 punt
7. 1 cicero = 4,8108 mm
8. 1 hektar = 2,471 acres
9. 1 inchi = 2,54 cm
Untuk skala yang lebih besar, digunakan satuan yang lebih besar, misalnya:

satuan astronomi unit (AU), 1 AU = 1,49 x 1011 meter

satuan tahun cahaya, 1 tahun cahaya = 9,46 x 1015 meter