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A Study for HVDC Transmission Technology to

Connect Power System of North-east Asia


Koo-yong Shin*, Young-hong Kim, Hee-won Noh, Dong-il Lee

Authors / Affiliations
- Corresponding Author: Koo-yong Shin
- Co-authors: Young-hong Kim, Hee-won Noh, Dong-il Lee
Contact details
- Koo-yong Shin(Chief of Engineering Specialist)
Address: Munji-Ro 105, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon, Korea
Affiliations: Power System Lab. Of KEPCO Research Institute
Tel: +82-42-865-5853 / FAX: +82-42-865-5809
Cell Phone: +82-10-5679-2001
E-mail: kyshin@kepco.co.kr
- Young-hong Kim (Researcher)
Address: Munji-Ro 105, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon, Korea
Affiliations: Power System Lab. Of KEPCO Research Institute
Tel: +82-42-865-5857 / FAX: +82-42-865-5809
Cell Phone: +82-10-8949-3814
E-mail: yhkimi79@kepco.co.kr
- Hee-won Noh (Researcher)
Address: Munji-Ro 105, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon, Korea
Affiliations: Power System Lab. Of KEPCO Research Institute
Tel: +82-42-865-5856 / FAX: +82-42-865-5809
Cell Phone: +82-10-5360-3748
E-mail: noheewon@kepco.co.kr
- Dong-il Lee (Vice president)
Address: Munji-Ro 105, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon, Korea
Affiliations: Power System Lab. Of KEPCO Research Institute
Tel: +82-42-865-5857 / FAX: +82-42-865-5809
Cell Phone: +82-11-9509-5883
E-mail: leedi@kepco.co.kr

Executive Summary
Recently, demand of electric power has exceeded supply because of change of various conditions
related to electric power industry such as rise of generation cost, increase of demand caused by the
industrial development and abnormal temperature event. In Korea, daytime peak loads of summer,
winter has been occurring from some years ago.
Many countries has solved the lack of electric power by construction of nuclear power plant.
However, there are plans to reduce or discard nuclear power plants scheduled or in operation since
Fukushima nuclear accident was happened. And lack of electric energy will be deepened continuously
without proper solution. To solve these, development of renewable energy such as wind, solar,
geothermal powers, a raise and diversifying of the electric power fee to control the demand and
electric power dealing between countries by power system connection were suggested.
In this paper, an application power system connection between countries to Korea was studied
because it is possible to solve peak load problem generated on the specific time or season and offer
efficiency use or sale of surplus electric power. The route from South Korea to Russia via North
Korea was estimated and selected considering distinct that Korea is divided countries. HVDC
transmission technology, 500kV voltage and 2 bi-pole were suggested to transfer electric power about
5% of electric power demand limited by energy security. 22m distance between poles and 18m height
of overhead line were applied to the test line in KEPCO PT Center and tested on the site. The test of
electric environment was conducted during about 1 year. The result has showed that measurement
values satisfied the standard suggested by preceded research [1]. Through interrelation between
interferences and weather conditions, HVDC transmission line will be optimized to geographical and
climate conditions by analysis measured data.

Keyword: HVDC, North-East Asia, Electric Environment

Main Text
1. Introduction
The development of industrial civilization has come an exhaustion of natural resources and increase
of energy demand. And many transmission towers, substations and plants for electric power
generation and transmission have been constructed during the past century. Almost kinds of plant are
thermal plant using coal, oil and gas, hydroelectric power plant generated by height different of water
and nuclear power plant energized by atomic fission. In 2011, Fukushima nuclear accident was
happened by earth quake and wakened the world to dangerousness of nuclear power plant. Germany,
Swiss and Italy will phase out the nuclear and grow renewable energy such as wind and solar. Europe
has plans connecting power systems between members and constructing solar power and sunlight
generation plants to in the desert of Africa.
In Asia, several countries try to increase efficiency of power system and power plant. Japan make
an effort to import inexpensively energy such as gas and electric power by connection to Russia
through by gas pipe line and transmission line. The president of Softbank suggested the Supergrid
connecting power system between North and South Korea, China, Japan and Russia to exchange
electric power and economically manage the energy. China has plan to export and exchange electric
power by construction of large scale wind farm in the Gobi desert and Mongolia. In case of Korea,
there were discussions related to import natural gas from Russia through by North Korea. These
policies and plans show that more efficient energy management is needed by power system
connection between countries.
In this paper, routes through North Korea area of transmission line considering power system
connection to Russia which has the lowest price of electric power and transmission type were
investigated and the development results of 500kv HVDC transmission technology.
2. Review of Transmission Capacity and Voltage
HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) transmission technology is suitable to the power system
connection because the Power frequency is different of South/North Korea and Russia and
transmission distance is long. The technology has low transmission loss and is able to connect
between other frequency power systems.
Transmission power capacity was set 4~5GW below 5% of power demand for energy security. DC
500kV equal voltage level to AC 765kV highest in Korea power system was applied to the line to
minimize the loss. When a conductor allowable current about 1kA is apply, power capacity of 6
bundles consisted by 480SQ or 520SQ overhead conductor is 5~6GW. Considering a half of
maximum capacity is transmitted in normal operation, 2 bi-pole was selected.
3. Selection of Transmission Line Route
The optimal route of transmission line is decided by various investigations such as restrictions, life
environment, natural environment and so on. However, there are many limits such as political,
economical and security characteristics because almost of the route of Korea-Russia passes North
Korea. And the investigations about natural environment, climate condition, economic feasibility and
so on were given more weight. Three routes for Korea-Russia transmission line was suggested as
shown in figure 1. The 1st route is from Kaesong to Hamheung via Wonsan near the East Sea. 2nd route
is similar to 1st route except via Pyongyang. 3rd Route is from Hoengseong to Wonsan via East Sea.
Table 1. Suggested Routes of Korea-Russia Transmission line
Area
Russia

1st Route

2nd Route

3rd Route

Vladivostok Artem Khasan

Hamgyeongbuk-do Najin Chongjin Hoemul Myoungchun Kilchu Kimchaek


Hamgyeongnam-do
North
Korea

Tanchon Pukchong Hongwon Hamheung Kowon

Kangwon-do

WonsanSepo Ichon

YangdokHuchang

WonsanTongchonKo
song

Hwanghaebuk-do

IchonHanporiPyongs
an

PyongyangSariwon

South
Korea

Kaesong-si

BakcheonKaesong

PyongsanKaesong

Sindeokeun

KaesongMunsan

KaesongMunsan

Pocheon

KosongYangyang~Inje
Hoengseong

1,009

1,070

1,030

Sinpocheon
Kangwon
Switching station
T/L Length

Also, the routes were considered to be parallel with Trans-Korea Railway that crosses the South
and North Korea and connects to Central Asia and Europe. The optimal route was selected by satellite
map and topographic map (1:50,000) to avoid high mountainous area and be close to an area
developed railroad, port and road. Overhead transmission line was considered to be less than 1,000m
and parallel to 220kV transmission line in operation near the coastline of the East Sea.
The overview of three routes is shown in table 1. There are many mountains and mountain chains
higher than 2,000m with Baekdu mountain as the center. The annual wind velocity is 2~3m/s. The
annual rainfall in Jangjeon area is the heaviest and snowfall is expected to be more than South Korea
because of northern regional characteristic. The route connected to Russia via Wonsan and Hamheung
was designed to be close the East Sea with separation distance more than 5km. Geographical and
natural environmental characteristics is summarized as shown in table 2.
Table 2. The main route overview of transmission line
Overview of the route
Route
Russia

Geographical
environment
Artem
Khasan
Najin

Urban area
Altitude 200~300m
Industrial area
Altitude 500~600m

Hamgye
Industrial area
ongbuk- Chongjin
Altitude 200~400m
do
Urban area
Kimchaek
Altitude 150~400m
Urban and
Tanchon
Industrial area
North Hamgye
Urban area
Korea ongnam- Hamheung
Altitude 150~400m
do
Urban area
Kowon
Altitude 250~350m
Altitude above
Tongchon
1,000m
Kangwo
Kosong
ViaMt. Baekdu
n-do
Altitude above
Sepo
1,000m

Around Obstacle
Airport/Crossing Tumen river
Contamination(Clean area)
Transmission line in operation
Contamination(Clean area)
Transmission line in operation /Crossing
Nampuk river
Contamination(Clean area)
Shoreline
Contamination(A area)
Shoreline/Crossing Namhae river
Contamination(A area)

Distance
from coast
5km~10km
5km~10km
Within
10km
Within 5km
Within 5km

Transmission line in operation

Above 5km

Crossing Dukji river and Salyeoul river

Above 5km

Railroad via northern East Sea


Via Mt. Geumgang
Crossing the ceasefire line
Via military zone
Crossing the ceasefire line
Via military zone

Above 5km
Within 5km
Central
inland

Figure 1 shows longitudinal sections of suggested routes. Altitudes of 1st route are less than 1,000m.
In 2nd route, Aobiryeong area is located above 1,000m. 3rd route passes mountain chain higher than
1,000m started from Mt. Baekdu. Almost areas from Russia to Hamheung are lower than 700m and a
route passing the coast to inland is rugged. Considering insulation coordination of transmission tower,
1st route located below 1,000m is suitable.

(a) 1st route

(b) 2nd route

(c) 3rd route


Figure 1. Longitudinal sections of suggested routes

Figure 2. Selected Route

4. Insulation Coordination
For the design of 500kV HVDC transmission tower, insulation coordination was conducted with
follow two rules.
a. Flashover is not generated by internal abnormal voltage of power system such as switching
voltage.
b. Reliability has to be kept from external abnormal voltage such as lightning.
Withstand voltage characteristics and number of calculated insulators in contamination area are
shown in table 3 and 4.
Table 3. Withstand voltage characteristics of contamination area
Contamination area
Degree of pollution
Clean Area
Line type
A
B
C
D
ESDD [mg/cm2]
Less than 0.03 0.063 0.125 0.25
0.5
Power line DC insulator (300kN) Anti-fog type
20.3
16.1 13.0 10.4
8.4
Neutral line AC insulator (300kN) Normal type
15.0
12.6 11.0
9.6
8.4
Table 4. Calculated Number of Insulator
Contamination area
Line type
A
B
C
D
2
ESDD [mg/cm ]
Less than 0.03 0.063 0.125 0.25
0.5
Power line DC insulator (300kN) Anti-fog type
30
37
46
57
71
Neutral line AC insulator (300kN) Normal type
5
6
7
8
9
Degree of pollution

Clean Area

The route of North Korea is contamination area A and 37 insulators and 7 are each applied to
power and neutral line. Gaps between arcing horns are 6,070mm for power line and 1,010mm for
neutral line when efficiency of arching horn is 75%. According to these results the air clearances of
swing angles are shown in table 5. Length of arm is 9.318m from tower body. In case of 1 bi-pole
transmission line, considering tower width and length of arm, the distance from center of T/L to end
of an arm is about 11m and distance between two poles is 22m.
Table 5. Air clearance with swing angle
Swing angle
Case of clearance
Line Type Insulator type
[degree]
15
Standard insulation distance
Suspension
20
Minimum insulation distance
60
Abnormal insulation distance
Power
line
5
Standard insulation distance
Supporting
15
Minimum insulation distance
/jumper
40
Abnormal insulation distance
Suspension
Neutral
line

Supporting/
Jumper

15
20
60
5
15
40

Standard insulation distance


Minimum insulation distance
Abnormal insulation distance
Standard insulation distance
Minimum insulation distance
Abnormal insulation distance

Insulation distance
[mm]
6,070
2,890
1,300
6,070
2,890
1,300
1,010
260
220
1,010
260
220

Figure 3. Clearance of HVDC tower (Suspension type)


5. Electric Environmental Characteristics
The ground clearance determining height of tower is calculated by electric environmental standard.
Especially, it is close to civil complaints and has to be induced by field evaluation with various
conditions. In this study, ground clearance of test line was set 18m by preceded research results such
as interferences of various height of line [1]. Distance between poles was decided 22m by length of
arm. And 480SQ ACSR conductor was installed to the test line because smaller conductor has higher
electric field intensity of conductor surface.
5.1 Test Line
In this study, the worlds first commercial steel-tower-type test line that is adjustable to variable
pole locations was constructed the DC transmission demonstration test site in the Gochang Power
Testing Center in Korea, where the major performance levels of DC overhead transmission lines can
be investigated, considering the effective aspect of the operation of the test line. That is, the test
transmission line was composed to be used not only in electrical environment assessments but also in
the development of transmission line construction technologies and transmission line hardware by
attaching the line variable device on the test line of a commercial line type.
The target operating voltage of the test line was set at 500 kVdc with a bipolar horizontal 1-circuit,
and the length of the test line was designed to be the maximum in the test site. A total test line length
of 600 m was constructed with three spans: a 150m-long span for the bus line and the model span
between towers 1 and 2, a 300m-long span for the variable main test between towers 2 and 3, and a
150m-long span for the model span between towers 3 and 4, because it is preferable to have three
spans rather than a single span that is installed only at the dead-end steel tower when considering the
development of transmission line hardware. The test line of the commercial changeable tower has the
merits of more excellent functions in the aspects of the possible development of regular line design
technologies and the lower steel tower construction costs than the gantry type, although it has the
demerits of the exchange costs of the test conductors and the time consumption thereof.
Fig. 4 shows the aerial view of the Gochang 500kVdc DC test line with two changeable towers. A
hoist with special arms, as shown in Fig. 5, was installed on top of the steel tower to make the pole
spacing variable between 7 to 14 m and to have the line height range from 13 to 22 m, as a method of

changing the locations of the conductor to carry out the test in variable conditions.

Figure 4. Aerial view of the Gochang DC test line

(a) Tower No. 2


(b) Hoist
Figure 5. Tower 2 and hoist of the test line

5.2 Measuring Equipment and DAS


The corona and ion flow environmental interference measurement system and DAS were designed
considering the required functions of the synthetic investigation and analysis of the environmental
effects of the DC transmission line. A number of measurement sensors were installed around the midspan between towers 2 and 3 of the test line, and the data were stored according to the interferences at
the DAS server every 10 seconds. The measurement hardware that collected the data was composed
based on the distributed control system. The disturbance countermeasures were considered as the
signals detected by each measurement sensor were transmitted to the control room that was more than
about 100 m away. Therefore, the UTP cables were mainly used for easier handling in long-distance
data signal transmission.
The ion flow was measured within an about 1.5-fold distance of the line height and up to twofold in
severe winds to the lateral direction of the test line [9]. Therefore, the sensors were allocated as shown
in Fig. 6, considering that the sensors were 30 m from the test line with the line height of 18 m
showed very low measurement values or detected ambient noises. The distance between the sensors
was set at around 8 m to avoid interruptions between the ion flow interference measurement sensors.
Table 6 shows the status of the interference items and measurement sensors that were applied at the
Gochang DC transmission test site. Fig. 6 shows the test site and the various sensors installed.
Table 6. Status of the measurement sensors at the Gochang DC transmission test site
Location
Measurement Items
Number of Ch.
Note
Radio Noise
4
Audible Noise
4
Positive

Center

Negative

10G3, 100G1

Charged Voltage(Disk)

Ion Current Density


Electric Field
Ion Current Density
Electric Field

4
4
1
1

Charged Voltage(Disk)

10G5, 100G2

10G1, 100G2

Charged
Voltage(Cylinder)
Ion Current Density
Electric Field

6
4

Meteorological Factors

12

Sum

56

Temperature, Wind direction, Wind


velocity, Humidity, Rain and Atmospheric
Pressure

Figure 6. Measurement sensors of the DC test yard


5.3 Experiment Results
The electrical environment interferences of the 480mm2(C)x6B conductor bundle were assessed by
measuring the interference quantity caused by the corona and ion flow for about a year, through the
operation of the 500kV on the bipolar 1-circuit with the line height of 18 m and the pole spacing of
22 m.
5.3.1 Electric Field Intensity on the Ground
The electric field intensity on the ground was measured by installing nine units of the DC electric
field meter (BOLTEK, EFM100) vertical to the test line on the ground to detect the lateral profiles
according to the distance from the test line. Fig. 7 shows the statistical results of the data that were
measured for a year directly under the positive and negative poles of the DC transmission test line.
Fig. 8 shows the lateral profiles of the electric field intensity according to the distance. The maximum
value of the electric field intensity on the ground was shown in the surrounding area directly under
each conductor of the pole and was reduced to about 0.3~0.5 kV/m for every 1m increase in the
distance from the test line of each pole.

Probability, %

100

75
Negative Pole
50
Positive Pole
25

0
-40

-30

-20

-10

10

20

30

Electric Field [kV/m] .

Figure 7. Cumulative distributions of the electric Figure 8. Lateral profiles of the electric field
field intensity on the ground under the
intensity on the ground
test line
The electric field intensity on the ground around the DC overhead transmission line varied
according to the weather conditions such as the wind velocity and humidity, among which the wind
velocity had the greatest effect [10]-[13]. The wind direction and velocity were assessed by analyzing
the data from the case in which the wind blew towards the vertical direction to the test line, as shown
in Fig. 9. The wind direction of 25 from left to right vertical to the test line was chosen for the
analysis of the data for the determination of the electric field intensity on the ground in the wind
vertical to the test line. Fig. 10 shows the results of the analysis of the case with the wind direction
from the positive pole to the negative pole. In the case of the wind velocity at less than 1 m/s that had
almost no wind, the electric field intensity on the ground appeared to have had similar absolute values
simply opposite the symbols around the ground surfaces of the positive line and the negative line; but
in the case with the wind velocity 5 m/s and higher, the intensity on the ground of the positive line
appeared smaller than that in the case with no wind, and the maximum value of the negative line was
detected not directly under the line but as moving in the wind movement direction. Fig. 11 shows the

result of the case in which the wind blew from the negative pole to the positive pole.
The results of the statistical process of the productions according to the temperature, humidity and
rainfall intensity, using the electric field meter directly under the positive pole to assess the generation
characteristics of the electric field intensity according to the changes of weather condition, showed
that the electric field intensity on the ground tended to slightly decrease as the temperature increased.
The electric field intensity tended to significantly increase when the humidity increased; therefore, the
humidity changes were confirmed as important meteorological factors of the electric field intensity on
the ground.
o

(+)
Tower #2
(-)

Wind Direction 290 ~ 340

Tower #3

Wind Direction 110 ~ 160

Figure 9. Wind direction at the Gochang DC test line

Figure 10. Electric field intensity on the ground Figure 11. Electric field intensity on the ground
according to the wind speed in the
according to the wind speed in the
case with the wind blowing from the
case with the wind blowing from the
positive pole
negative pole
5.3.2 Charged Voltage
To investigate the characteristics of the charged voltage generated in the surrounding charged body
by the ion from the corona discharge of the DC overhead transmission line, the charged bodies with
10G and 100G resistance values were manufactured to measure the charged voltages. Fig. 12
presents the lateral profile of the charged voltage from the DC test line. The absolute values of the
charged voltages according to the polarity in both the left and right sides of the transmission line
appeared almost identical and were recognized to have been produced directly under each pole.

Figure 12. Lateral profiles of the charged voltage by 10 G around the test line
The charged voltage was measured in the long term to assess the generation characteristics of the

charged voltages from the DC line according to the weather conditions. The statistical results showed
that the voltage hardly differed with the changes in the temperature and the rainfall intensity, but
slightly decreased with the humidity increase.
5.3.3 Ion Current Density on the Ground
The ion current density on the ground was measured with 11 units of plate-type electrodes that had
guard electrodes on the ground surface and that were installed vertical to the test line to detect the
lateral profile according to the distance from the line. Fig. 13 shows the results of the statistical
process for the ion current density on the ground.

Figure 13. Lateral profile of the ion current Figure 14. Lateral profile of the ion current
density, L50% on the ground
density according to the wind speed
in the case with the wind blowing
from the positive pole
Fig. 15 shows the results of the measurement of the ion current density with a wind velocity of 3 m/s
and above and with almost no wind, to assess the wind influence. The analysis results showed the
amount of the interference for the upstream wind tended to decrease, and that for the downstream
wind tended to increase.
The results of the statistical process for the generation amounts according to the temperature and
the humidity showed generation characteristics that were similar to those of the charged voltage
directly under the positive pole in the assessment of the generation characteristics of the ion current
density on the ground according to the weather conditions at the DC test line.
5.3.4 Radio Noise
The IEEE standard loop antenna (Rohde& Schwarz, HFH2-Z2) for the measurement of the radio
interference was installed 2 m above the ground. A non-radio frequency was selected within the range
of 0.50.1 MHz [14]-[15]. The lateral profile of the test line was apprehended by installing four units
of antennas vertical to the test line. The ambient noise of the test yard was measured to have been
about 38~42 dB (V/m). The radio interferences generated from the test line were assessed at the
standard position 15 m to the vertical direction directly under the positive pole. Fig. 15 shows the
results of the statistical process for the radio noise measured at the assessment position. The corona
discharges, which were produced according to various surrounding conditions in fair weather, showed
an about 15dB difference between the maximum and minimum values, as presented in Fig. 15; and
the difference in the foul weather appeared to have been the same as that in the fair weather because
the foul weather was more stable than the fair weather.
The radio noise produced in foul weather was the same as that in fair weather in the DC
transmission line, unlike in the AC transmission line; but the L50% value of the radio noise appeared
to have been about 3 dB larger than that in fair weather, as shown in Fig. 15. This was considered to
have been the value within the measurement errors of the measurement device and because the
measurement period did not have many rainfall conditions; but it was confirmed to correspond with
the theory that the radio noise caused by the corona discharge in foul weather will be the same as that
in fair weather according to the DC corona discharge characteristics.

Figure 15. Characteristics of the radio noise


generation according to the weather Figure 16. Characteristics of the radio noise
generation according to the wind
condition
speed in the case with the wind
blowing from the negative pole
The assessment of the radio noise generation characteristics at the assessment positions according
to the weather conditions showed a tendency to slightly increase within 10~30C as the temperature
increased, and to decrease when the humidity increased. Therefore, the DC transmission line produced
more radio noise in fair weather with lower humidity. Moreover, much less radio noise appeared to
have been produced with heavier rain and increased rainfall intensity.
When the wind direction and velocity changed, the result of the statistical process for the radio
noise for the assessment of the radio noise characteristics produced from the DC test line when the
wind direction was from the positive pole to the negative pole was about 2 dB higher than that in the
opposite wind direction. This is considered to have been due to the increase in the radio noise as the
wind velocity increased, as shown in Fig. 16, because the corona discharge characteristics could be
more actively generated from the line conductor according to the wind direction and velocity
conditions.
5.3.5 Audible Noise
The lateral profile of the test line was apprehended by installing four units of microphones (Bruel &
Kjaer, Type 4184) vertical to the test line. The audible noise generated from the test line was assessed
at the standard position 15 m to the vertical direction directly under the positive pole. Table 7 shows
the results of the statistical process for the audible noise.
Table 7. Audible noise from the 500kV DC test transmission line
Sensor
AN1
AN2
AN3
Distance from center line, m
14
26
46
L50 , dBA
40.2
40.6
40.3
L5, dBA
45.9
46.7
46.0

AN4
110
41.4
48.6

Conclusions and Relevant Implications


In this study, optimal route connect South Korea to Russia via North Korea was suggested by the
estimation of various conditions. It is important because the route will be a part of North-East Asia
transmission line such as Japan-Korea-China-Russia route. The results of estimation of power
capacity and insulation coordination showed that suitable voltage, circuit number and distance
between poles are each 500kV, 2-Bipole and 22m. The height of overhead line was 18m suggested by
preceded research [1].
The results of the electrical environment full-scale test that was conducted by composing the
Gochang DC test transmission line with the pole spacing of 22 m apart showed that the 18m line
height above the ground, the bipolar 1-circuit, the 480mm2(C)x6B conductor bundle, and the
establishment of the test voltage at 500 kV were the key characteristics of each environmental
interference. They are presented as follows and summarized in Table 8.
1. Among the weather conditions that affected the electrical environment interferences produced
from the DC overhead transmission line, the wind influence appeared to have been the most dominant.
2. In the case of the electric field intensity, charged voltage, ion current density and radio noise, the
production amount according to the wind condition showed a significant increase and decrease in
characteristics. The amount of the interference for the upstream wind tended to decrease and that for
the downstream wind, to increase.
3. The interrelations of the environmental interferences affected by the temperature changes
appeared insignificant. The electric field intensity decreased when the temperature increased, but the
radio noise emission amount increased. The temperature changes were considered to have generally
not seriously affected the environmental interference production amount because the production
amounts of the other environmental interferences remained almost unchanged.
4. The electric field intensity increased only when the humidity increased, whereas the production
amounts of the other interference items decreased. Therefore, a higher humidity could be considered
somewhat advantageous in the electrical environment aspect of the HVDC overhead transmission line.
The rainfall intensity produced weaker environmental interferences as the rainfall increased due to its
strong inversely proportional characteristics.
5. The basic data that could be used in the prediction of the electrical environment interference
level and the decision on the transmission line height above the ground of future commercial
transmission lines were obtained by understanding the changes in the various environmental
interference amounts according to the changes in the line height above the ground.
Table 9 shows the results of comprehensive assessments of the 500kV DC test transmission line.
The guidelines are the DC transmission line design criteria in KEPCO (Korea Electric Power Co.).
Table 8. Summary of the results of the electrical environmental full-scale test at the 500kV DC
Gochang test transmission line
Interferences Electric Field
Charged Voltage
Ion current
Radio noise dB
Intensity
(kVdc, 100 G) density (nA/m2) (V/m), L50%
Conditions
(kVdc/m)
Production
quantity

Fair

Foul
Wind influence
Wind velocity influence
Temperature influence

25 ~ 23
Yes
Yes
Yes (inversely
proportional)

Moisture influence

Yes (proportional)

Rainfall intensity
influence

No

-50 ~ 110
Yes
Yes

43.01
Yes
Yes

20 ~ 15
Yes
Yes

No

No

Yes (proportional)

Yes (inversely
proportional)
Yes (inversely
proportional)

Yes (inversely
proportional)

Yes (inversely
proportional)
Yes (inversely
proportional)

40.0

Table 9. Summary of the assessment of the long-term environmental full-scale test at the 500kV DC
test transmission line

Interference
Electric field (kVdc/m)
Radio interference dB(V/m)
Audible noise [dB (A)]
Ion current density (nA/m2)

Measurement
18.42
SNR 31
40.6
95.7

Guideline
Below 25
Above SNR 24
Below 50
Below 100

Assessment
Satisfactory
Satisfactory
Satisfactory
Satisfactory

References
[1] D.I. Lee, K.Y. Shin, J.S. Lim, K.H. Yang, M.N. Ju, B.H. Son, Y.E. Park, "Development of Design
and Core Technologies for HVDC Overhead Transmission Line, Final Report, Mar. 2010.
[2] P. S. Maruvada, R. D. Dallaire, P. Hroux, N. Rivest, "Corona Studies for Bipolar HVDC
Transmission at Voltages Between 600kV and 1200kV; PART2: Special Bipolar Line, Bipolar
Cage and Bus Studies" IEEE Trans. on pas, Vol. Pas-100, No. 3 March 1981
[3] Yukio Nakano, Mitsuo Fukushima, "Statistical Audible Noise Performance of Shiobara HVDC
Test Line" IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 5, No. 1, January 1989
[4] P. S. Maruvada, R. D. Dallaire, "Environmental Effects of the Nelson River HVDC Transmission
Line - RI, AN, Electric Field, Induced Voltage, and Ion Current Distribution Tests" IEEE Trans.
on pas, Vol. Pas-101, No. 4 April 1982
[5] Tomotaka Suda, Yoshitaka Sunaga, "An Experimental Study of Large Ion Density under the
Shiobara HVDC Test Line" IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 5, No. 3, July 1990
[6] P. J. Carter, G. B. Johnson "Space Charge Measurements Downwind from a Monopolar 500kV
HVDC Test Line" IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 3, No. 4, October 1988
[7] G. B Johnson, "Electric Fields and Ion Currents of a 400kV HVDC Test Line" IEEE Transactions
on Pas, Vol. Pas-102, No. 8, August 1983
[8] V. L. Chartier, R. D. Stearns, A. L. Burns, "Electrical Environment of the Uprated Pacific NW/SW
HVDC Intertie" IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 4. No. 2, April 1989
[9] Masanori Hara, Noriyuki Hayashi, Keishi Shiotsuki, Masanori Akazaki, "Influence of Wind and
Conductor Potential on Distributions of Electric Field and Ion Current Density at Ground Level in
DC High Voltage Line to Plane Geometry", IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and
Systems, Vol. PAS-101, No. 4, April 1982
[10] HVDC Transmission Line Reference Book, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), pp. 4.764.81, 1993
[11] Michael G. Comber, Gary B. Johnson, "HVDC Field and Ion Effects Research at Project UHV
Results of Electric Field and Ion Current Measurements", IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery,
Vol. PAS-101, No. 7, July 1982
[12] CRIEPI Report T88095, "Effects of Wind on Ion Flow Field under Shiobara HVDC Test Line",
pp.11-43, 1993
[13] CRIEPI Report 184016, "Study on Corona and Field Effects of Shiobara HVDC Test Line(Part
)-Influence of Line Configurations on Ion Flow and Electric Field at Ground Level", pp. 16-35,
1984
[14] IEEE, "IEEE Standard Procedures for the Measurement of Radio Noise from Overhead Power
Lines and Substations", ANSI/IEEE Std. 430-1986
[15] Wan Baoquan, Liu Dichen, Wu Xiong, Lu Yao, "The study on the radio interference from
800kV Yun Guang UHVDC transmission line", 2006 International Conference on Power
Technology
[16] CIGRE JWG B4/C3/B2.50 "Electric Field and Ion Current Environment of HVDC Overhead
Transmission Lines", Final Report of CIGRE, August-5-2010