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EP426

Chemical Process Design and Optimization


Chapter 4

Teaching plan (Wk8 to Wk14)


8

Chapter 4
Chapter 4

Chapter 4
Chapter 4

10
Chapter 4
11

Chapter 5
Chapter 5

12
Chapter 5
13

Chapter 5
Chapter 5

14

Chemical Process Optimization.


Optimization overview.
Chemical Process Optimization.
Optimization application on Chemical processes.
Chemical Process Optimization.
Optimization application on Chemical processes.
Chemical Process Optimization.
Optimization classification and the approach (Part I)
Individual Assesement (5%)
Presentation based on the group assignment
Chemical Process Optimization.
Optimization classification and the approach (Part II)
Heat & Energy Integration.
Overview of process integration and the applicaton
Heat & Energy Integration.
HENs analysis (Part I) - Composite Curves and Problem
Test 1 (10%)
Heat & Energy Integration.
HENs analysis (Part II) - Area & Unit targeting
Heat & Energy Integration.
HENs analysis (Part III) - Pinch design
Heat & Energy Integration.
HENs analysis (Part IV) - Maximum Recovery design.
Revision and Tutorial
Group Report Submission (10%)

22/02/2016
24/02/2016
29/02/2016
02/03/2016
07/03/2016
09/03/2016
14/03/2016
16/03/2016
21/03/2016
23/03/2016
28/03/2016
30/03/2016
04/04/2016
Due: 5:00 PM

Student attainment
CLO4: Determine optimal solution for a chemical
process using Linear Programming.

Note:

Teaching method - Lecture & Group Project


Assessment - Test, Final Exam and report presentation.

Chapter 4: Topics
1. Optimization overview.
2. Optimization application on Chemical processes.
3. Basic elements in the optimization; Objective
Function, Parameters, and Constrains.
4. Optimization classification and the approach of
Linear Programming method.

EP426
Chemical Process Design and Optimization
Chapter 4a - Chemical Process Optimization.

OVERVIEW

Objective
1. To differentiate the type of optimisation
2. To formulate and solve a linear program (LP) by
using
Graphical Method
Simplex Method

Revision
Q. Find the minimum value of function f(x) defined by the
equation
= 2 2 12 + 20
Solution

=
2 2 12 + 5

= 4 12

We need to find x = ? for min value of f(x) , when df/dx = 0

0 = 4 12
12
=
=3
4

Thus, the minimum value is f(3)

3 =2 3
3 =2

12 3 + 20

Graphical Solution (Alternative)


Step 1: Prepare dataset of x and f(x)
x

f(X)

0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3

20
14.5
10
6.5
4
2.5
2

From the graph,


the minimum
value is f(3) = 2

Step 2: Plot f(x) vs x

= 2 2 12 + 20

Exercise 1
Given

= 2 3 + 0.6
Determine the optimal solution of and the corresponding
value of , analytically and graphically.

Answer: 1.5 = -1.65

Summary
F(x) is the objective of the case study

= 2 3 + 0.6
X is the design variable

The case study can be constraint or un-constrain


scenario.

01

Standard Optimisation Format


Min : = 2 3 + 0.6
Subject to : (constraint)
(equality constraint)
0 1 (bound constraint)

(objective function)

OBJECTIVE FUNCTION
Candidates for the measure of goodness of a
design, f(x), where x is a design variable(s) that
approximate profitability measures:
Example of objective function

ROI Return of Investment (max)


VP Venture Profit (max)
PBP Payback period (min)
CA - Annualized Cost (min)

or more rigorous measures


NPV Net present value (max)
IRR Investors rate of return (max)

CONSTRAINTS
In process simulators, most of the equality constraints,
c{x} = 0, are the model equations relating to M&E
balances.
These are not stated explicitly, but are invoked as each unit
operation is installed on the flowsheet.
Some equality constraints are due to performance
specifications
e.g., 95% recovery of species i in the distillate flow:
D
xi
F
zi
B

xiD - 0.95ziF = 0

For in-equality:
More/less than 95% recovery of species i in
the distillate flow
Thus,

xiD - 0.95ziF 0 or

xiD - 0.95ziF 0

LINEAR PROGRAMING (LP)

Nv

Minimize J x fi xi
d
i=1
Subject to (s.t.) xi 0,i 1,
Nv

a x
j=1

ij

Nv

c x
j=1

ij

objective function

, NV

bi ,i 1,

, NE

equality constraints

d,i
1,
i

, NI

inequality constraints

design variables

The ND design variables, d, are


adjusted to minimize f{x} while
satisfying the constraints

Example 1 : Two-dimensional
objective function

Determine the maximum and the corresponding value of x1


and x2 for this function GRAPHICALLY.

2 0
1 + 2 3

1 0

1 + 22 6

2 = 1 ; = 2

2 = 1 ; = 1

2 = 1 ; = 0

2 = 1 ; = 5

Exercise 2 : Two-dimensional
objective function
+ 0.1 5
+ 0.2 2 6
3

, 0
Determine the maximum and the corresponding value of x
and y for this function GRAPHICALLY.

Homework
A batch distillation facility has a bank of columns of Type
1 and another bank of Type 2. Type 1 columns are
available for processing 6,000 hr/week, while Type 2
columns are available 10,000 hr/week. It is desired to use
these columns to manufacture two different products, A
and B. Distillation time to produce 100 gal of product A is
2 hr in Type 1 columns and 1 hr in Type 2 columns.
Distillation time to produce 100 gal of product B is 1 hr in
Type 1 columns and 4 hr in Type 2 columns. The net
profit is $5.00 per gal for product A and $ per gal for
product B.
Determine the production plan to maximizes the net profit
in $ per week.

Type of Optimisation
1. Parametric optimization focuses on adjusting
operating (decision) variables in order to improve the
objective function.

Example:
Adjusting the T and P at which a reactor operates.
Adjusting the surface area of a heat exchanger.
Number of trays for a distillation column.

Type of Optimisation
2. Topological optimization focuses on adjusting the
layout or topology of the flowsheet in order to
improve the objective function.

Example:
Changing the order in which a separation sequence
is implemented.
Looking at the effect of adding a heat recovery
exchanger.
Changing a utility (CW to refrigerated fluid).

To be continued
Linear Programming Method (Application)