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EP426

Chemical Process Design and Optimization


Chapter 4

Teaching plan (Wk8 to Wk14)


8

Chapter 4
Chapter 4

Chapter 4
Chapter 4

10
Chapter 4
11

Chapter 5
Chapter 5

12
Chapter 5
13

Chapter 5
Chapter 5

14

Chemical Process Optimization.


Optimization overview.
Chemical Process Optimization.
Optimization application on Chemical processes.
Chemical Process Optimization.
Optimization application on Chemical processes.
Chemical Process Optimization.
Optimization classification and the approach (Part I)
Individual Assesement (5%)
Presentation based on the group assignment
Chemical Process Optimization.
Optimization classification and the approach (Part II)
Heat & Energy Integration.
Overview of process integration and the applicaton
Heat & Energy Integration.
HENs analysis (Part I) - Composite Curves and Problem
Test 1 (10%)
Heat & Energy Integration.
HENs analysis (Part II) - Area & Unit targeting
Heat & Energy Integration.
HENs analysis (Part III) - Pinch design
Heat & Energy Integration.
HENs analysis (Part IV) - Maximum Recovery design.
Revision and Tutorial
Group Report Submission (10%)

22/02/2016
24/02/2016
29/02/2016
02/03/2016
07/03/2016
09/03/2016
14/03/2016
16/03/2016
21/03/2016
23/03/2016
28/03/2016
30/03/2016
04/04/2016
Due: 5:00 PM

Student attainment
CLO4: Determine optimal solution for a chemical
process using Linear Programming.

Note:

Teaching method - Lecture & Group Project


Assessment - Test, Final Exam and report presentation.

Chapter 4: Topics
1. Optimization overview.
2. Optimization application on Chemical processes.
3. Basic elements in the optimization; Objective
Function, Parameters, and Constrains.
4. Optimization classification and the approach of
Linear Programming method.

EP426
Chemical Process Design and Optimization
Chapter 4b - Chemical Process Optimization.

Optimisation Applications

Optimisation Solution
Easy Problems

Difficult Problems

Few decision variables

Many decision variables

Independent decision variables

Correlated decision variables

Discrete decision variables

Mixed discrete and continuous decision


variables

Topological optimisation first

Parametric optimisation first

Single process units

Multiple interrelated process units

Separate constraints for each decision


variables

Constraints involving several decision


variables

Constraint are obvious

Constraints are not obvious

Single objective

Multiple objectives

Objective function easy to

Objective function difficult to quantify

Linear objective function

Highly nonlinear objective function

Initial step of optimal solution


A base case is the starting point for optimisation.
The optimisation can begin only after objective
function is selected.
i.e.
1. Capital Installed cost, each equipment, each
category.
2. Operating Utility flowrates, target
3. Material Total cost for each raw material, purge or
wasted or product value.

The solution is worthless if the objective function is


poorly chosen.

Constraint Ranking
Category
Raw material
At 100% conversion = 11,185,000
Target saving= 30,200

Contribution to
EAOC ($/yr)
11,215,000

Medium-pressure steam

695,000

Tower and vessels

210,000

Heat exchangers

170,000

Pumps (inc. electricity)

160,000

Reactor

70,000

Cooling water

31,000

Waste water treatment


Total
EAOC - Equivalent Annual Operating Cost

1,000
12,552,000

Identify and Prioritizing Design Variables


1. For target cost can be attainable by recover the
raw material feed in the waste water.
i.e. At waste water stream, 0.27% of feed methanol is approximately
leaving. Minimising this flowrate can save 30,200 ($/yr).

2. Medium-pressure steam is replaced by lowpressure steam.


i.e. Initial design to vaporize the reactor feed at 154oC. LPS is higher
that this requirement.

3. Increase the single pass conversion and it will


reduces the cost of all unit in the recycle loop.
i.e. conversion is set by the reactor inlet temperature and pressure
and volume reactor.

Selecting design Variable


Conversion is identified as an important dependent design
variable, but it is a secondary design variable.
Conversion is set by the reactor inlet temperature and
pressure and volume reactor.
Infinite number of T, P and V combination for a given
conversion.
Thus, it requires the knowledge of sensitivity of objective
function to changes of these design variable.
i.e. If changes of cost is little when the reactor pressure
from upper and lower limits, then another variable (such as
temperature) should be selected.

Optimisation
By Using HYSYS/Unisim software

Objective
Select components for the simulation.
Select a fluid package.
Define a stream.
Model a PFD.
Add specifications to a PFD.
Use the Spreadsheet to perform calculations (Costing).
Deal with linear programing(LP) in HYSYS.
Use the Optimizer tool to optimize flowsheet.

Example
Objective is to minimise the utility cost subject to
ratio of splitter flow rate.

Feed: P = 7000 kPa, T = 20 oC, Flowrate = 1200 kgmole/h; S01: Flowrate = 600 kgmole/h
Composition, mole%: Methane (0.7515), Ethane (0.2004), Propane (0.0401), i-Butane (0.008)
Pressure Drop E-100 and E-101: 75 kPa
S05: T = 130 oC

Build Spreadsheet

Formulate the Objective Function

=b1*d1+b2*d2

Design Variable

Design Variable

Design Variable

Apply Constraint

Press START BUTTON to begin the optimisation

Result
Optimisation Parameters

Before After

S01 Flowrate, kgmole/h

600

300

E100, Power kW

999.8

500

E101, Heat Flow , kJ/h

3437

3937

Min(Cost,$)

1531

1431

BEFORE

AFTER

Case Study
Nitric oxide can be produced from the reaction of nitrogen and oxygen. The reaction occur at
vapour phase and mass concentration (kg/m3) is selected as a reaction basis. Table Q3 can be
used to study the relationship between reaction temperature and reaction equilibrium constant.
Table Q3: Equilibrium constant, Keq Vs Temperature, T
T , oC 995
Keq

1205

1357

242.8 307.1 80.32

Feed stream contain equal-molar of nitrogen and oxygen and it has been feed to the reactor
with 2 kgmol/hr at 3 bar. Assume NRTL thermodynamic model can be used for the simulation,
reactor operate at isothermal condition (T = 600oC, P = 75 kPa) and S.I unit is applied.

Case Study: PFD

= 250

= 0

Assume: Annual operating hour = 7200 h (300 days)


=

= 03 7200 100 + 2 2 + 2 2

Category

Cost

Maintenance E100 ($/yr)

15,000.00

Maintenance Reactor ($/yr)

55,000.00

Buy Price N2 ($/kg)

8.00

Buy Price O2 ($/kg)

13.00

Sell Price NO ($/kg)

15.00

7200

Q1. Proposed the optimum temperature which give


the maximum profit.
Submit : 02 March 2016 (12:30 PM)

BEFORE

AFTER

End
Next Class (Exercise)

Presentation #1
Amendment from previous report

Detail Process Synthesis Algorithmic Method


Separation Train Synthesis
Revision of PFD based on Separation Train Synthesis
Process Optimization
Topology AND/OR parametric.

7 March 2016