Anda di halaman 1dari 30

EP426

Chemical Process Design and Optimization


Chapter 2 - Synthesis of process flow diagram

Teaching plan

No
1

Week
1

3
4

5
6

7
5
8
9

10

11

12

Topic
Activity
Introduction
Sustainable process Design.
Chapter 1
Aspect of process design, project objective, project classification.
Sustainable process Design.
Chapter 1
Hierarchical approach to process design
Synthesis of process flow diagram (PFD).
Chapter 2
Rule of thumb for process synthesis.
Chapter 2 Synthesis of process flow diagram (PFD).
Chapter 3 Separation train synthesis. (Class Replacement)
Public Holiday : Thaipusam
Individual Assesement (5%)
Written test based on the group assignment
Public Holiday : Federal Territory
Separation train synthesis.
Chapter 3
Selection and sequencing (part I).
Public Holiday : Chinese New Year
Separation train synthesis.
Chapter 3
Selection and sequencing (part II).
Separation train synthesis.
Chapter 3
Selection and sequencing (part III).
MidTerm (20%)

Date
06/01/2016
11/01/2016
13/01/2016
18/01/2016
20/01/2016
23/01/2016
25/01/2016
27/01/2016
01/02/2016
03/02/2016
08/02/2016
10/02/2016
15/02/2016
17/02/2016

Student attainment
CLO2: Propose a chemical process flow diagram using
the hierarchy of process design.
C5 Identify component concept and use component skill
to solve a problem.
A3 Proposed a plan for improvement.
PLO3 -Design/Development of Solutions.
Design solutions for flowsheet diagram, which the components or
processes that meet specified needs with appropriate consideration for
public health and safety, cultural, societal, and environmental
considerations
Note:
Teaching method - Lecture & Group Project
Assessment - Test, Final Exam and report presentation.

Chapter 2
Synthesis of process flow
diagram (PFD)

Rule of thumb for


process synthesis

Steps in Designing
Chemical
Processes

Examples &
Group Exercise

EP426
Chemical Process Design and Optimization
Chapter 2a Synthesis of process flow diagram (PFD).
Rule of thumb for process synthesis.
(Process Design Heuristics)

What You should Know?


Understand the importance of selecting reaction paths
Be able to distribute the chemicals in a process flowsheet
Be able to apply heuristics.

Be able to remove the exothermic heats of reaction.


Understand the advantages of pumping a liquid rather
than compressing a vapor.

Introduction
The heuristic rules is to expedite the selection and
positioning of processing operations as flow-sheets
are assembled.
These rules are based on experience and hold in
general.
Note: However, it should be tested to ensure that
they apply in the specific application.

Raw Materials and Chemical Reactions


Heuristic 1:

Avoid, or reduce, the handling and storage of


hazardous and toxic chemicals.

Example:

Manufacture of Ethylene Glycol (EG).


O
1
C2H 4 + -2 O 2 CH 2 - CH 2

OH

(R.1)

OH

CH2 - CH2 + H2O CH2 - CH2

(R.2)

Since both reactions are highly exothermic, they need to be


controlled carefully. But a water spill into an ethylene-oxide storage
tank could lead to an accident similar to the Bhopal incident.
Often such processes are designed with two reaction steps, with
storage of the intermediate, to enable continuous production.

Alternatives to the two-step EG


process
Use chlorine and caustic in a single reaction step, to avoid the
intermediate:
OH OH

CH2=CH2 + Cl2 + 2NaOH(aq) CH2CH2 + 2NaCl

(R.3)

As ethylene-oxide is formed, react it with carbon dioxide


to form ethylene-carbonate, a much less active
intermediate that can be stored safely and hydrolyzed,
to form the ethylene-glycol product, as needed:
O
O
CH2 - CH2 + CO2

C
O

CH2 CH2

(R.4)

Distribution of Chemicals
Heuristic 2:

Use an excess of one chemical reactant in a reaction


operation to completely consume chemical reactant.

Example: Consider using excess ethylene in DCE production

Distribution of Chemicals (Contd)


Heuristic 3:

When nearly pure products are required,


eliminate inert species before the reaction
operations.
Note:
Do not do this when a large exothermic heat of reaction
must be removed.
Do when the separations are easily accomplished,
Do when the catalyst is adversely affected by the inert

Example:

Distribution of Chemicals (Contd)


Need to decide whether to
remove inerts before reaction...

or after reaction...

Clearly, the ease and cost of the separations must be assessed. This can be
accomplished by examining the physical properties upon which the
separations are based, and implies the use of simulation

Distribution of Chemicals (Contd)


Heuristic 4:

Introduce liquid or vapor purge streams to provide


exits for species.
The species such as
impurities in the feed
produced by irreversible side-reactions

Note: when these species are in trace quantities and/or are


difficult to separate from the other chemicals.

Example: NH3 Synthesis Loop.


What are the
configuration?

Purge flow rate selection depends on economics!

Distribution of Chemicals (Contd)


Heuristic 5:

Do not purge valuable species or species that


are toxic and hazardous, even in small
concentrations.
Add separators to recover valuable species.
Add reactors to eliminate toxic and hazardous species.

Example: Catalytic converter in car exhaust system.

Distribution of Chemicals (Contd)


Heuristic 6:

Recycled to extinction.
By-products that are produced in reversible reactions, in
small quantities, are usually not recovered in separators or
purged but it being recycled back to the process until its
fully converted.

However, for irreversible reactions,


small quantities of by-products must be
purged, otherwise they will buildup.

Distribution of Chemicals (Contd)


Heuristic 7:

For competing series or parallel reactions,


adjust the temperature, pressure, and catalyst
to obtain high yields of the desired products.
In the initial distribution of chemicals, assume that
these conditions can be satisfied
- obtain kinetics data and check this assumption
before developing a base-case design.

Example: Manufacture of allyl-chloride.

Allyl Chloride Manufacture (Contd)


Example: Manufacture of allyl-chloride.

Kinetic data
Reaction

HR

ko
3

E/R (oR)

Btu/lbmole

lbmole/(hr ft atm )

-4,800

206,000

13,600

-79,200

11.7

3,430

-91,800

4.6 x 108

21,300

1.02E-03

1.01E-03

1.00E-03

9.90E-04

9.80E-04

9.70E-04

-0.4

9.60E-04

Allyl Chloride Manufacture (Contd)

ln(k)

-0.8
-1.2
-1.6

ln(k1)

1/T (980<T<1042 deg R)


What range of operating temperatures favor
production of Allyl Chloride ?

ln(k2)

ln(k3)

MeOAc Manufacture using Reactive


Distillation
MeOAc

HOAc
Reaction
zone
MeOH

H2O

MeOH + HOAc MeOAc + H2O

Separations
Heuristic 9:

Separate liquid mixtures using distillation and


stripping towers, and liquid-liquid extractors, among
similar operations.

Ref: Douglas (1988)

Select from distillation,


enhanced distillation,
stripping towers, liquidliquid extraction, etc.

Separations (Contd)
Heuristic 10:
Ref: Douglas (1988)

Attempt to condense vapor mixtures with


cooling water. Then, use Heuristic 9.
Select from partial
condensation, cryogenic
distillation, absorption,
adsorption, membrane

separation, etc.

Select from distillation,


enhanced distillation,
stripping towers, liquidliquid extraction, etc.
Attempt to cool
reactor products
using cooling water

Separations (Contd)
Heuristic 11:

Separate vapor mixtures using partial


condensers, cryogenic distillation, absorption
towers, adsorbers, and/or membrane devices.

Ref: Douglas (1988)

Heat Transfer in Reactors


Although heat transfer in reactors is better
discussed in the context of heat and power
integration (Chapter 5),
Heat transfer in reactors
distribution of chemicals.

affect

the

Heat Transfer in Reactors (Contd)


Heuristic 12:

Treat exothermic reactors first.


To remove a highly-exothermic heat of reaction, consider
the use of

excess reactant

an inert diluent

cold shots.

Heat Transfer in Reactors (Contd)


Heuristic 13:

For less exothermic heats of reaction,


circulate reactor fluid to an external cooler,
or use a jacketed vessel or cooling coils. Also,
consider the use of intercoolers.

Heat Transfer in Reactors (Contd)


Example: TVA design for NH3 synthesis converters

Feed gases pass up the


reactor through tubes.
The reaction take place
at the catalyst chamber.

Heat Transfer in Reactors (Contd)


Endothermic reactors are treated similarly:
Heuristic 14:

To control temperature for a highly-endothermic heat


of reaction, consider the use of excess reactant an
inert diluent, and hot shots. These affect the
distribution of chemicals and should be inserted early
in process synthesis.

Heuristic 15:

For less endothermic heats of reaction,


circulate reactor fluid to an external heater,
or use a jacketed vessel or heating coils. Also,
consider the use of interheaters.

Pumping and Compression


Heuristic 16:

To increase the pressure of a stream, pump a liquid


rather than compress a gas;
that is, condense a vapor, as long as refrigeration (and
compression) is not needed, before pumping.

Since work done by pumping or compressions is given by:

P2V dP
W
P1
It follows that it is more
efficient to pump a liquid than
to compress a gas. Thus, it is
almost always preferable to
condense a vapor, pump it, and
vaporize it, rather than
compress it.
Exception: if condensation requires
refrigeration.

What You should?


Understand the importance of selecting reaction paths that do not
involve toxic or hazardous chemicals, and when unavoidable, to
reduce their presence by shortening residence times in the process
units and avoiding their storage in large quantities.
Be able to distribute the chemicals in a process flowsheet, to account
for the presence of inert species, to purge species that would
otherwise build up to unacceptable concentrations, to achieve a high
selectivity to the desired products.
Be able to apply heuristics in selecting separation processes to
separate liquids, vapors, and vapor-liquid mixtures.
Be able to distribute the chemicals, by using excess reactants, inert
diluents, and cold shots, to remove the exothermic heats of reaction.
Understand the advantages of pumping a liquid rather than
compressing a vapor.

To be continued
Chapter 2b - Synthesis of process flow diagram (PFD).
Steps in Designing Chemical Processes