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EP426

Chemical Process Design and Optimization


Chapter 3a - Separation train synthesis.
Introduction

Steps in Process Design and Retrofit


Assess Primitive
Problem

Detailed Process
Synthesis Algorithmic
Methods

Development
of Base-case

SECTION B
Detailed Design,
Equipment sizing, Cap.
Cost Estimation,
Profitability Analysis,
Optimization

Plant-wide
Controllability
Assessment

Section B: Algorithmic Methods

Introduction
Almost all chemical processes require the separation
of chemical species (components), to:
purify a reactor feed
recover unreacted species for recycle to a reactor
separate and purify the products from a reactor

Frequently, the major investment and operating costs


of a process will be those costs associated with the
separation equipment
For a binary mixture, it may be possible to select a
separation method that can accomplish the
separation task in just one piece of equipment.
However, more commonly, the feed mixture involves
more than two components, involving more complex
separation systems

Example 1. Specification for Butenes Recovery

Design for Butenes Recovery System


100-tray column
C3 & 1-Butene in
distillate

Pentane
withdrawn as
bottoms

2-C4=s withdrawn as
distillate. Furfural is
recovered as
bottoms and recycled
to C-4

Propane and
1-Butene recovery
n-C4 and 2-C4=s
cannot be
separated by
ordinary
distillation
(=1.03), so 96%
furfural is added
as an extractive
agent ( 1.17).
n-C4 withdrawn as
distillate.

Separation is Energy Intensive


Unlike the spontaneous mixing of chemical species, the
separation of a mixture of chemicals requires an
expenditure of some form of energy
Separation of a feed mixture into streams of differing
chemical composition is achieved by forcing the different
species into different spatial locations, by one or a
combination of four common industrial techniques:
the creation by heat transfer, shaft work, or pressure
reduction of a second phase that is immiscible with the
feed phase (ESA energy separating agent)
the introduction into the system of a second fluid phase
(MSA mass separating agent). This must be
subsequently removed.
the addition of a solid phase upon which adsorption can
occur
the placement of a membrane barrier

Common Industrial Separation Methods


Separation
Method

Phase of
the feed

Separation
agent

Developed or
added phase

Separation
principle

Equilibrium
flash

L and/or V

Pressure
reduction or
heat transfer

V or L

difference
in volatility

Distillation

L and/or V

Heat transfer
or shaft work

V or L

difference
in volatility

Gas
Absorption

Liquid
absorbent

difference
in volatility

Stripping

Vapor stripping
agent

difference
in volatility

Extractive
Distillation

L and/or V

Liquid solvent
and heat
transfer

V and L

difference
in volatility

Azeotropic
Distillation

L and/or V

Liquid
entrainer and
heat transfer

V and L

difference
in volatility

Common Industrial Sep.Methods (Contd)

Separation
Method

Phase of
the feed

Separation
agent

Developed
or added
phase

Separation
principle

Liquid-liquid
Extraction

Liquid
solvent

Second
liquid

Difference in
solubility

Crystallization

Heat
transfer

Solid

Difference in
solubility or
m.p.

Gas
adsorption

Solid
adsorbent

Solid

difference in
adsorbabililty

Liquid
adsorption

Solid
adsorbent

Solid

difference in
adsorbabililty

Membranes

L or V

Membrane

Membrane

difference in
permeability
and/or
solubility

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS II - (c) Daniel R. Lewin

Separation Trains - 4

Common Industrial Sep.Methods (Contd)


Separation
Method

Phase of
the feed

Separation
agent

Developed
or added
phase

Separation
principle

Supercritical
extraction

L or V

Supercritical
solvent

Supercritical
fluid

Difference
in solubility

Leaching

Liquid
solvent

Difference
in solubility

Drying

S and L

Heat
transfer

Difference
in volatility

End
Next Class: Part II