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# EP426

## Chemical Process Design and Optimization

Chapter 3b - Separation train synthesis.
Development of a separation process
Part 2

Sequence Notation
[AB/C]; [A/B]

A/B
AB/C

Sequence Notation

## Identifying the Best Sequences

HEURISTICS of favourable separation sequence

## 1. Remove thermally unstable, corrosive, or chemically reactive

components early in the sequence.
2. Remove final products one-by-one as distillates (the direct sequence).
3. Sequence separation points to remove, early in the sequence, those
components of greatest molar percentage in the feed.
4. Sequence separation points in the order of decreasing relative volatility
so that the most difficult splits are made in the absence of other
components. (low volatility at last)
5. Sequence separation points to leave last those separations that give
the highest purity products.
6. Sequence separation points that favor near equimolar amounts of
distillate and bottoms in each column. The reboiler duty is not
excessive.

sequence.

14
(5 components)

## Exercise 2: Use heuristics to determine a good

sequence of ordinary distillation units.

Solution:
Sequence based on heuristic 4

## Quantitative method for evaluating

distillation sequences
Minimum vapour flow
How: Use Underwood method to estimate minimum
vapor and liquid flows
Why: To screen for different alternatives based on
cost estimation.
Vapor flow method is a viable estimate of cost
because:
1. Major component contributing to the required column
diameter & trays capital cost
2. Reflects utility costs (e.g., utilities use in reboiler +
condenser)

## Quantitative method for evaluating

distillation sequences
Minimum vapour flow
How: Use Underwood method to estimate minimum
vapor and liquid flows

Example 1

## Step 4: Determine Vmin for each sequence

= 6.4
= 8.9

= 5.5
= 10.7

Homework 1

Q. Calculate the total vapor flow produced in the sequence assuming actual to min.
reflux ratio of 1.2:1

Challenge
Repeat Homework 1
Q1. Evaluate the total internal vapour flow for direct sequence
configuration.
Q2. Evaluate the total internal vapour flow for any distillation
Q3. Compare those three configurations. Which configurations is
the most favourable and why? Describe the disadvantage(s) of
this method for distillation sequencing?

Homework 2

## Each component is to be separated with a specification of 99 %. Assume

that the non key component will not distribute but end up either at the top
or bottom depending on their relative volatility compared to the key
component. Determine the best sequence(s).
Determine the best sequence(s).

## Estimating Annualized Cost, CA

For each separation, CA is estimated assuming 99 mol % recovery of
light key in distillate and 99 mol % recovery of heavy key in bottoms.
The following steps are followed:
1. Set distillate and bottoms column pressures
2. Estimate number of stages and reflux ratio (e.g., using HYSYS.Plant
Shortcut Column).
3. Select tray spacing (typically 2 ft.) and calculate column height, H.
4. Compute tower diameter, D (using Fair correlation for flooding
velocity, or HYSYS Tray Sizing Utility).
5. Estimate installed cost of towerSize and cost ancillary equipment
(condenser, reboiler, reflux drum). Sum total capital investment,
CTCI.
6. Compute annual cost of heating and cooling utilities (COS).
7. Compute CA assuming ROI (typically r = 0.2). CA = COS + r CTCI

## Selecting sequence based on

Annualized Cost, CA
Example: Assuming 99 mol % recovery of product A,B,C,F
Species
Propane
1-Butene
n-Butane
trans-2-Butene
cis-2-Butene
n-Pentane

A
B
C
D
E
F

Sequence

Cost, \$/yr

1-5-16-28

900,200

1-5-17-29

872,400

1-6-18

1,127,400

1-7-19-30

878,000

1-7-20
Species
Propane
1-Butene
n-Butane
trans-2-Butene
cis-2-Butene
n-Pentane

1,095,600
A
B
C
D
E
F

Sequence

Cost, \$/yr

2-(8,9-21)

888,200

2-(8,10-22)

860,400

Species
Propane
1-Butene
n-Butane
trans-2-Butene
cis-2-Butene
n-Pentane

A
B
C
D
E
F

Sequence

Cost, \$/yr

3-11-23-31

878,200

3-11-24

1,095,700

3-12-(25,26)

867,400

3-13-27

1,080,100

Species
Propane
1-Butene
n-Butane
trans-2-Butene
cis-2-Butene
n-Pentane

A
B
C
D
E
F

Sequence
4-14-15

Species
Propane
1-Butene
n-Butane
trans-2-Butene
cis-2-Butene
n-Pentane

Cost, \$/yr
1,115,200

A
B
C
D
E
F

Sequence

Cost, \$/yr

Sequence

1-5-16-28

900,200

2-(8,9-21)

888,200

1-5-17-29

872,400

2-(8,10-22)

860,400

1-6-18

1,127,400

Sequence

Cost, \$/yr

1-7-19-30

878,000

3-11-23-31

878,200

1-7-20

1,095,600

Sequence

Cost, \$/yr

4-14-15

1,115,200

3-11-24

Cost, \$/yr

1,095,700

3-12-(25,26)

867,400

3-13-27

1,080,100

Homework 3

Appendix

Appendix

## Calculate using Underwood Eqn.

(Assume sat. liq and therefore q = 1)
Step 1: Determine the root of Underwood equation value

Appendix

## (Assume sat. liq and therefore q = 1)

Step 2: Using the calculated root of the Underwood equation,
and determine Rmin

End
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