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# EP426

Chapter 5

11

Chapter 5

Chapter 5
12
Chapter 5
13

Chapter 5
Chapter 5

14

## Heat & Energy Integration.

Overview of process integration and
Introduction to Composite Curves
Heat & Energy Integration.
HENs analysis - Composite Curves, Problem
Table Algorithm
Test 1 (10%)
Heat & Energy Integration.
HENs analysis - Area & Unit targeting
Heat & Energy Integration.
HENs analysis - Pinch Design
Heat & Energy Integration.
HENs analysis - Maximum Recovery design
Revision and Tutorial
Group Report Submission (10%)
Test and Midterm Discussion

14/03/2016

16/03/2016
21/03/2016
23/03/2016
28/03/2016
30/03/2016
04/04/2016
Due: 5:00 PM
06/04/2016

## Hierarchy of Process Design

It is an approach to a conceptual process design which
follows a series of decisions and steps.
These decisions are listed as follows.
1.
2.
3.
4.

## Decide whether the process will be batch or continuous.

Identify the input/output structure of the process.
Identify and define the recycle structure of the process.
Identify and design the general structure of the
separation system.
5. Identify and design the heat-exchanger network or
process energy recovery system.

## Step 5 - Energy Recovery System

Designing a heat exchanger network that consumes
the minimum amount of utilities and requires the
minimum number of exchangers.
Objective: To design an optimum network of heat exchangers,
connecting between the hot and cold streams and between the
streams and cold/hot utilities.
What is optimal? - Implies a trade-off between CAPITAL COSTS (Cost

## Typical Proposed HEN

Proposed HEN showing interior heat exchanger (1-3) and
heat utilities (H,C)

## Typical Proposed HEN (with pinch analysis)

Proposed HEN showing interior heat exchanger (1-3) and
heat utilities (H,C)

## Q is multiply by 104 Btu/hr

Student attainment
CLO5: Design a Heat Exchanger Networks (HENs) for
a chemical process based on Pinch analysis.

Note:
Teaching method - Lecture & Group Project
Assessment - Test, Final Exam and report presentation.

Chapter 5: Topics
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Overview
Composite Curves
Problem Table Algorithm
Grand composite curve
The pinch design method

EP426
Chemical Process Design and Optimization
Chapter 5a - Heat & Energy Integration.
1. Overview
2. Composite Curves

## Process Integration and Global Warming

3 main measures to reduce CO2 Emissions
Energy Efficiency (short term, even profitable?)
Carbon Capture & Storage (medium term, expensive!)
Renewable Energy Forms (long term, expensive?)

## Global Warming An Opportunity for PI?

Energy Efficiency is a Core Activity in Process Integration

Analysis approach

Q mC p T mC p TT TS

## The First Law of

Thermodynamics (Conservation) states
that energy is always conserved, it cannot
be created or destroyed.

1970s

1983

1984

1989

1990

1993

1993

## Some important terms

Hot streams
Stream to be cooled
Sources of heat

T
Hot stream

Cold streams
Stream to be heated
Sinks of heat

## Supply temp initial T

Target temp final T

Supply T

Target T
Target T
Cold stream
Supply T

14 MW

Steam @ 180oC
Electric Heater

Target temp, TT
(C)

H
(MW)

Steam

Type

Supply temp,
TS (C)

Cold

40

110

14

Hot

160

40

12

12 MW

## Utility available for use:

Cooling water @ 20oC
Cooler

Target temp, TT
(C)

H
(MW)

Steam

Type

Supply temp,
TS (C)

Cold

40

110

14

Hot

160

40

12

2 Streams application
Target temp, TT
(C)

H
(MW)

Steam

Type

Supply temp,
TS (C)

Cold

40

110

14

Hot

160

40

12

20

40

60

80

100

120

160

140

40

HOT:

160

dH

-12

12 MW
COLD:

110

40

14 MW

14

## Now, we want to optimise the utility usage

from Case 1
What type of optimisation:
Topology Heat Integration
Parametric
Step 1: Check how much energy can be recovered
200

X-axis

Y-axis

Cold

0
14

40
110

Hot

12
0

160
40

12, 160

160

Potential Energy
recovery (max)
12 MW

120

14, 110

80
0, 40
40

0, 40

0
-5

10

15

20

## LMTD = 0; the result is not practical.

Thus; we must introduce

## Step 2: Select for the case study

Q mC p T mC p TT TS

Let: = 10

Hot Utility
QCmin = 3

Energy Recovered
QCmin = 11

Cold Utility
QCmin = 1

## Step 3: HEN design (revision from PFD)

Solution at : = 10
20

HOT:

40

60

80

100

50

160

11 MW
COLD:

120

140

40

1 MW

95
110

3 MW

40

160

## Step 4: Update with PFD

Solution at : = 10
S01b

heat integration

S01ab

S02a

S02ab

11 MW
S01a

S02b

3 MW
1 MW

12 MW

14 MW

heat integration

Let: = 20

## Larger value of Tmin

Important features:

Energy targets:

## Vertical shifting is prohibited

Horizontal shifting is allowed

QHmin = 4

QCmin = 2
QREC = 10

Tmin = 20C

## Minimum hot utility: QHmin

Minimum cold utility: QCmin

## Challenge: A more complex problem

Feed 2
140C
Feed 1
20C

180C

Reactor 1

230C

Reactor 2

250C

Type

1. Reactor 1 feed
2. Reactor 1 product
3. Reactor 2 feed
4. Reactor 2 product

Cold
Hot
Cold
Hot

Product 2
80C
Off gas,
40C

40C

Q mC p T mC p TT TS
Steam

200C

Sep
Product 1, 40C

Supply
temp,
TS (C)
20
250
140
200

Target
temp,
TT (C)
180
40
230
80

H Heat capacity
flowrate, CP
(MW) (MW.K-1)

32.0
31.5
27.0
30.0

0.20
0.15
0.30
0.25

T (C)

T (C)

250

250

200

200

80

80

40

40

31.5

30.0
61.5

H (MW)

48
61.5

7.5

H (MW)

T (C)

T (C)

230

230

180

180

140

140

20

20

32

27
59

H (MW)

24

20
59

15

H (MW)

## Homework: Hot & cold composite curves

T (C)
250
230
Pinch

Tmin = 10C
40
20

QCmin = 10

QREC = 51.1

QHmin = 7.5

H (MW)

To be continued
Composite Curves, Problem Table Algorithm