Anda di halaman 1dari 32

EP426

Chemical Process Design and Optimization


Chapter 5

Teaching plan (Wk11 to Wk14)


11

Chapter 5

Chapter 5
12
Chapter 5
13

Chapter 5
Chapter 5

14

Heat & Energy Integration.


Overview of process integration and
Introduction to Composite Curves
Heat & Energy Integration.
HENs analysis - Composite Curves, Problem
Table Algorithm
Test 1 (10%)
Heat & Energy Integration.
HENs analysis - Area & Unit targeting
Heat & Energy Integration.
HENs analysis - Pinch Design
Heat & Energy Integration.
HENs analysis - Maximum Recovery design
Revision and Tutorial
Group Report Submission (10%)
Test and Midterm Discussion

14/03/2016

16/03/2016
21/03/2016
23/03/2016
28/03/2016
30/03/2016
04/04/2016
Due: 5:00 PM
06/04/2016

Revision from Chapter 1b

Hierarchy of Process Design


It is an approach to a conceptual process design which
follows a series of decisions and steps.
These decisions are listed as follows.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Decide whether the process will be batch or continuous.


Identify the input/output structure of the process.
Identify and define the recycle structure of the process.
Identify and design the general structure of the
separation system.
5. Identify and design the heat-exchanger network or
process energy recovery system.

Revision from Chapter 1b

Step 5 - Energy Recovery System


Designing a heat exchanger network that consumes
the minimum amount of utilities and requires the
minimum number of exchangers.
Objective: To design an optimum network of heat exchangers,
connecting between the hot and cold streams and between the
streams and cold/hot utilities.
What is optimal? - Implies a trade-off between CAPITAL COSTS (Cost

of equipment) and ENERGY COSTS (Cost of utilities).

Revision from Chapter 1b

Heat Integration example

Without Heat Integration

With Heat Integration

Revision from Chapter 1b

Typical Proposed HEN


Proposed HEN showing interior heat exchanger (1-3) and
heat utilities (H,C)

Q is multiply by 104 Btu/hr

Revision from Chapter 1b

Typical Proposed HEN (with pinch analysis)


Proposed HEN showing interior heat exchanger (1-3) and
heat utilities (H,C)

Q is multiply by 104 Btu/hr

Student attainment
CLO5: Design a Heat Exchanger Networks (HENs) for
a chemical process based on Pinch analysis.

Note:
Teaching method - Lecture & Group Project
Assessment - Test, Final Exam and report presentation.

Chapter 5: Topics
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Overview
Composite Curves
Problem Table Algorithm
Grand composite curve
The pinch design method

EP426
Chemical Process Design and Optimization
Chapter 5a - Heat & Energy Integration.
1. Overview
2. Composite Curves

Process Integration and Global Warming


3 main measures to reduce CO2 Emissions
Energy Efficiency (short term, even profitable?)
Carbon Capture & Storage (medium term, expensive!)
Renewable Energy Forms (long term, expensive?)

Global Warming An Opportunity for PI?


Energy Efficiency is a Core Activity in Process Integration

Analysis approach

Q mC p T mC p TT TS

The First Law of


Thermodynamics (Conservation) states
that energy is always conserved, it cannot
be created or destroyed.

Evolution of heat recovery pinch analysis


1970s

Minimum hot and cold utility targeting

1983

The pinch design method (PDM)

1984

Surface area targeting

1989

Heat integration for batch processes

1990

Energy-area trade off (Supertargeting)

1993

Distillation column integration

1993

Total site analysis

Some important terms


Hot streams
Stream to be cooled
Sources of heat

T
Hot stream

Cold streams
Stream to be heated
Sinks of heat

Supply temp initial T


Target temp final T

Supply T

Target T
Target T
Cold stream
Supply T

Case 1 : TWO Streams heat recovery

14 MW

Utility available for use:


Steam @ 180oC
Electric Heater

Target temp, TT
(C)

H
(MW)

Steam

Type

Supply temp,
TS (C)

Cold

40

110

14

Hot

160

40

12

Case 1 : TWO Streams heat recovery


12 MW

Utility available for use:


Cooling water @ 20oC
Cooler

Target temp, TT
(C)

H
(MW)

Steam

Type

Supply temp,
TS (C)

Cold

40

110

14

Hot

160

40

12

2 Streams application
Target temp, TT
(C)

H
(MW)

Steam

Type

Supply temp,
TS (C)

Cold

40

110

14

Hot

160

40

12

Comment: high energy cost!


20

40

60

80

100

120

160

140

40

HOT:

160

dH

-12

12 MW
COLD:

110

40

14 MW

14

PFD ver1.0 : before heat integration

Now, we want to optimise the utility usage


from Case 1
What type of optimisation:
Topology Heat Integration
Parametric
Step 1: Check how much energy can be recovered
200

X-axis

Y-axis

Cold

0
14

40
110

Hot

12
0

160
40

12, 160

160

Potential Energy
recovery (max)
12 MW

120

14, 110

80
0, 40
40

0, 40

0
-5

10

15

20

LMTD = 0; the result is not practical.


Thus; we must introduce

Step 2: Select for the case study


Q mC p T mC p TT TS

Let: = 10

Hot Utility
QCmin = 3

Energy Recovered
QCmin = 11

Cold Utility
QCmin = 1

Typical values for various types of processes

Linnhoff Marchs application experience.

Step 3: HEN design (revision from PFD)


Solution at : = 10
20

HOT:

40

60

80

100

50

160

11 MW
COLD:

120

140

40

1 MW

95
110

3 MW

40

160

Step 4: Update with PFD


Solution at : = 10
S01b

PFD ver2.0 : after


heat integration

S01ab

S02a

S02ab

11 MW
S01a

S02b

PFD ver2.0 : after heat integration

3 MW
1 MW

12 MW

14 MW

PFD ver1.0 : before


heat integration

Class Exercise: Select for the case study


Let: = 20

Larger value of Tmin


Important features:

Energy targets:

Vertical shifting is prohibited


Horizontal shifting is allowed

QHmin = 4

QCmin = 2
QREC = 10

Tmin = 20C

Minimum hot utility: QHmin


Minimum cold utility: QCmin

Challenge: A more complex problem


Feed 2
140C
Feed 1
20C

180C

Reactor 1

230C

Reactor 2

250C

Type

1. Reactor 1 feed
2. Reactor 1 product
3. Reactor 2 feed
4. Reactor 2 product

Cold
Hot
Cold
Hot

Product 2
80C
Off gas,
40C

40C

Q mC p T mC p TT TS
Steam

200C

Sep
Product 1, 40C

Supply
temp,
TS (C)
20
250
140
200

Target
temp,
TT (C)
180
40
230
80

H Heat capacity
flowrate, CP
(MW) (MW.K-1)

32.0
31.5
27.0
30.0

0.20
0.15
0.30
0.25

Note: Heat capacity flowrate, CP = m.Cp

Hot composite curve


T (C)

T (C)

250

250

200

200

80

80

40

40

31.5

30.0
61.5

H (MW)

48
61.5

7.5

H (MW)

Cold composite curve


T (C)

T (C)

230

230

180

180

140

140

20

20

32

27
59

H (MW)

24

20
59

15

H (MW)

Homework: Hot & cold composite curves


T (C)
250
230
Pinch

Tmin = 10C
40
20

QCmin = 10

QREC = 51.1

QHmin = 7.5

H (MW)

To be continued
Composite Curves, Problem Table Algorithm