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Venn Diagram Categorical Syllogism

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JD1-A

Venn diagrams for categorical syllogism s is based on the fact that in a

valid syllogism, the conclusion asserts no more than what is already

contained, implicitly, in the premises. If the conclusion asserts more than

that it does not follow from the premises, and the syllogism is invalid. The

technique is to diagram the premises, and then see whether anything would

have to be added in order to diagram what the conclusion asserts. If so, the

syllogism is invalid; if not, it is valid.

In order to test a categorical syllogism using Venn diagrams, one must

first represent both of its premises in one diagram. That requires drawing

three overlapping circles, for the two premises of a standard-form syllogism

contain three different termsminor term(S subject of the conclusion),

major term (P predicate of the conclusion), and middle term (M-term that

appears in both premises but not in conclusion).

This

can

be

interpreted, for example, in terms of the various different classes determined

by the class of all Swedes (S), the class of all peasants (P), and the class of

all musicians (M). SPM is the product of these three classes, which is the

class of all Swedish peasant musicians. SPM is the product of the first two

and the complement of the third, which is the class of all Swedish peasants

who are not musicians. SPM is the product of the first and third and the

complement of the second: the class of all Swedish musicians who are not

peasants. SPM is the product of the first and the complements of the others:

the class of all Swedes who are neither peasants nor musicians. Next, SPM is

the product of the second and third classes with the complements of the

first: the class of all peasant musicians who are not Swedes. SPM is the

Categorical Syllogisms

Safangan, Glaiza F.

JD1-A

product of the second class with the complements of the other two: the class

of all peasants who are neither Swedes nor musicians. SPM is the product of

the third class and the complements of the first two: the class of all

musicians who are neither Swedes nor peasants. Finally, SPM is the product

of the complements of the three original classes: the class of all things that

are neither Swedes nor peasants nor musicians. However to better

understand the first diagram, we substitute SPM, SPM, SPM, SPM and so on to

1, 2,3

If we focus our attention on just the two circles labeled P and M, it is

clear that by shading out, or by inserting an x, we can diagram any standardform categorical proposition whose two terms are P and M, regardless of

which is the subject

term and which is the

predicate. Thus, to

diagram the proposition

All M is P, we

shade out all of M that is

not contained in (or

overlapped by) P which

includes both

portions labeled 4 and

7.

The advantage of

circles is that it

propositions

condition, of

different terms

diagramming

S is M:

allows us to diagram two

togetheron the

course, that only three

occur in them. Thus

both All M is P and All

Categorical Syllogisms

Safangan, Glaiza F.

JD1-A

All M is P.

All S is M.

Therefore, all S is P.

This syllogism is valid if and only if the two premises imply or entail the

conclusion that is, if together they say what is said by the conclusion.

Consequently, diagramming the premises of a valid argument should suffice

to diagram its

conclusion also,

with no further

marking of the

circles needed.

From this we can

conclude that AAA

1 is a valid

syllogism.

INVALID

SYLLOGISM:

AAA-2:

All dogs are

All cats are

Therefore all cats

mammals.

mammals.

are dogs

Diagramming both

premises:

Categorical Syllogisms

Safangan, Glaiza F.

JD1-A

In this diagram, where the class of all cats corresponds to S, the class of all

dogs corresponds to P, and the class of all mammals corresponds to M, the

portions corresponding to 1, 2 and 3, have been shaded out. But the

conclusion

has not been

diagrammed

because 4 has

been left

unshaded and

to diagram

the conclusion

both 1 and 4

must be shaded.

This proves

that he

conclusion

says something

more than

what is said by

the

premises.

VENN

TEST A

WITH ONE

PREMISE

PARTICULAR PREMISE:

DIAGRAM TO

SYLLOGISM

UNIVERSAL

AND ONE

AII-3:

All artists are egotists.

Some artists are paupers.

Therefore some paupers are egotists.

It is important to diagram the universal premise first, All artists are

egotists, before inserting an x to diagram the particular premise, Some

artists are paupers.

Had we tried to diagram the particular premise first, before the region 4 was

shaded out along with 7in diagramming the universal premise, we would not

have known whether to insert an x in 5 or in 4 or in both. Had we put it in 4

or on the line separating it from 5, the subsequent shading of 4 would have

Categorical Syllogisms

Safangan, Glaiza F.

JD1-A

diagram, it is show that the syllogism is valid since the conclusion has

already been diagrammed.

AII-2:

All great scientists are college graduates.

Some professional athletes are college graduates.

Therefore some professional athletes are great scientists.

diagrammed by putting an x somewhere in the overlapping region of

professional athletes and college graduates. These regions consist of 4 and 5

region. If we make an arbitrary decision to place it in one rather than the

other, we would be inserting more information into the diagram than the

premises warrantwhich would spoil the diagrams use as a test for validity.

Placing xs in each of them would also go. x is always placed on the line of

the circle designating the class not mentioned in that premise beyond what

the

premises

assert

because for

example

in this

particular

premise, you

may not

be able to

determine

whether the S

the x

representing

that

some is a P

or not a P.

Thus, placing

an x on

the line that

divides

the

overlapping

region SM

into the two

parts 5 and 4, we can diagram exactly what the second premise asserts

without adding anything to it. Placing an x on the line between two regions

Categorical Syllogisms

Safangan, Glaiza F.

JD1-A

indicates that there is something that belongs in one of them, but does not

indicate which one.

1. LABEL

Label the three circle-Venn Diagram with the

syllogisms three terms.

2. DIAGRAM diagram both premises, diagramming the universal one

first if there is

one universal and one particular, and

being careful in diagramming

particular proposition,

to put an x on a line of the premises do not

determine

on which side the line it should go.

3. INSPECT inspect the diagram to see whether the diagram of the

premises contains

a diagram of the conclusion: If it dies, the

syllogism is valid; if it does not

the syllogism is invalid.

AEE-4

All successful people are people who are keenly interested in their work.

No people who are keenly interested in their work are people whose

attention is easily distracted when they are working.

Therefore no people whose attention is easily distracted when they are

working are successful people.

Categorical Syllogisms

Safangan, Glaiza F.

JD1-A

From the diagram, it can be seen that the conclusion has already been

diagrammed thus making the syllogism valid.

Categorical Syllogisms

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