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Best out of Waste

Workshop on TLM Preparation for Pre School Education

Moumita Biswas

Lecturer in Special Education


Teaching Learning Material

Teaching materials are the resources a teacher uses to deliver instruction. Each teacher
requires a range of tools to draw upon in order to assist and support student learning. These
materials play a large role in making knowledge accessible to a learner and can encourage a
student to engage with knowledge in different ways.


The Indian National Education (1964 1966) out lined the importance of teaching
aids in these words the supply of teaching aids to every school is essential for the
improvement at the quality of the teaching. It would indeed bring about on educational
revolution in the country.

In 1986 The National Policy on Education (NPE) instituted Operation Black Board
scheme for school where in every school was to be provided by the state department with a
good black and modern teaching materials and aids including a radio and tape recorder.


Our sense are the gateways to acquire the knowledge. It is founded that

We learn









11.0% through


83.8% through



And we remember


of what we



of what we



of what



of what we

see & hear & do

see & hear

Importance Of TLM For Pre-school Children

The importance of Teaching Leaning materials are

Easily motivated

Actively participated

More effective

High level of enthusiasm

Easily remembered

Remember for long period

Managed group of children

Save lot of time and energy

Easily understandable


1. Age, Sex & level appropriate

2. Durable
3. Multipurpose utility
4. Low cost, No cost
5. Up to date
6. Easily available
7. Non Breakable
8. Non toxication
9. Well designed & added beauty
10. Related to the curriculum
11. Easily manipulate in class


1. Use aid only when required. Try and teach in natural environment as per as possible.
2. While training on a task always begin with an easy one and increase the difficulty gradually.
Use a learning aid only if required
3. A learning aid is one that is used to acquire a skill and is faded out often the skill is acquired
(learnt)the fading out of the aids should be very gradually.
4. While learning keep in mind the low frequency occurrence and prepare the child with only
one situation for the problem if it occurs.
5. Flexibility of use of aids for many different purpose and use of Varity of aids to bring novelty
in teaching-leaning process is to be emphasized.
6. Through knowledge of the content ,the use and how to make the best use of the aids



Pre-reading skills are the skills children need in order to help them to become a reader. Many
of these skills are learnt naturally, during the course of a normal childhood, at home and in the
nursery/preschool environment. By talking and reading with your child, you will be doing a
great deal to help these essential skills to develop.

Matching: When we read, part of what we do involves matching. Children learn to match
shapes, patterns, letters and, finally, words.

Rhyming: Research shows that children who can understand about rhyming words have a
head start in learning to read and, even more, to spell.

Letter skills: As well as recognising letter shapes, learning the most common sounds that
each letter makes will give children a head start.

Direction: Print goes from left to right, so children will need to be familiar with where to
start each line and which direction to go in.

Motor skills: Practicing writing letters and words as they learn to read them will help it all to
sink in, so a good pencil grip and control is useful.

Concepts of print: This is all about knowing how to handle books - holding them the right
way up, turning the pages in sequence, exploring the pictures, knowing that the words can be
read to tell a story.

Language skills: The more experience children have of language, the more easily they will
learn to read. Your child needs to hear and join in conversations (with adults and children),
and listen to stories and poetry of all sorts.

Despite the importance of all of these skills, it is an inescapable fact that they will be practiced and
improved by learning to read. There is no need to delay reading until your child passes a test in
'reading readiness'. If they start pretending to read, or asking questions, such as "What does that word
say?", "What letter is that?", this is a more certain sign that they are ready to read. However, they
won't be asking questions like that if they have never heard of words or letters, so reading and sharing
books together, talking about the pictures, following the words as you read with your finger will all

Activities to develop pre-reading skills:


Card games


Activity books which involve matching shapes, pictures and letters

Pairing up socks from the laundry

Shape sorters

Jigsaw puzzles


Sing nursery rhymes

Miss of the end of rhymes for your child to complete, e.g. "Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall,
Humpty Dumpty had a great...?"

When that gets too easy for them, make it harder! "Humpty Dumpty sat in a tree, Humpty
Dumpty had a cup of ...?"

Play rhyming games such as "I Spy with my little eye, something that rhymes with fox"

Encourage your child to sing along to nursery rhymes, pop songs, whatever they enjoy.

Letter Skills

Introduce letters and their sounds gradually

Start with letters that are important to your child, such as their initial, all those with an
interesting shape which makes them easy to recognize.

Use letter sounds rather than names - 'a for ant', not 'ay for ape'. Letter sounds are much more
useful in learning to read than names.

Generally, stick to lower case letters to start with, except for the first letter of a name.

Try using magnetic letters


Your child won't need to know 'left' and 'right' in order to read - lots of adults still get mixed

When reading to your child, follow the print with your finger.

Later, you can ask them where you should start - try reading the words in reverse order, to
demonstrate that the story doesn't make sense if you don't start in the right place.

Many activity books have activities which reinforce left-right direction, such as exercises for
the child to draw a line to take the bunny (on the left) to its hutch (on the right).

Motor Skills

Encourage your child to be creative, drawing and painting with lots of different tools and

Playing with small toys, especially construction sets will help to develop fine motor skills.

Activity books with simple mazes and other exercises involving following a path.

Using child-friendly scissors is a useful skill which also helps improve fine motor skills.

Concepts of Print

Reading books with your child is the best way to help them learn how to handle books.

Have a special place where books are kept, which is within your child's reach.

Visit the library.

Swap books with friends and family.

Try car boot sales for cheap children's books.

Talk about the books you read - point out the title, ask them what they think the book will be
about, etc.

Language Skills

Having conversations with your child about anything and everything is the best way to
develop their language skills.

Reading stories to them will broaden their vocabulary.

Make sure that your child gets plenty of opportunity to talk to other adults and children

Pre-reading Recommendations

Matching shapes and colors

Identification of letters receptive and expressive
Identification of first name- receptive and expressive
Identification of first names and match to picture

Sight word reading and match to picture

Identification of sounds receptive and expressive

Identification of first and last name receptive and


Reading sight words

Reading a simple book


Coloring and scribbling

Tracing name, letters, and numbers

Coloring within lines and attention to task
Cutting and pasting
Tracing and copying words
Writing from dictation
Writing from memory
Coloring, cutting and pasting


Use of a token board

Rote counting to 10
Counting 1 to 10 objects

Identification of numbers 1 to 10 receptive and expressive

Counting sets of objects receptive
Matching sets of objects with numbers 1 to 10
Rote counting to 30
Identification of numbers 11 30 receptive and expressive
Counting objects using numbers
Adding one digit numbers
Subtracting one digit numbers
Identification of money and use of money
Time telling

TLM for developing Pre-Reading skill

Matching shapes and colors
Material- velvet paper, waste card board, glue, scissors.

Matching colors
Material- paper, scale, sketch pen, ice cream sticks

Material- Socks

Jigsaw puzzle
Material cardboard, scissors, glue, tree picture

Letter Identification
Material Old shoe box, paper knife, old incense stick box, small ping pong ball, marker

Letter identification through play

Name identification through puzzle

Material-1. color paper, marker, scissors.
2. ice cream sticks, colour pencils, scissors

Group Activity

Action Dice
Material Unused box, marker, picture.

TLM for developing Pre-Writing Skills

Line tracing
Material- Match stick, glue, cardboard

Play Dough letters

Material- Clay, straw

Letter Tray
Material- Tray/Dish, sand/ flour, shaving foam, color

Salt tray games

Material- Salt, old box, flash card, marker

Sensory tracing
Materials- Sand, paper, pattern draw

Name writing
Materials- colour paper , white paper, pencil, glue

TLM for developing Pre-Math Skills


Materials- Egg crate, square colour paper


Number writing and counting

Material- Flash cards with dots, salt, old box

Balloon counting 1-10

Materials- Baloons, marker

Materials- Ice cream sticks , marker, glue

Number-object relationship

Concrete level



Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) refers to instruction or remediation presented on a

computer. Computer programs are interactive & can illustrate a concept through attractive
animation , sound & demonstration.
They allow students to progress at their own pace &
work individually or problem solve in a group.