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Assignment 1.

Name : Chenchu J Adapala

Northeastern University


Question 1 :


The records are duplicated in this table as we can see the first 3 records have same first name and
second names but these are differed with pay date. So, if I want to update any Pay Date in future for
the Roger, Telly and Grant it may lead to data redundancy.

There are 8 fields per records. Commonly term field has synonyms such as attributes which

is represented as row in table.

Retrieving the data using last names would be a problem because Pay Date is same for two different
records. For instance, If I want to retrieve a Pay date using last names, I could not get accurate
information due to same PayDate(1/17/2000) is used for more than once.

Field names are First Name, Last Name, ID, Hours, GrossPay, Withholding, NetPay,

PayDate. The field names are represented in columns of table.

The records in the table repeated several times. For instance, first record (Roger McHaney) is
repeated 2 times, second record (Telly O'Grady) is repeated for 6 times and third record (Grant
Brikestein) is repeated for 2 more times. The unnecessary data duplication may consume more space
in hard disc and has database speed issues.
The duplicated records are differed by pat date. So, it is good practice to create different relational
table with fields such as first name, last name, id in separate table and relation to remaining table.
This table also has poor database design due to lack of data normalization. For example , Telly has
several records which only differ by Pay Date and which may lead to data anomalies while updating
this information in future.
The data inconsistency in this table also may lead to data anomalies. For instance, Alarry(id : 4) and
Samuel(id: 6) have same number of Hours(40) but their Gross Pay is different.

Question: 2

A data base management system (DBMS) consists five major components. Each component has
its important role in the database management system environment.
Those are:
1. Software
2. Hardware
3. Data
4. Procedures
5. People / Users
Software is the critical component of a DBMS. It contains set of programs which utilized to
handle, control and manage the overall database.
For instance, importance of software components in DBMS can be described with group of
mandatory programs those enable DBMS operations such as operating systems those include

network software that enables to form network between different user computers to share the
data of database among multiple users. An application programs developed in programming
languages such as C++, visual basic that are used to access database to perform different
operations such as retrieving, updating, deleting data etc.
Hardware is also another vital component which is the set of physical (materialistic) electronic
devices such as computers, storage devices, I/O channels, cables etc. It would be impossible to
implement the DBMS without the hardware devices. In fact, in a network, a powerful computer
with high data processing speed and large storage capacity storing devices are required as data
Data is also the one of the vital components of DBMS. The sole purpose of DBMS is to process
data. Data is the collection of raw facts without processing anything. Often databases are defined
as constructed and then data is stored, updated, and retrieved to process information for end user.
Data base is contains both actual (operational) and metadata (description about data).
Procedures can be defined as the group of instructions and rules that help to design the data base
and to use DBMS. For example, procedures to install DBMS, log on to DBMS and to use DBMS
or application program so on are the required procedures to implement and maintain the DBMS
People/ Users:
The people who manage databases and perform different operations on the database on data base
system to retrieve the processed data for business operations. Based on their duties and
operations with database systems, we can define different roles.
Those are:
Application users- who writes application programming languages (such as JAVA, VB, or C++)
Database Administrators- Person who is responsible for managing the overall DBMS.
End-users- People who interact with DBMS to perform different operations such as retrieving,
updating, inserting, sleeting data etc.
Functions of DBMS
A Database management system has many important functions that assure the integrity and
consistency of the data in database. Most of these functions are transparent to end users, and
which can be achieved only through the use of DBMS.
Those functions are:

Data dictionary management: The DBMS has separate dictionary management system and
which stores database definitions, data elements and their relationships in a data dictionary.
While retrieving data, the DBMS uses the data dictionary to verify the required data
component structures and relationships, and thereby which relieving to end user from having
to code such relationships in each program. Moreover, any change made in a database
structure can be automatically recorded in the data dictionary and thus facilitates to modify
all of programs that access the changed structure.
Data storage management: Data storage is very critical in terms of its speed and efficiently
operating its functionalities. The DBMS creates and manages the complex data structures
those require to store data. Therefore, it enables user from the defining and programming the
difficult physical characteristics.

Data transformation and presentation: Data transformation and presentation is the ability
of DBMS that can transform the entered data from one notable form to another presented
form.. DBMS facilitates user of the chore of making a distinction between the logical data
format and the physical data format.
For instance , enterprise database used by multinational company. An end user in Europe
would expect to enter date such as July 17, 2015, as 17/07/2015. In contrast, the same date
would be entered in U.S.A as 07/17/2015. Despite of the data presentation format, DBMS
should manage date in proper format for each country.
Security management: The DBMS provides a security system that assures user security and
data privacy. For example, security rules determine which users can access the database,
which data items each user can access like that for that organization.
Multiuser access control: DBMS uses advanced algorithms to assure multiple users can
access the database concurrently with proper integrity of the database.
Backup and recovery management: As part of managing and assuring data safety and
integrity, DBMS provides backup and recovery of data. DBMS provides special utilities that
allow the Data Base Administrator to perform routine and special backup and restore
procedures. If any failures happen with database in future, the facility is used for successful
recovery of data.

Data integrity management:

The DBMS promotes and enforces integrity rules, and

therefore minimizing data redundancy maximizing data consistency and minimizing data
redundancy. The data relationships stored in the data dictionary are used to enforce data
Data access languages and application programming interfaces: DBMS provides data
access through different query languages such as Structured Query Language (SQL), this
language is supported by majority of database servers.
Database communication interfaces: Present DBMSs accept end-user request through
several different networks such as different web browsers like Mozilla, Internet Explorer, and
Safari. So, communications should be accomplished in several ways.
Conceptual model is correct visualization of proper data model. It can be represented by Entity
Relationship Diagram (ERD)3.
Entity relationship diagram is a graphical representation of data requirement of database design.
Business Rules:
An author writes books.
A book is written by one or more authors.
A book has one subject.
A subject has at least 20 books.
A book is published in a year

From the above rules the entities are

A year

Published (one direction relationship in business rule, consider reversible)
Conceptual model
This conceptual model can be described with ERD (entity relationship diagram)
ERD can be drawn by two notations: those are
Chen Notation
Crows Foot notation

Chen Notation

Cardanality of relationship
Author to book relationship is M: M = many to many
Book to year relationship is 1:M = one to many

Book to subject relationship is 1:N = one to many (specified by number 20)

Crows Foot notation

Cardanality of


Author to book relationship is M: M = many to many

Book to year relationship is 1:M = one to many
Book to subject relationship is 1:N = one to many (specified by number 20)