Anda di halaman 1dari 16

ENGINE GROUND OPERATION

CONTENTS

14.1 INTRODUCTION
14.2 REQUIREMENT OF GROUND OPERATIONS
14.3 INTERPRETATION AND FAMILIARIZATION OF ENGINE POWER
RATINGS AND ENGINE LIMITS
14.4 ENGINE START PROCEDURES
14.5 ENGINE CONDITION MONITORING

Outcome 1
Week 14

Unit Name

Unit No

AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINES

83

Unit value: 1
Unit level: 3
Core code: Group A

Issue Date
31/05/2007
Page 1

14.1 INTRODUCTION
Before an attempt is made to operate an engine installed in an aircraft, the
appropriate aircraft Flight or Operation Manual should be consulted for specific
operating procedures, data, and limits.
The most outstanding feature of a gas turbine engine is its simplicity. The total lack
of intricate valve and timing mechanisms, complicated reciprocating piston
arrangements, or literally thousands of moving parts, leads to remarkable reliability
and ease of operation. The pilot monitors comparatively few instruments, signals
the amount of thrust or power he desires to the fuel control (which does most of
his computing for him), and that is all there is to it.
Once the desired engine thrust or power condition is set up, the fuel control will
maintain an approximately constant percent of the thrust or power rating of the
engine at a fixed throttle position, compensating for changing conditions at the
compressor air inlet. Even if a malfunction should develop, the engine will continue
to operate and produce propulsive force under most conditions.

Ground operations require ground and cockpit preparations, performing pre-start


checks, starting, stabilization at idle power, selecting required power and
stabilization, performing required checks/tests/adjustment at the selected power,
retarding to idle power and allowing for cooling at idle and then shut down.
Although the operation, parameters are to be closely and interpretatively. Checklist
is to be followed strictly. Familiarization and interpretation of the power ratings,
associated parameters are essential for the person performing the ground runs.

14.2 REQUIREMENT OF GROUND OPERATIONS


Engine ground operations may BE required for different checks/tests/adjustments
including start checks, dry and wet motoring checks, start and engine shutdown
checks, engine trimming and performance checks and so on.

14.3 INTERPRETATION AND FAMILIARIZATION OF ENGINE POWER


RATINGS AND ENGINE LIMITS
14.3.1 General: Engine ratings are established by the manufacturers of the
particular engine. At the same time, engine operating limits are also specified to
establish limits of engine speed, engine pressure ratio (EPR), oil pressure and
temperature, exhaust gas temperature (EGT), and time at high thrust levels that
are not detrimental to the engine, and will not result in a decrease of the service

Outcome 1
Week 14

Unit Name

Unit No

AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINES

83

Unit value: 1
Unit level: 3
Core code: Group A

Issue Date
31/05/2007
Page 2

life of the engine. Familiarization to the rated powers, limits, interpretation of


indicated parameters are essential pre-requisite to ground operations.

14.3.2 Engine Ratings: Engine ratings represent the thrust that an engine may
be permitted to develop during various operating conditions such as take-off,
maximum continuous climb, and cruise. An understanding of the ratings is
necessary if one is to use intelligently the engine operating curves presented in the
aircraft Flight or Operation Manual.
The engine ratings for Takeoff and Maximum Continuous thrust for a commercial
engine are defined in statutory regulations e.g. "Definitions and Abbreviations," of
the FAR and also in BCAR and JAR. The manufacturer of the engine establishes
these ratings in terms of pounds of thrust (adding a time limit for the Takeoff
rating). The ratings for each engine series and model are then published by the
manufacturer as part of the engine specification for any particular engine. Upon
approval by the Authority (FAA/JAA/CAA), the Takeoff and Maximum Continuous
thrust ratings are incorporated in what is known as the Type Certificate Data
Sheet. The Maximum Climb and Maximum Cruise ratings for a commercial engine
do not require authoritys approval, and hence are established by the engine
manufacturer who uses his own best judgment in selecting thrust values which will
result in satisfactory, long-term engine life.
Different ratings are explained below:
Takeoff (wet): This is the maximum thrust certified for takeoff for engines that
use water injection. The rating is selected by actuating the water injection system
and setting the aircraft throttle to obtain the computed "wet" Takeoff thrust in
terms of engine pressure ratio. The rating is restricted to takeoff, is time limited,
and has altitude and ambient air or water temperature limitations.
Takeoff (dry): This is the maximum thrust certified without water injection. The
rating is selected by setting the aircraft throttle to obtain the computed Takeoff
(dry) thrust in terms of engine pressure ratio for the prevailing conditions of
ambient temperature and barometric pressure. The rating is time limited, and is to
be used only for takeoff and, as required, for Reverse thrust operations during
landing.
Maximum Continuous: This rating is the maximum thrust certified for
continuous use. For the purposes of P&W service policy coverage and prolonging
engine life, this rating should be used, at the pilot's discretion, only when required
to ensure safe flight.
Maximum Climb: Maximum Climb thrust is the maximum thrust approved for
normal climb. The rating is selected by adjusting the throttle to obtain a

Outcome 1
Week 14

Unit Name

Unit No

AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINES

83

Unit value: 1
Unit level: 3
Core code: Group A

Issue Date
31/05/2007
Page 3

predetermined engine pressure ratio. On some engines, Maximum Continuous and


Maximum Climb thrust are the same.
Maximum Cruise: This is the maximum thrust approved for cruising. It is
obtained in the same manner as Maximum Continuous and Maximum Climb thrust.
Idle: This is not an engine rating, but, rather, a throttle position, suitable for
minimum thrust operation on the ground or in flight. It is obtained by placing the
throttle in the idle position on the throttle quadrant.
When the engine ratings are applied, it is necessary to use the applicable group of
ratings, either commercial or military. The two methods of rating the engines are
necessary because of the difference in commercial and military engine
requirements. In military aircraft, the urgency of the mission frequently determines
how the engine will be operated. When the engine is installed in passenger or
cargo commercial aircraft, the time between engine overhauls and maximum
reliability are of primary concern, and more conservative engine operation becomes
the rule. Commercial engines are "part throttle" engines; that is, rated thrust is
obtained at less than the full-throttle position. Taking their name from the shape of
the Takeoff Thrust Curve, the so-called, part-throttle engines are also known as
"flat rated" engines.

Figure 14.1 illustrates a sample of model specification of a typical engine showing


engine ratings.

14.3.3 Interpretation of parameters: Parameters indicating engine power are:


(i) RPM, (ii) EPR, (iii) Fuel Flow and (iv) EGT
Rated power is represented normally either by speed (RPM) or EPR. Accordingly,
power is set on the basis of the primary indicating parameter (RPM or EPR).
Accordingly, engine is either speed rated or EPR rated.
Speed rated engine of twin spool category uses N1 as the primary thrust indicating
parameter.
Other parameters important for interpretation of engine operating status are the
temperatures and quantity of fluids (oil, fuel, hydraulic)

Outcome 1
Week 14

Unit Name

Unit No

AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINES

83

Unit value: 1
Unit level: 3
Core code: Group A

Issue Date
31/05/2007
Page 4

Figure 14.1: Engine ratings in a model specification

Outcome 1
Week 14

Unit Name

Unit No

AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINES

83

Unit value: 1
Unit level: 3
Core code: Group A

Issue Date
31/05/2007
Page 5

14.3.4 Range and limits of parameters: Range and limits are marked on
parameter indicating instruments allowing the pilot or flight engineers to know
whether the indication shown on the instrument is safe or dangerous.
Most of these markings are painted on the instrument dial itself but some have the
range marks put on the instrument glass. When the marks are on the glass, there is a
possibility that the glass could slip and the markings would not be in their correct
position relative to the dial. For this reason, instruments with the range marks on the
glass must have a slip mark.
This is a small mark of white paint, usually at the bottom of the instrument glass with
part of the mark on the glass and part on the instrument bezel. If the glass slips, the
two parts of the mark will be out of alignment and the pilot or flight engineer will
know that the range marks are not correct.
The following range marks are typical for power plant instruments:

Fuel and Oil Pressure


Red Radial Line: maximum and minimum permissible pressure established as the
engine operating limits.
Green Arc: Normal operating range.
Yellow Arc: Caution ranges, indicating any potential hazards in the fuel system.

Oil Temperature
Red Radial Line: maximum and minimum permissible temperatures established as the
engine operating limits.
Green Arc: normal operating range.
Yellow Arc: Caution ranges indicating any potential hazard from overheating, or from
low temperature.

Tachometer (Turbine Engine)


Red Radial Line: maximum permissible RPM
Green Arc: this arc extends from the maximum RPM for continuous operation to the
minimum RPM recommended for continuous operation.
Yellow Arc: This extends from the maximum RPM for continuous operation to the
maximum RPM.

Outcome 1
Week 14

Unit Name

Unit No

AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINES

83

Unit value: 1
Unit level: 3
Core code: Group A

Issue Date
31/05/2007
Page 6

Torque
Red Radial Line: Maximum permissible torque pressure for wet or dry operation,
whichever is greater.
Green Arc: this extends from the maximum torque pressure for continuous operation
to the minimum torque recommended pressure.
Yellow Arc: This extends form the maximum torque pressure for continuous operation
to the maximum permissible torque pressure.

Exhaust Gas Temperature (Turbine Engine)


Red Radial Line: Maximum permissible gas temperature for wet or dry operation,
whichever is greater.
Green Arc: This extends from the maximum permissible temperature for continuous
operation to the minimum temperature recommended by the engine manufacturer.
Yellow Arc: This extends from the maximum temperature for continuous operation to
the maximum permissible gas temperature.

14.4 ENGINE START PROCEDURES

14.4.1 Preparation for starting an engine


Simple though they may be to start and to operate, jet engines must be respected
for what they are: powerful machines which are safe only when properly handled.
Those who operate the jets must observe the rules:
1. During preflight inspection, particular attention should be paid to the engine air
inlet, the visual condition and free movement of the compressor and turbine
assembly, and to the parking ramp area fore and aft of the aircraft. Check the jet
wake and engine air inlet danger areas (Figure 14.2) for other aircraft, personnel,
parked vehicles, obstructions, and debris.
2. Never attempt to start an engine alone. An observer on the ground should
always be present to warn of an internal engine fire, damage or danger caused by
the engine jet wake, or any other possible mishap.

Outcome 1
Week 14

Unit Name

Unit No

AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINES

83

Unit value: 1
Unit level: 3
Core code: Group A

Issue Date
31/05/2007
Page 7

Figure 14.2: Engine intake and exhaust hazard areas

Outcome 1
Week 14

Unit Name

Unit No

AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINES

83

Unit value: 1
Unit level: 3
Core code: Group A

Issue Date
31/05/2007
Page 8

3. When starting the engines, taxiing, or when working in or around jet powered
aircraft, observe normal, ground safety precautions at all times.
4. Always follow the engine starting and operating procedures prescribed in the
applicable Flight or Operation Manual, Maintenance Manual, or the appropriate
military Technical Order for each particular aircraft and engine.
14.4.2 Engine Starting: The first step in starting an engine is to make certain
that the starter has an adequate source of power. This determined, the typical
starting sequence is then:
(1) rotate the compressor with the starter until a prescribed rpm is reached;
(2) turn on the ignition; and
(3) open the engine fuel valve, either by advancing the aircraft throttle from Off to
Idle or by moving a fuel shutoff valve, or switch, depending upon the type of
engine.
Look up the EGT rise as a first sign of engine light up. Also look for rise in oil
pressure (extinction of oil low pressure light), RPM, Fuel Flow and other
parameters.
Adherence to the procedure for each particular engine is necessary to avoid a socalled hot or hung start. In a hot start, the engine lights up normally, but the
exhaust gas temperature (EGT) exceeds the engine starting temperature limit. In a
hung start, the engine lights up, but does not accelerate properly. Instead of
increasing to idle rpm, the compressor speed hangs at some value below Idle.
Sometimes a hung start will also be a hot start. Hung and hot starts are not
common, but, when they do occur, they can usually be stopped in time to avoid an
excessive temperature, by observing the EGT constantly during the start. When
necessary, the engine is cleared of trapped fuel or gases by continuing to rotate
the compressor with the starter, but with the ignition and fuel turned off.
During the engine starting process and at all times when the engine is operating,
the engine instruments should be monitored carefully. Always observe and respect
the prescribed engine operating limits.
14.4.3 Takeoff Power setting: Jet engines neither require a preflight engine
run-up prior to takeoff nor do they need to be warmed up before flight, even at
temperatures well below zero. Taxiing and engine operation at Idle should be held
to a minimum, as the fuel consumption of turbine engines is relatively high during
ground operation. The engine instruments and many of the aircraft systems may
be checked while the aircraft is being taxied to the takeoff runway, thus saving
valuable time.

Outcome 1
Week 14

Unit Name

Unit No

AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINES

83

Unit value: 1
Unit level: 3
Core code: Group A

Issue Date
31/05/2007
Page 9

As part of planning a flight, Takeoff thrust, in terms of engine pressure ratio (EPR), (or RPM) is determined
for the prevailing ambient temperature and field (not sea level) barometric pressure. For this, a curve similar
to Figure 14.4 called a Takeoff Thrust Setting Curve, is used. Such a curve

appears in the applicable aircraft Flight or Operation Manual. Once an aircraft is in


position on the runway, the takeoff may be started by advancing the aircraft
throttle, to obtain the predetermined EPR value, prior to releasing the aircraft
brakes. An alternate method is to make a rolling takeoff by accelerating the engine
to an intermediate EPR as the aircraft begins its takeoff roll. The final Takeoff
thrust setting should be accomplished at low ground speed. On so-called fullthrottle military engines, Takeoff thrust is obtained by advancing the throttle as far
as it will go. The predetermined EPR, in this case, is used to check, rather than set,
Takeoff thrust.

Figure 14.4: Takeoff thrust setting curve

Outcome 1
Week 14

Unit Name

Unit No

AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINES

83

Unit value: 1
Unit level: 3
Core code: Group A

Issue Date
31/05/2007
Page 10

Engine operation for maintenance purpose may require dry motoring (only
cranking operation), wet motoring (cranking + fuel on), or running at idle power.
Engine is hold for required times performing the checks necessary. Sometimes,
engine may require running at part-power (e.g. for engine trimming) followed by
an MPA (Maximum Power Assurance) checks.
14.4.4 Engine Shutdown: An engine will normally be sufficiently cool after
landing to be shut down as soon as the aircraft reaches the parking area. In case of
engine running for maintenance checks requiring high power setting, engine is
brought to idle power and run for a few minutes for cooling.
Jet engines are shut down by the simple expedient of cutting off fuel to the engine
by closing the main fuel shutoff valve, either with the fuel shutoff lever or switch, or
by retarding the aircraft throttle to Off. The fuel boost pump should be turned off
after, not before, the fuel shutoff valve is closed, to ensure that fuel remains in the
fuel lines and that the engine-driven fuel pump does not lose its prime.
As the compressor coasts to a stop, the engine operator should listen carefully to be
sure that the compressor and turbine rotors decelerate freely. If an engine has been
operated on the ground at high thrust for some length of time, a five-minute cooling
period at Idle is usually desirable prior to shutdown. The turbine case and the turbine
rotors do not cool at the same rate after shutdown. The turbine case, cooling faster,
may shrink down on the still rotating turbine blades if the engine is too hot. Under
extreme conditions, the turbine blades may squeal and seize; hence, the requirement
for a cooling period if the engine has been operating at prolonged high thrust.
Should the turbine rotors seize, no harm will normally result, provided no attempt is
made to rotate the compressor - turbine assembly until the engine has cooled
sufficiently to free the rotors.
Inflight engine shutdowns may be accomplished in the same manner as shutdowns
on the ground. An inoperative engine in flight will windmill at nominal speed. Inflight
engine relights, called air starts, are readily accomplished by following the procedure
outlined in the applicable Flight or Operation Manual.

14.4.5 Emergencies and Malfunctions: Unlike piston engines, jet engines are
not normally prone to extensive engine failure. The engines will, in fact, usually
continue to produce high thrust even when suffering from a serious malfunction.
Millions and millions of flying hours have proved that gas turbine engines are
the most reliable powerplants ever built for aircraft.

Outcome 1
Week 14

Unit Name

Unit No

AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINES

83

Unit value: 1
Unit level: 3
Core code: Group A

Issue Date
31/05/2007
Page 11

Nevertheless, jet engines are still machines. As such, they are subject to occasional
malfunction. Therefore, flight crews and ground crews must remain alert for
trouble, even though the chances are remote. A controllable malfunction during
flight could become a serious emergency if proper action were not taken promptly.
It behooves pilots and flight crews who would meet trouble successfully to know in
advance how to handle any situation in order that they may react almost
instinctively if occasion demands. They must also be alert to the possibility of an
instrumentation malfunction and false indications of trouble. Misinterpretation of
apparently abnormal, engine operation data and subsequent improper correction
could cause a more serious situation than was present in the first place.
It is characteristic of jet engines that an abnormal operating condition which causes
a change in the reading of any one of the four engine performance indicating
instruments (EGT, rpm, EPR, and fuel flow) will also cause a change in the reading of
one or more of the other three performance indicating instruments. The
interrelationship of the readings of these four instruments provides the best key for
determining the cause of a malfunction. The antithesis of this is that, when only one
of the four performance indicating instruments, by itself, indicates an abnormal
reading, the probable cause is an instrumentation system malfunction.
In the event of a simple engine flameout during flight, such as might result from a
severe compressor surge, jet engines may be consistently relighted by a normal air
start procedure at altitudes up to 40,000 feet, and above. But no attempt should be
made to restart an engine which is definitely known to have failed. Should an engine
be shut down during flight as the result of an engine fire, the engine should not be
restarted for the duration of the flight. Broken fuel and oil lines, or shorted electrical
wires, do not mend themselves after the fire is out.
The appropriate Flight or Operation Manual, or the applicable military Technical
Order, should be consulted for emergency procedures and techniques. For
malfunction symptoms and what to do about them, ground maintenance crewmen
should refer to the applicable engine Maintenance Manual.

14.5 ENGINE CONDITION MONITORING


14.5.1 General: On jet-powered aircraft, the internal operating condition of the
aircraft's engines can and should be monitored both during flight and on the
ground by observing the readings of the engine instruments provided in the
aircraft. Characteristically, the performance of gas turbine engines with a fixedarea jet nozzle is much more sensitive to engine condition than is the
performance of piston engines. As a consequence, incipient engine trouble will
often be predicted by the engine instruments well in advance of serious
difficulty. Many imminent difficulties can be analyzed and timely corrective
action taken if the engine instrument readings are closely observed and properly

Outcome 1
Week 14

Unit Name

Unit No

AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINES

83

Unit value: 1
Unit level: 3
Core code: Group A

Issue Date
31/05/2007
Page 12

interpreted. Relatively strict surveillance of the instrument readings with this in


mind is called engine condition monitoring.
Similarly, the instrument readings can be used to make a so-called trend
analysis for individual engines by comparing observed engine performance data
(corrected to standard day conditions at sea level) with average, known data for
a new, or newly overhauled, engine. This enables flight and maintenance crews
to detect engine performance deterioration which might be caused by dirty or
contaminated internal engine parts, damaged compressor blades or vanes, or some
other unsatisfactory condition within the engine.
For engine condition monitoring and the closely associated operational procedure of
making an engine trend analysis, the engine instruments can be divided into two
categories, or groups. The instruments in the first group are used to monitor the so
called mechanical condition parameters, such as oil temperature and pressure,
compressor rpm, and engine vibration. The readings of the instruments in this group
must not
exceed
certain
specified
limits
whenever
the
engine
is
operating.

Outcome 1
Week 14

Unit Name

Unit No

AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINES

83

Unit value: 1
Unit level: 3
Core code: Group A

Issue Date
31/05/2007
Page 13

The instruments in the second category, or group, are used to monitor the engine
performance parameters which, collectively, tell the story of engine performance.
The performance parameter instrumentation consists of engine pressure ratio (or
turbine discharge pressure), fuel flow, exhaust gas temperature, and rpm. In dual
axial flow compressor engines, both the low and high pressure compressor rpm (N1
and N2) are usually instrumented. It should be noted that compressor rpm is
common to both the mechanical parameter and the performance parameter
categories. Both groups of instruments are used to check and monitor the
mechanical condition of the engine and to indicate or predict a malfunction.
A number of airborne monitoring equipment or AIDS (aircraft integrated data
systems) are normally used for taking data for engine condition monitoring on
modern engines.
The condition monitoring devices that gives indication of any engine deterioration
at the earliest possible stage and also enable the area or module in which
deterioration is occurring to be identified. This facilitates quick diagnosis, which can
be followed by scheduled monitoring and subsequent programmed rectification at
major bases, thereby avoiding in-flight shutdown, with resultant aircraft delay, and
minimizing secondary damage.
Monitoring devices and facilities can be broadly categorized as flight deck
indicators, in-flight recorders and ground indicators.

14.5.2 Flight deck indicators: Flight deck indicators are used to monitor engine
parameters such as thrust or power, r.p.m., turbine gas temperature, oil pressure
and vibration. Other devices, however, may be used and these includes
accelerometers for more reliable and precise vibration monitoring, radiation
pyrometers for direct measurement of turbine blade temperature, return oil
temperature indicators, remote indicators for oil tank content, engine surge or stall
detectors, rub indicators to sense eccentric running of rotating assemblies and so on.

14.5.3 In-flight recorders: Selected engine parameters are recorded, either


manually or automatically, during flight. The recordings are processed and
analyzed for significant trends indicative of the commencement of failure. An inflight recording device that may be used is the time/temperature cycle recorder.
The purpose of this device is to accurately record the engine time spent operating
at critical high turbine gas temperatures, thus providing a more realistic measure of
'hot-end' life than that provided by total engine running hours.
14.5.4 AIDS: Automatic systems known as aircraft integrated data systems
(A,I.D.S) are able to record parameters additional to those normally displayed e.g.
certain pressures, temperatures and flows.
Outcome 1
Week 14

Unit Name

Unit No

AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINES

83

Unit value: 1
Unit level: 3
Core code: Group A

Issue Date
31/05/2007
Page 14

Many of the electronic components used in modern control systems have the ability to
monitor their own and associated component operation. Any fault detected is
recorded in its built-in memory for subsequent retrieval and rectification by the
ground crew. On aircraft that feature electronic engine parameter flight deck displays,
certain faults are also automatically brought to the flight crew's attention.
There are specially developed software through which in-flight-data that has been
stored into appropriate media like magnetic tape, CD-ROM etc may be retrieved in the
computer and trend charts may be obtained. These trend charts/graphs are good
tools for analyzing engine health.
Alternatively, appropriate tables/formats are supplied in the cockpit for manually
entering take off and cruise data like speed, vibration, EGT from which trend charts
may be obtained for the purpose of health monitoring.
14.5.5 Ground indicators: The devices used or checked on the ground, as
distinct from those used or checked in flight, may conveniently be referred to as
ground indicators; this title is also taken to embrace instruments used for engine
internal inspection.
Internal viewing instruments can be either flexible or rigid, designed either for end or
angled viewing and, in some instances adaptable for still or video photography
which may be linked to close circuit television. These instruments are used for
examining and assessing the condition of the compressor and turbine assemblies,
nozzle guide vanes and combustion system, and can be inserted through access
ports located at strategic points in the engine main casings. The borescopic
instruments are the most commonly used devices for viewing engine interior. One
person hand cranks the slowly through a drive in the gearbox, while another
authorized person views the engine static and rotary blades and discs through
probes.
14.5.6 The engine condition indicators: These include magnetic chip detectors,
oil filters and certain fuel filters. These indicators are frequently used to substantiate
indications of failures shown by flight deck monitoring and in-flight recordings. For
instance, inspection of the oil filters and chip detectors can reveal deposits from
which experienced personnel can recognize early signs of failure. Some maintenance
organizations progressively log oil filter and magnetic chip detector history and
catalogue the yield of particles. Fuel filters may incorporate a silver strip indicator
that detects any abnormal concentration of sulphur in the fuel.
14.5.7 Oil sampling and laboratory analysis: his is a periodic sampling system
called spectrometric oil analysis program (SOAP). Oil sample from oil tank is taken
periodically to the laboratory where oil is burned producing a spectrum that carries
characteristics of presence of metals. Concentrations of those metals are read out
from the spectrum. From these information, trend of wearing away of oil wetted
surfaces (bearing races, gears) are determined.

Outcome 1
Week 14

Unit Name

Unit No

AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINES

83

Unit value: 1
Unit level: 3
Core code: Group A

Issue Date
31/05/2007
Page 15

---

Outcome 1
Week 14

Unit Name

Unit No

AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINES

83

Unit value: 1
Unit level: 3
Core code: Group A

Issue Date
31/05/2007
Page 16