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Distillation of Gin

Chan*, Cruz, E., Cruz, I., and Cusi


Department of Chemistry, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines

Abstract

4.2 mL of the residue was collected.

Distillation is a separation technique


which involves the process of evaporation

Introduction

and condensation. It also takes advantage in


the differences in boiling points of the

Distillation is a widely used method

liquids in a mixture. Distillation may result

for separating mixtures based on differences

in essentially complete separation (nearly

in the conditions required to change the

pure components), or it may be a partial

phase of components of the mixture. To

separation that increases the concentration

separate a mixture of liquids, the liquid can

of selected components of the mixture. The

be heated to force components, which have

group's objectives in this experiment is to

different boiling points, into the gas phase.

separate and calculate in percentage the

The gas is then condensed back into liquid

alcohol content of a commercially bought

form and collected. Although the term is

gin by distillation process and to compare

most commonly applied to liquids, the

the efficiency of simple and fractional

reverse process can be used to separate

distillation techniques. Test tubes were

gases by liquefying components using

calibrated

0.5mL

changes in temperature and/or pressure. The

respectively. 15 mL of the Ginebra gin was

distillation process is simply the evaporation

collected and was heated using a Bunsen

of the more volatile substance in a mixture

burner in a circular motion. Distillates were

at a certain temperature, which in this case is

collected and the temperature was collected.

78.50C for Ethanol (C2H602), and the

The group stopped distilling the Ginebra gin

condensation of the vapor. There are four

once the temperature reached 97C . The %

types

Recovery of the Ethanol in the fractional

distillation, fractional distillation, vacuum

distillation is 60% and the % Loss is 40%.

distillation, and steam distillation.

and

were

labeled

of

distillation

namely

simple

points of the compounds. The goal is to heat


Simple distillation is a process by

and separate the components at temperatures

which components in a chemical mixture are

below their decomposition point. However,

separated according to their different boiling

the main focus will be on fractional

points. Fractional distillation is similar to

distillation since it was the method used by

simple distillation, only that vapors from a

the researchers.

boiling

solution

are

passed

along

fractionating column. The purpose of the

The objectives in this experiment is

fractionating column is to increase the

to separate and calculate in percentage the

surface area. It also serves as a theoretical

alcohol content of a commercially bought

plate, which in many separation processes is

gin by distillation process and to compare

a hypothetical zone or stage in which two

the efficiency of simple and fractional

phases, such as the liquid and vapor phases

distillation techniques.

of a substance, establish an equilibrium with


each other. Such equilibrium stages may
also be referred to as an equilibrium stage,

Results and Discussion

ideal stage, or a theoretical tray. The


temperature

gradually

This section analyzes the results of

decreases along its length. Components with

the experiment. The experiment went as

a higher boiling points condense on the

expected with no unusual events that would

column

solution;

have introduced error. 15mL of the Ginebra

components with a lower boiling points pass

gin was transferred in a distilling flask and 2

through the column and are collected.

pieces of boiling chips were added. The

Vacuum distillation is the distillation of a

flask was heated by rotating a Bunsen

liquid under reduced pressure, enabling it to

burner underneath.

and

of

the

return

column

to

the

boil at a lower temperature than normal.


Steam distillation is a separation process

Boiling chips were added to the

used to purify or isolate temperature

sample gin because boiling chips work by

sensitive materials, like natural aromatic

providing nucleation sites which traps air

compounds. Steam or water is added to the

inside holes and releases so that the liquid

distillation apparatus, lowering the boiling

boils

smoothly

without

becoming

superheated or bumped. It also prevents


bumping, an occurrence in chemistry where
liquids boiled in a test tube superheat or
having a sudden increase in temperature
before undergoing a sudden release of vapor,
expelling the liquid from the container.
Glycerol, which is an alcohol, was also used
in this experiment to help even-out heating.

Figures 1 shows the set-up for simple


distillation.

The temperature recorded by the group and


Volume

Temperature

1st drop

60.8C

0.5 mL

70.9C

Test tube # 2

0.5 mL

74.3C

Test tube # 3

0.5 mL

75.4C

Test tube # 4

0.5 mL

77.1C

Test tube # 5

0.5 mL

76.9C

Test tube # 6

0.5 mL

77.7C

Test tube # 7

0.5 mL

78C

Test tube # 8

0.5 mL

78.6C

Test tube # 9

0.5 mL

76.8C

Test tube # 1

Figures 2 shows the set-up for fractional


distillation.

Test tube # 10
0.5 mL
77.7C
the partner group in the collection of the
distillates can be seen in Tables 1 and 2
respectively.

Test tube # 11

0.5 mL

78.6C

Test tube # 19

0.5 mL

92.5C

Test tube # 12

0.5 mL

80.2C

Test tube # 20

0.5 mL

93C

Test tube # 13

0.5 mL

84.6C

Test tube # 21

0.5 mL

93.6C

Test tube # 14

0.5 mL

93.7C

Test tube # 15

0.5 mL

95.8C

Test tube # 16

0.5 mL

95.2C

Test tube # 17

0.5 mL

97.5C

Test tube # 18

0.5 mL

97.6C

Table 2. Simple Distillation Distillates


(Ethanol)

Based on the following graphs, we can see


that the temperature of the initial drop was

Table 1. Fractional Distillation Distillates


(Ethanol)

relatively lower than that of the final


temperature. The possible explanation for
this is that the substance with the lower
boiling point vaporizes first before the other

Volume

Temperature

substance, which in this case, the Ethanol

1 drop

66C

being the substance which has the lower

0.5 mL

73.6C

Test tube # 2

0.5 mL

75.9C

Test tube # 3

0.5 mL

76.7C

Test tube # 4

0.5 mL

77.3C

Test tube # 5

0.5 mL

78.2C

Test tube # 6

0.5 mL

79.1C

Test tube # 7

0.5 mL

79.6C

condensed into liquid again which leaves

Test tube # 8

0.5 mL

80.7C

water in the flask that is why the

Test tube # 9

0.5 mL

81.7C

thermometer is reading temperatures close

Test tube # 10

0.5 mL

82.3C

to 100C the boiling point of water.

Test tube # 11

0.5 mL

84C

Test tube # 12

0.5 mL

85.5C

Test tube # 13

0.5 mL

87.9C

Test tube # 14

0.5 mL

89.6C

Test tube # 15

0.5 mL

90.7C

Test tube # 16

0.5 mL

89.6C

Test tube # 17

0.5 mL

91C

Test tube # 18

0.5 mL

91.7C

st

Test tube # 1

boiling point. We can then conclude that the


trend in increasing temperature as the
distillation process continues is due to the
fact that the Ethanol in the mixture is
continuously evaporating and being

Below are the equations used for computing


the % Recovery of Ethanol and the % Loss.

% Recovery (Ethanol)

15.0 mL Gin(9.0 mL Ethanol4.2mL Residue)


x 100
15.0 mL Sample Gin

Volume of Ethanol(VE)
x 100
Volume of Sample(VS)

= 40%

As can be seen from the graph below, the


% Loss

temperature increases as the volume of the


distillates also increases.

V S(V EVolume of Residue)


x 100
VS

Temp(C)/Volume
120

These equations led to the values of %

100

Recovery and % Loss that are shown below.


80

% Recovery (Ethanol)
9.0 mL Ethanol Distillate

x 100
15.0 mL Sample Gin

60

40

20

= 60%

% Loss

Temp(C)/Volu
me

Experimental
References:
15 ml of Ginebra gin was used. The
gin was transferred in a distilling flask and 2
pieces of boiling chips were added. The
flask was heated by rotating a Bunsen
burner underneath it. The mixture was
distilled by fractional distillation. The
temperature of the first drop of distillate of
the first test tube was recorded. The
temperatures of every 0.5mL distillates of
the succeeding test tubes were recorded. The
Bunsen burner was removed once the
temperature is consistent at 97C or higher
or approximately 1 mL is left in flask. The
residue was measured using a graduated
cylinder.

Lassar-Cohn: Manual of Organic


Chemistry(1896). Retrieved from
http://www.theodora.com/encyclope
dia/d/distillation.html

Hardwood, L.M., Moody, C.J. Experimental


Organic Chemistry: Principles and
Practice (Illustrated
978-0-632-02017-1

ed.). ISBN