SPE 13054
Use of Pressure Transient Testing To Evaluate Fractured Reservoirs
in Western Venezuela
bv G. Da Prat,* INTEVEP S.A.; J. Mannucci, Corpoven S.A.; L. Prado,* INTEVEP S.A.; and E. Millan,
Chpoven S.A.
SPE Members
ASSTRACT
For a naturally fractured reservoir the existence of two semilog straight lines when analysing
real pressure traneient data is seldom observed and
some existing models for interpretation of fractured
systems have always been subjected to controversy.
In this study an analysis of pressure transient data
taken in wells completed in fractured reservoirs in
Western Venezuela has shown the existence of two
welldefined parallel semilog straight lines which
confirms the Warren and Root model from a practical
viewpoint. The data was analyeed using the typecurve corresponding to the solutione for a well with
wellbore storage and skin in a reservoir with double
porosity (pseudosteady etate flow). The analysis
provides valuee for the dimensionless fractured
storage parameter, u and the dimensionless matrixfracture permeability ratio, A which are considered
to be representative of a twoporosity system.
Finally, a production forecast analysie ie made for
thereservoir using the ~M~ii.ed Yalues cf w a!?d$.,
INT~DUCTIOW
Naturally fractured reservoira, also called two
porosity systems, have been the eubject of study for
many years.
From a geological viewpoint, the identification
of the type of porosity contributing to fluid storage still is a subject of controversy specially for
new discoveries. It can be said that a fractured
reservoir still poeee a technological and economical
challenge.
Many are the cases where a well starts
producing at a high rate and then, in a matter of a
month or two production drops considerably without a
clear explanation of the problem.
Looking at the
literature over the past twenty years, a tremendous
amount of effort is being conducted to improve techniques for obtaining a better reeervoir description,
well dynamics and reservoir engineering of a fractured system1J14
Pressure transient teeting has proven to be a
valuable technique for reservoir description and
evaluation.
References and illustrations at end of paper.
Specifically
for
two
porosity
systems
many
(+
SPE 13054
5PE lln:A
o
qD .
r~D  1
A = 0.0125
141.2qB~
kfh
(Pi  Pwf)
rw = Wellbore radius, ft
re = Outher boundary radius, ft
reD
 = Dimensionless outer boundary radius, re/rw
. Skin effect
. time, hours
tD = Dimensionless time
s
t
At = Elapsed time, hr
T.+.mrynnitV
factor~ ft2
&..w=.= f~QW Shape
c=
Dimensionless fracture storage
u)=
. Viscosity, cp
Dimensionless matrix/fracture permeability ratio
$ = Porosity, fraction
2
This will occur at a time given by
r2
~n[eD
%=.2
(ln
reD
3/4)]
. 2 x 105
~1 w
?.~ttav
.
... $~i~ time
..:the flow rate stays constant
until the exponential term in the long time solution
for the flow rate dominates. It dominates until the
flow rate becomes zero as the final depletion state.
A similar analysis can be made for wells ALT17 and
14RW2X.
f = Fracture
m = Matrix
D = Dimensionless
S1 Metric Ccnwersion
Factor
CONCLUSIONS
Analysis of pressure transient testa (buildup
anti &raw&owii)
&ata fi~= wells ~ecated i~ frECk~urSd
reservoirs in Western Venezuela have verified the
existence of two parallel semilog straight lines as
predicted by the Warren and Root model.
For wells
where the initial straight line was subject to
controversy the type curve matching technique using
the solution for a two porosity system considering
3.
Warren, i.7.
E. and Root, P.J.: The Behavior of
Naturally Fractured Reservoirs, SpE J. (Sept.
1963), 245255.
4.
5.
6.
De Swaan, O.A.: Analytic Solutions for Determining Naturally Fractured Properties by Well
Testing,e SPZ Z. (Jiii,?
!9?5), !17!22.
7.
s.
9,
10.
II*
Mevor, M.J. and CincoLey, H.: Transient Pressure Behavior of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs, Paper SPE 7977, presented at the 1979
California Regional Meeting, SPE of AIME,
Ventura, California, Apr. 1s20, 1979.
Prat, G. CincoLey, H., and Remey, H. Jr. :
Decline Curve Analysis using TypeCurves for
Two Porosity Systems, SPE J. (June 198?) ~~&362.
Da
SPE 13054
solutions
that
match
the test
system,
and
1~1.z
q Bu
D)
[
Apm
. 141.2 (2700)(1.S235)(0.362)(~)
= 302 mdft
C is obtained from the time match:
302
{&}
33S9(0.362)
c={~}M=
= 0.046 bbl/psi
To obtain, S, we need to calculate (cD)f~
(c~)fh
0.S936[0.046)
0.S936 C (1s18 106)(65)(0.2917)2
($ct)ftihr~
= 6298
s = 0.5 in
(CDe2s)
*=0.51n_Q=6298
(CD)f~
5.53
u can be obtained as
~ ~ (cDe2s)f~
( CDe 2s)f
= 0.1 _ 0.10
1
and k is given by
12.
StrelstovaAdame , T.D.
Hydrodynamics
of
Groundwater Fiow in a Fracturei Formdtioii,=
Water Reeourcee Research (June 1976), ~,
N
13, 405.
13.
14.
APPlnQDxxA
PRESSURS TRAWSIEWT AWALYSIS FUR W5L
WGLOG AWALYSXS
MACB3X
DRAWDDWW TEST
The drawdown test preesure data for this well
is shown in Table 1.
The preesure difference
(Pwf  pwf (At = 0) ) waa plotted as a function of
time on tracing paper and then placed over the type
curve for a well with wellbore storage and skin
(reservoir with double porosity behavior) ae seen in
Fig. 12. From the chosen match point we have:
(~e2s)f
(c~ezs)f+m=
?bezs=
!jxIO2
system
and
c=%p{&}
=3389; ~!362) $+
.
= 0.06 bbl/psi
(CD)fh
SPE 13054
0.8936(0.06)
08936; =
(1.18x106(65)(0.2917)2
(I$C)
~luw
m = 850 psi/cycle
= 8215
De2s)f+m=
S = 0.5 in
0*5 In
(CD)f*
.1
=
8215
 5.67
~P1hr=Pwf !At=o!
s=
~ < (CDe2s)fti
(c~e2s)f
1.15
m
0.1
==
..
+ 3.23]
 log ~
+pcthr$
0.10
407
. 1.151 [9850  9670  log
(65)(24.5x106)(0.048)
S50
Notice that
for the buildup case the short
production time was considered to make the appropriate match on the type curve.
+ 3.23] =  5.52
(0.362)(0.2917)2
According to Warren and
Root:
AWALYSIS
&&
Drawdown
u=
A semilog graph for this well is shown in Fig.
6. According to the loglog analysis, two parallel
semilog straight lines exist.
For the fissure
system the straight line should start after At =
0.74 hr, and for the total system the straight line
starts after At = 10.3 hr.
Two parallel semilog
StSai3b.t~in.eSare SeQn..
m = 1080 psi/cycle
Vertical distance 6P is:
PSi
According
to
10
and
Root,
is
given
by:
162.6 auB
m
ilhr
1.15 [m
. 1.15 [41080
TSBT
At = 1 hr
..,3 ~.
2700
(1.S2335)
1080
= 268 md  ft
curves
that
matched
the
test
kfh=
kh
log
log (
3.23] =
BV (h)
Ap m
(opct)r~ h
268
(24.5x106)(0.048) (0.362)
= 400 ma  ft
the
DRAWDWS
(CDe2s)f
s=
APPENDIX B
PRSBBURB TRAUSIEWT ASALYSIS POR WELL ALIT17
LOGW
AWALYSIS
The solutions
tits were:
m = 101 = 0.10
850 = 0.15
~
(0=
2QQ
= 10
Tineslope is:
6P = 1080
10
JQL
3389 V
{d&_}
tD/CD M
= 0.016 bbl/psi
400
{J}
3389 (0.52) 14
wellbore
(c~)fm
527
{d}
3389 (0.52) 24
!),8936(0.016)
= (0.038)(74.6x106)(24)
0.B936 c
(bet)f~hr$
SPE 13054
.012 bbl/psi
= 1494
(0.375)2
Theu, the akin factwr, S, c11

tilculateu u~:
0.8936 (0.012)
0.8936 C
(cD)fti =
=
(O.O38)(74.6X1O6)(24)
(@c)thr$
1121
(0.375)*
(~e2s)fa
=0.51n~
S = 0.5 in
=5.15
(CJ))f*
stimulated wellbore.
s,
is
s=
5.36
1121
u is given by:
~ ~ (CDe2s)fti
u is given by:
5X1O*
==0.5
101
(CDe2s)f
(cDe2s)f~=
2.5x102
0.5
IA)<
(CDe2s)f
A can
be
5X1O2
computed
as:
2(5.36) = 4.4X1O6
A = (Ae2S)e2S s (2x10l)e
The fracture halflenght can be computes from
the skin as:
l%sf
SMImc+
Buildup
ANALYSIS
.
AS
At = 1 hr and tD/CD = 24
Ap = 1000 pai and~
= 1.5
The pressure
test
aata
were:
(CDe2s)f =
~cDe2s)fa
2,
for
the
fissures
 ~.bxlo
2
,
fey
the
5x1O
(Le2s)~ = 2X1O 1
SVntem
.f
tO&d
the transition
for
875 psi/cycle
Aps = 1913t3
psi + p~ = 11116 pSi
The value
a ractured
f@ lhr
welli3.
The
141.2qBW
141.2
(1.478)
(0.52) ~
~lhr
1*151 [m
s=
From the At  ~/CD
P,hr
9166
PSi
= 527 mdft
constant is
product
&Mi
(~)
Ap M
(3240)
=  50
1.151 [*875
+
(0.375)*
+ 3.23 + log=]
k
(Opct)r:
P
19
log
(0.038)(0.52)(74.6x106)
log
3.23
log
160)]
(
159
=
5.51
G.
SPE 13054
DA
Drawdown
(cD)fa
0.8936 C
0.8936 (0.02)
(0.0S2)(1.5X105)(29)
($ct)fahr~
A graph
of Ap vs log At is shown in Fig. 9. As
for the buildup case there is not a clear indication of a two porosity system by just looking a the
setilog graph. According to the loglog SOIUtiOn,
the initial straignt Line snoula si=artat At = 5 nr.
For the total system, the semilog straight line
should start at At = 11 hr. Using the semilog
straight line for the total system we have:
= 25799
(0.175)2
The skin factor, s, is given bY:
(~e2s)fti=
s = 0.5 in
o s In 0.5x102
=
.
25799
(cD)f*
 2.78
m = 1070 psi/cycle
u
is given by:
s .
1.151
~ 1hr
[
log
(J_
A
A =
3.23]
0.10
,03
(C~e2s)f
1070
The
102
==
a<
@*ctr$
Drawdown Test
1.151
[=1070
16
log
(0.038)
(0.52)(0.746x~04
+ 3.23] =  5.2
(o.375)~
APPmmIx c
PSES8WSS TRANSIEST ANALYSIS FOR WELL 148242X
mL@
AUALYSIS
At At = 1 hr,
At AP = 1000
pSi,
3.8
BUILDUP TEST
and for the matched curves:
The buildup pressure data for this well is
show in Table 3. <e pressure difference (Pwa Pws
(At = 0)] was plotted as a function of time on
tracing paper and then placed over the type curve as
From the chosen match point:
shown in Fig. 16.
at At = 1 hr,
at
tD/cQ = 27
(CDe2s)f+m
102,
for
the
total
system
and
kfh =
141.2qBP
(~)
Ap M
141 .2(2160)(1.2816)(1.8142)(~)
. 2625 mdft
(CDe2s)f+m
= 102, for the total system
~Ae2s) = 104, for the transition
and
From the At  t~CD
c= A
3389 P
kfh = 141.2qBp
=
141.2
(2160)
{A}
t~CD
.
M
(~)
(1.2816)(M142)(&)
match:
2695
{:}
3389(1.8142)
= 0.01 bbl/psi
=
(cD)fti =
0.8936 C
(Oct)ftihr$
=
2624
0.8936 (0.01)
(O.O52)(1.5X1O5 )
mdft
12900
(29)(0.175)2
2624
{+}
3389(1.8142)
= 0.02 bbl/psi
s = 0.5 h
cDe2s)fa
(cD)f*
= 0.5 In&=
12900
 2.43
w is
w<
(CDe2s)fti
~%e2s j~
kfh =
by:
given
2160)(
1.2816)(
1.8142)
3446
ndft
237
,02
~=
~ ,
A can
162.6[
SPE 13054
as:
calculated
Plhr
1.151 [m
1.151 [237
log ()
h
~pcth~
log
+ 3.23]
3446
(0.052)(1.5x1u5)(2s)(0.175)2
+ 3.23] = 0.57
~
AWALYSIS
Suildup Test
A horner graph of the buildup data is shown in
Fi9. 8. Almost all the data points fit a straight
line; therefore, it is difficult to conclude that we
are dealing with a fractured system. According to
the loglog analysis the semilog straight line for
the ii sure system should start at At = 3.9 hr
t+ft
(~
= 29.9), and, for the fissure plus matrix
system, the semilo straight line should stati at
t+A?
At= 4.8hr (~=
24.4). The slope is:
n = 268 psi/cycle
$h
= 162.6 aBM=
m
= 3047 mdft
162.6(2160)(1.2816)(1.8142)
268
1.15
[~log
m
= 1.151 [w268
kh
,3,23
+log~]
($pct)hr~
P
3047
log
(0.054)(1.5x105)(29)(0.175)2
113.5
+ 3.23 + log 1
112.5
=
2.14
Drawdown
A plot of Ap vs log At is shown in Fig. 7. As
compared with the horner plot for the same well, the
data points form an S shape that could be attributed to two porosity systems.
For this caee, the
loglog analysis can tell where the initial semilog
etraight line should stati.
15,
According to Fi+
it
should start at At = 2.3 hr. As can be seen,
there is only one point satisfying this condition.
It is believed that the system is already on the
transition period after At = 2.3 hr. For the total
system the semilogstraight line starte at At = 2
hrs. Using thie line, we have:
m = 237 psi/cycle
ApIhr
= 1415psi
g
1A)=1O
.lO=
=0.30
3224 B/D
[Buildup)
, 9 = 2700
B/D
(Drawdown)
= 651
= 1.8235
RB/STB
= 0.362 Cp
iiiid&ata
Reservoir
anti
B/D
3240
CL = 24.5
X 106 psil
$ = 4.8 %
rw = 0.2917
T = 270F,tp = 56 hr
p(At=O)
= 9670 PSi
DRAWDOWN
BUILDUP TEST
At(hr)
At(hr)
Pw~(Psi)
0.25
0.50
0.75
10095
10255
II)*51
0.25
i).5u
10564
10631
10703
10743
10806
10814
10830
10854
0.75
1.00
1.25
1.50
1.75
2.00
2.50
3.00
1.00
1.25
1.50
1.75
2.00
2.25
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
12.00
14.00
16.00
18.00
20.00
24.00
28.00
32.00
36.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
55.00
70.00
72.00
75.00
79.00
83.00
87.00
92.00
97.00
102.00
107.00
112.00
117.00
122.00
127.00
13s.00
140.00
142.00
145.00
148.00
153.00
1s7.00
160.00
164.00
169.00
174.00
178.00
1B3.00
ii3876
1087s
10902
10902
10917
10925
10933
10941
10941
10950
10959
10958
10973
10982
10939
10989
10989
11045
11109
11109
11109
11141
11149
11149
11156
11165
11165
11181
11181
111s9
11197
11200
11200
11200
11200
11229
11229
11252
11252
11268
11284
11292
11300
11300
11308
11316
11316
11316
~e~g
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
12.00
14.00
16.00
18.00
20.00
24.00
28.00
32.00
36.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
55.00
66.00
67.00
69.00
71.00
74.00
77.00
80.00
84.00
88.00
92.00
96.00
100.00
104.00
108.00
112.00
116.00
120.00
131.00
132.00
134.00
136.00
138.00
143.00
148.00
153.00
158.00
163.00
168.00
173.00
178.00
DRAWDOWN
BUILDUP TEBT
TEST
Pwf(psi)
11347
10989
lIJb30
10486
10359
10343
10271
10215
101s3
10136
10112
10080
10056
1004B
10040
10032
10016
10000
9984
9968
9960
9936
9920
9904
9880
9864
9832
9816
9?92
9759
9735
9703
9679
9647
9487
9479
9463
9455
9447
9431
9423
9406
9382
9358
9342
9326
9302
9294
9270
9246
9230
9150
9142
9134
9125
9117
9109
9085
9061
9037
9021
9013
9005
8981
At(hr)
0.08
0.17
0.25
0.33
0.42
0.50
0.5s
0.66
0.75
0.s3
0.92
1.00
1.15
1.30
2.00
3.00
5.00
7.00
10.00
15.00
19.20
25.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
55.00
60.00
63.00
63.50
64.00
65.00
67.00
70.00
73.00
78.00
83.00
8S.00
93.00
98.00
103.00
108.00
113.00
11s.00
123.80
127.00
132.00
137.00
147.00
157.00
167.00
175.00
182.30
TEST
Pw=(Psi)
At(hr)
Pwf(Psi)
9216
9381
9449
9505
9547
9581
9606
9623
9638
9652
9667
9676
9690
9717
9742
9777
9832
9917
9984
10067
10176
10255
10346
10409
10459
10507
10551
10588
10613
1(3(s39
10650
10652
10654
10657
10662
10673
106B2
10696
10711
10723
10737
10745
10751
10758
10764
10769
10774
10786
10793
10803
10816
10842
10861
10B71
10896
10896
10S61
10851
10s00
10770
10728
10700
10646
10590
10552
1051s
10498
10462
9il*Aa
,.,~
10281
1019s
100s5
10003
9905
97s0
9679
9592
9517
9460
9406
9353
9302
9264
9227
9145
~i33
0.08
0.17
0.25
0.33
0.42
0.50
0.58
0.66
0.75
0.83
0.92
1.00
1.50
2.00
3.00
5.50
7.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
55.00
60.00
63.00
67.00
70.00
73.00
78.00
S3.00
S8.00
93.00
98.05
108.00
113.00
118.00
123.00
125.00
126.00
128.00
130.00
132.00
134.00
136.00
139.00
144.00
149.00
154.00
159.00
164.00
169.00
172.00
9115
9098
9070
9045
9016
S993
8967
S918
8901
8877
SS58
8S02
8797
S790
s7a3
8776
8766
8764
8761
S739
8727
8716
8701
S686
8671
S663
sJ?Ei305~
TABLE 3.
h
B
P
DRAWDOWW
BUILDUP TEST
TEST
At(hr)
Pw8(Psi)
At(hr)
pwf(pai)
0.25
0.33
0.42
0.50
0.67
0.s3
1.00
1.25
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
4.50
6.00
S.oo
6904
6960
7020
7059
7070
7097
7126
7155
7179
7214
7239
7264
7316
7345
7372
7396
0.25
0.33
0.42
0.50
0.67
0.83
1.00
1.25
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
4.50
6.00
B.00
6328
6313
6297
6290
6259
624S
6221
6202
6171
6161
6148
6133
6123
6116
6102
10.01
12.50
15.00
20.00
25.00
30.00
40.00
~~=g~
60.00
So. oo
100.00
125.00
TABLE 4.
60SS
6076
6067
6052
6024
6007
5979
5966
5935
5s97
5s51
5735
10.01
12.50
15.00
20.00
25.00
30.00
40.00
45.00
60.00
80.00
100.00
125.00
7417
7435
7464
7485
7497
752S
1535
7562
7586
7610
7638
SUMMARY
MACH 3X
OF
RJ?SJLTS
ALT17
14RN2x
AWALYSIS
kh
mdft
kh
kh
TYPE CURVE
BUILDUP
420
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