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SPE

SPE 13054
Use of Pressure Transient Testing To Evaluate Fractured Reservoirs
in Western Venezuela
bv G. Da Prat,* INTEVEP S.A.; J. Mannucci, Corpoven S.A.; L. Prado,* INTEVEP S.A.; and E. Millan,
Chpoven S.A.
SPE Members

Copyright 19S4 S@ety of Petroleum Engineers of AlME


This paper was presented at the 59th AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibitionheld in Houston,Texas, September 16-19,1984. The materiil ia subject to correctionby the author. Permissionto copy is restrictedto an abstractof not more than 500 worda Write SPE, 6200 Norih Central Expressway,
Drawer 64706, Dalles, Texas 75206 USA. Telex 730969 SPEDAL.

ASSTRACT

For a naturally fractured reservoir the existence of two semi-log straight lines when analysing
real pressure traneient data is seldom observed and
some existing models for interpretation of fractured
systems have always been subjected to controversy.
In this study an analysis of pressure transient data
taken in wells completed in fractured reservoirs in
Western Venezuela has shown the existence of two
well-defined parallel semilog straight lines which
confirms the Warren and Root model from a practical
viewpoint. The data was analyeed using the typecurve corresponding to the solutione for a well with
wellbore storage and skin in a reservoir with double
porosity (pseudo-steady etate flow). The analysis
provides valuee for the dimensionless fractured
storage parameter, u and the dimensionless matrixfracture permeability ratio, A which are considered
to be representative of a two-porosity system.
Finally, a production forecast analysie ie made for
t-hereservoir using the ~M~ii.ed Yalues cf w a!?d$.,
INT~DUCTIOW
Naturally fractured reservoira, also called two
porosity systems, have been the eubject of study for
many years.
From a geological viewpoint, the identification
of the type of porosity contributing to fluid storage still is a subject of controversy specially for
new discoveries. It can be said that a fractured
reservoir still poeee a technological and economical
challenge.
Many are the cases where a well starts
producing at a high rate and then, in a matter of a
month or two production drops considerably without a
clear explanation of the problem.
Looking at the
literature over the past twenty years, a tremendous
amount of effort is being conducted to improve techniques for obtaining a better reeervoir description,
well dynamics and reservoir engineering of a fractured system1J14
Pressure transient teeting has proven to be a
valuable technique for reservoir description and
evaluation.
References and illustrations at end of paper.

Specifically

for

two

porosity

systems

many

models for interpreting


pressure transient data
have been presented over the past twenty years2-12.
Type curves are available for analysing Wells
completed in these systeme13, including wellbore
storage and akin effects.
Also, conetant pressure eolutions which define
declining production rates with time have been
presented that can be used to make a production
forecast analysis for finite and infinite fractured
reservoirs.
However, from a practical viewpoint many of
the existing models are subjected to controversy
when comparing real data vs expected behavior. For
naturally fractured reservoirs, meet of the models
for interpretation are based on the existence of
two parallel seudlog straight lines as predicted by
Warren and Root3. In the present study, build-up
and drawdown data taken in welle completed in Western Venezuela reservoirs have shown the existence
linee confirming the Warren
of two semilog straight
viewpoint.
and Root model from a practkal
FIELD LOCATION AND RSSERVOIR CHARACTERISTICS
The three wells under study are completed in
Cretaceous formation in fields located in Western
Venezuela (South Weet Lake of Maracaibo). See Fig.
1. The wells, MACH-3X, ALT-17 and 14RN-2x belong to
The Mechiques, Alturitas and Totuesos fields, respectively. The formation permeabilities are less
than 1 md and primary porosities range from 3 to
6%. The fractured nature of the reservoirs can be
inferred from the lithologycal and petrophysical
properties for the analysed cores. Figs. 2 and 3
show loge for wells MACH-3X and 14RN-2X respectively. Fig. 4 shows a picture of a thin section photomicrograph of a core taken from the well 14RN-2X.
Fracture porosity occurs in breaks in the bladed
calcite crystals.
Hydrocarbons stain fractures
both parallel to the crystal bladee and perpendicular to them.
=~il~--tipZZCl d~=#5=~. tests f~r the wells are
shown in Figs. 5 to 10. At the present time, the
lithology, petrophysical and core analysis for
these reservoirs are being carried out. It is
inportant to clearly define the contribution of

USE OF PRESSURE TRANSIENT TESTING TO EVALUATE


FRACTURED RESERVOIRS IN WESTERN VENEZUELA

fractures, vugs and matrix to fluid reserves. The


production strategies for these systems require the
knwledge of the basic reservoir parameters. It is
the main objective of the present study to provide
information from pressure transient analysis that
can be used to adequately describe the nature of the
reservoir and to make the corresponding production
forecast analysis.
PRBSSORS TRAWSIKST ANALYSIS
Over the past twenty years, the hydrodynamics
GC f~~ifif~~ ififrz~t~~ed ~YS~Q~ has hen SUbjeCted to extensive research 2 ~11,120
As it was said in the introduction, even though
there are many models for interpreting pressure
transient data in fractured reservoirs, it is still
considered a major task, from a practical viewpoint,
to match real data with the expected behavior as
predicted by a given model. In many cases, the resolution of the pressure gauge is not good enough to
detect pressure changes that can identify the fractured nature of the system.
In other cases, the pressure behavior at short
times is influenced by wellbore storage effects that
can maak the fracture response of a double porosity
reservoir. Let us look at Figs. 5 to 10. They represent pressure build-up and drawdown data for the
three wells under study (WACH 3X, ALT-17 and 14RN2X). The data shown in Figs. 5, 6 and 7 exhibit, an
S shape. Specifically, the build up and drawdown
data for well MACH-3X (Figs. 5 and 6) can be considered a textbook case in the sense that two parallel semilog straight lines can be drawn through the
data, a behavior predicted by the Warren and Root
mode13 for interpreting pressure tests in naturally
fractured reservoirs. Although the initial parallel
straight line is not so evident far wells ALT-17 and
14RN-2X, the use of the type curve matching technique as presented by Bourdet and Gringarten 13 for
two porosity systems allows the identification of a
Let us nw do a pressure transfractured medium.
ient analysis for each well. The reader is refered
to Appendix A, B and C for calculations and the
method used, and to Table 4 for a summary of the
obtained values for u, k, kh and S for each case.
Well MACS-3X
A horner graph for this well is shcwn in Fig.
5. Fig. 6 shows a semi-log graph of AP vs log At.
Two parallel semilog straight lines are sham
in
both plots.
The value of w as predicted by Warren
and Root is 0.15. One of the major points of discussion regarding the appearance of the initial
semilog straight line has been that it may not be
seen due to wellbore storage effects not taken into
nnimt.
-1.~+ew +him
-..-.,
accourIt SY W=z=arl =F.dRcot. ?C .....-..=
r--.--,
let us analyse the drawdcwn and build-up data using
the type curve matching technique. Figs . 11 and 12
show the type curve matching for the build-up and
drawdown case respectively. It can be seen that the
data match a two porosity behavior.
Initially the
data follcms the solution for a homogeneous curve
then there is a transition period and finally the
data follows other homogeneous solution corresponding to the total system. The calculated value of w
is 0.10 which is in good agrement with the value
,.Sl,.la+aa
,J~
ip.g ~~.= warre~ Sp-d ~~Q~ ~~~~~ime
=.....--..
=-- .
Concerning the initial semilog straight line in the
buil-up data, according to the type curve, the start
of the initial straight line is at At = 0.72 hr

(+-

SPE 13054

79), and for the semilog-straight line


corresponding to the total system it should start
5.
at At . 12 hr (~.
= 5.7) as seen On Fig.
Well.ALT-17
A horner graph and a plot of AP vs log At are
shown in Figs. 10 and 9, respectively. By just
looking at the plots, there is not a clear evidence
that we are dealing with a two porosity system
~=m ~~le
rather than with a homogeneous syskeB.
horner plot, it appears that early time data can
fit a straight line. The same is true but not so
(SSta- Fi~:
13 ?I?KI14
prOnOiinCe& EOZ t% &iXW5~WC
show the lo~log type curve matching for the buildup and the drawdown, respectively. The two porosity
nature is more evident. The data starts matching a
homogeneous (fissure) solution, a transition-period
follows (matrix-fracture) and finallY the data
matches the homogeneous (fissure + matrix) solution. Also according to the ~ezs value, the well
appears fractured (slope of .5 fOr earlY ti*
data ). It appears that we are dealing with a fractured well in a naturally fractured reservoir. The
flow behavior for the early time data then is affected by several factors that influence the initial semilog-straight line associated with the
Using log-log techniques the obtained
fractures.
values for w and k are 0.5 and 5X10-6 respectively.
Well 14sN-2X
A horner plot for this well is shown in Fig.
S. A straight line can be drawn through almost all
the data and the behavior can be considered as one
for a homogeneous conventional reservoir. There is
not a visible indication that the reservoir is a
A plot of &P vs log At of the
fractured system.
drawdown data is shown in Fig. 7. In this case an
S shape is observed. Looking at the data, two
parallel semi-log straight lines could be drawn
through the points and the Warren and Root model
applied, as it was presented originally (not considering wellbore storage and skin effects). Figa.
15 and 16 show the type curve matching for this
well. The match indicates a two porosity system.
Furthermore, it indicates that the initial se~log_
straigh line will be obscured by wellbore storage
and skin effects to the extension of the transition
period. The obtained values for w and k are 0.10
and 3.9x10-7 , respectively. For the sake of comparison, if two parallel semilog straight lines are
drawn @ the semilog-plot as shown in Fig. 7, and
Warren and Root is applied, a value of w = 0.30 is
obtained, which is quite different from the one
calculated using type curve matching.
RBSERVOIR CHARACTSRIZATIOW
Using the valuea obtained for w and h, e preliminary evaluation can be done about the type of
two porosity system we are dealing with. Table 4
summarizes the reeults for w and k. According to
reference 1, for w = 0.5 (well ALT-17), the storage
capacity can be attributed to the fractures. There
is a high fracturing density where the blocks dimensions are small and we can say that it is a
~cre~~~y
.=4<yg=
Qf
~~~~~yQi~
*
For
@
=
0.1
e
-gA= la
(wells MACH-3X and 14RN-2X) it can be said that the
reservoir is a claasic fractured reservoir (double
porosity), i.e., a system of matrix and fractures

5PE lln:A
o--

G. DA PRAT, J.MANNUCCI, L. PRADO & E. MILLAN

with average fracturing densities and blocks dimensions.


PRODUCTION FOSJ?CASTANALYSIS
The analysis of the pressure transient data
idic-tes that the wzllbore ~rsssures wzre not affected by any outer boundary effects, and that they
match pressure solutions for an infinite system.
Fig. 17, taken from Da Prat, et.al.8 shows the solutions for the flow rate qD vs tD for different
values of w and A assuming zero skin and a well in
an infinite system. For a given value of A (* O),
the flow rate depends initially on tD and U.
AS
time increases, the interaction between matrix and
fracture is reflected in a period of constant flow
rate, after which the solution becomes the same as
that for a homogeneous system. Actually, the figure
can be used as a type curve to predict flow rates as
a function of time. According to Ref. 8, if u and
k ~afib= o~~gi~=~ f~o~ p~~~sure transient analYsis~
then, the particular type curve can be generated to
predict flow performance.
Fig. 18 shows the bahavior of the flow rate vs
time for a two porosity system were u = 0.1 and A =
10-7 (values representatives for well MACH-3X).
Both the infinite and finite solutions are shown. To
allow f?r a akin factor the effective wellbore radiua, rw = rw e-s, should be substituted for rw.
As
The skin effect causes reD to appear SIUS1l.
development of the reservoir continues, the wells
under study may feel the influence of a closed outer
boundary.
In this case, the flow rate behavior is
different from the conventional reservoir. For example,
for reD = 200 or reD = 500 the initial decline
should not be considered as the final stata of depletion.
From a practical viewpoint, given an initial value for the flow rate, it is important to
know the time required to deplete the two porosity
fez
well W?C%-3X
Let US &e tMS ~n21jjSiS
system.
(u= 0.1, A = 10-7 and let us assume an reD= 500).
The flow rate8starte declining until it reaches a
vain.ie
~iiieii
bjj

qD .

r~D - 1
A = 0.0125

wellbore storage and skin effect made evident the


double porosity nature of the system and allowed
the calculation of the parameters w and A. The
evaluation done using pressure transient analYsia
indicated a single porosity (fractures) reservoir
and reservoirs with double porosity (matrix plus
fractures). FinallY, the production forecast analYsis allows the calculation of flow rate vs time
considering the fact that for a two porosity system
the initial decline ia not represantative of the
final state of depletion.
NOMEWCLATURB
B .
c=
cD =
%?=
h=
k=
m=

Formation volume factor, RB/STB


Wellbore storage, Bbl/psi
Dimensionless wellbore storage constant
Total compressibility, psi-l
Formation thickness, ft
Permeability, md
Absolute value of semilog straight line slope,
psi;cycle
Pressure, psi
P=
pD Dimensionless pressure
Ap = Pressure change
flow rate, STB/D
q=
qD . Dimensionlessflow rate
.

141.2qB~
kfh

(Pi - Pwf)

rw = Wellbore radius, ft
re = Outher boundary radius, ft
reD
-- = Dimensionless outer boundary radius, re/rw
. Skin effect
. time, hours
tD = Dimensionless time

s
t

2.637 (10-4) kft

At = Elapsed time, hr
T.+.mrynnitV
factor~ ft-2
&..w=.=------ f~QW Shape
c=
Dimensionless fracture storage
u)=
. Viscosity, cp
Dimensionless matrix/fracture permeability ratio
$ = Porosity, fraction

2
This will occur at a time given by
r2

~n[eD-

%=.2

(ln

reD

3/4)]
. 2 x 105

~1 -w

r~D (ln reD - 3/4) w

?.~ttav
-.
... $~-i~ time
.-.--:the flow rate stays constant
until the exponential term in the long time solution
for the flow rate dominates. It dominates until the
flow rate becomes zero as the final depletion state.
A similar analysis can be made for wells ALT-17 and
14RW-2X.

f = Fracture
m = Matrix
D = Dimensionless
S1 Metric Ccnwersion

Factor

psi x 6.894 757 E + 100 = kPa


md - ft x 3.008142 E + 02 = pzm
ftx3.048
E-Ol=m
CPX 1.0 E - 03 = Pa.a
RXFBRENCES

CONCLUSIONS
Analysis of pressure transient testa (build-up
anti &ra-w&o-wii)
&ata fi~= wells ~ecated i~ frECk~urSd
reservoirs in Western Venezuela have verified the
existence of two parallel semi-log straight lines as
predicted by the Warren and Root model.
For wells
where the initial straight line was subject to
controversy the type curve matching technique using
the solution for a two porosity system considering

1. T.D. Van Golf-Racht. Fundamentals of Fractured


Engineering, Elsevier Scientific
Reservoir
Publishing Company, Amaterdam-Oxford-New York
(1982).
2.

Barenblatt, G.I., and Zheltov, Iu. P. On the


Basic Flow Equations of Homogeneous Liquids in
Fissured Rocks (in Russian)-Dokl. Aka-d. Nauk
SSSR (1960), 132, N3, 545-548.

USE OF PRSSSURE TWU4SIENT TESTING TO NALUATE


FNKTURED
RESERVOIRS IN WESTERN VENEZUELA

3.

Warren, i.7.
E. and Root, P.J.: The Behavior of
Naturally Fractured Reservoirs, SpE J. (Sept.
1963), 245-255.

4.

Odeh, A.S.: Unsteady-State Behavior of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs, SPE J. (Mer.1965),


OU-0*.

5.

Kazemi, H.: Pressure Transient Analysis of


Naturally Fractured Reservoirs, Trans., AIME
(1969), 256, 451-461.

6.

De Swaan, O.A.: Analytic Solutions for Determining Naturally Fractured Properties by Well
Testing,e SPZ Z. (Jiii,?
!9?5), !17-!22.

7.

s.

9,

10.

II*

Mevor, M.J. and Cinco-Ley, H.: Transient Pressure Behavior of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs, Paper SPE 7977, presented at the 1979
California Regional Meeting, SPE of AIME,
Ventura, California, Apr. 1s-20, 1979.
Prat, G. Cinco-Ley, H., and Remey, H. Jr. :
Decline Curve Analysis using Type-Curves for
Two Porosity Systems, SPE J. (June 198?) ~~&362.
Da

Pollard, P. : Evaluation of Acid Treatments


from Pressure Build-Up Analysis,n Trane., AIME
(1959), 216, 38.
Najurieta, H.L.: A Theory for the Pressure
Transient
Analysia
in Naturally
Fractured
Reservoirs, paper SPE 6017, preeented at the
Annual Fall Technical Conference
SPE-AIME Slat
and Exhibition, New Orleands, Oct. 3-6, 1976.
Gringarten, A.C. ,~FlowTest Evaluation of Fractured Reservoirs, presented at the Symposium
on Recent trends in Hydrology-Berkeley, California, February, S-9, 1979. To be published by
the Geological Society of America, Editore T.N.
Narasimhan and R.A. Preeze, (1980).

SPE 13054

At = 1 hr, tD/cD = 5.4


Ap= 1000 PSi,
~
= 1.2
The pressure
data are:

solutions

that

match

the test

(CDe2s)f = 1, for the fissures


for the total
(CDe2s)f+m= 0.1,
~e-2S= 5X10-2, for the transition-

system,

and

kfh is obtained from the pressure match:


kfh

1~1.z

q Bu

D)
[

Apm
. 141.2 (2700)(1.S235)(0.362)(~)
= 302 md-ft
C is obtained from the time match:
302
{&}
33S9(0.362)

c=-{~}M=

= 0.046 bbl/psi
To obtain, S, we need to calculate (cD)f~

(c~)fh

0.S936[0.046)
0.S936 C (1s18 10-6)(65)(0.2917)2
($ct)ftihr~

= 6298

s = 0.5 in

(CDe2s)
*=0.51n_Q=6298
(CD)f~

5.53

u can be obtained as

~ ~ (cDe2s)f~
( CDe 2s)f

= 0.1 _ 0.10
1

and k is given by
12.

Strelstova-Adame , T.D.
Hydrodynamics
of
Ground-water Fiow in a Fracturei Formdtioii,=
Water Reeourcee Research (June 1976), ~,
N
13, 405.

13.

Boudert, D. and Gringarten, A. Determination


of Fiseure volume and block size in Fractured
Reservoirs by type-curve analysisn. Paper SPE
9293 preeented at the SPE AIME 55 th Annual
Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas,
Texas September 21-24, 1980.

14.

Aguilera, R.:Analysis of naturally fractured


reservoirs from conventional well loge, J.
Pet. Tech. (July 1976), 764-772.

).= (~.e-zs)ezs= (5x10-2) e2(-553) = 8X10-7


BUILD-UP TSST
As for the drawdown case, the preseure difference
(Pwa - Pw (At = O)) was plotted as a function
of time on tracing paper and then placed over the
type curve as shown in Fig. 11. From the chosen
match point we have:
At = 1, tD/CD = 5.7, pD = ~*41 AP = 1000 Psi

APPlnQDxxA
PRESSURS TRAWSIEWT AWALYSIS FUR W5L
WG-LOG AWALYSXS

MACB-3X

DRAWDDWW TEST
The drawdown test preesure data for this well
is shown in Table 1.
The preesure difference
(Pwf - pwf (At = 0) ) waa plotted as a function of
time on tracing paper and then placed over the type
curve for a well with wellbore storage and skin
(reservoir with double porosity behavior) ae seen in
Fig. 12. From the chosen match point we have:

(~e2s)f

= 1, for the fissures

(c~ezs)f+m=
?be-zs=

!jxIO-2

0.1, for the total

system

for the transition

kfh = 141.2 qBP (~)M


. 141.2 (3224) (1.8235) (0.362) ~
= 420 md-ft
C is obtained from the time - tD/CD match:

and

c=%p{&}

exist. For the fissure system the sedtl~~~traight


line should start at At = 0.72 hr (~=
79)
For the total system the ts~dA~g straight line
5.7). AccOrashould start at At = 12 hr (~=
ing to Fig. 5 we have:

=3389; ~!362) $+
.
= 0.06 bbl/psi

(CD)fh

G. DA PRAT, J. MMJNUCCI, L. PRADO & E. MILLAN

SPE 13054

0.8936(0.06)
08936; =
(1.18x10-6(65)(0.2917)2
(I$C)
~luw

m = 850 psi/cycle

= 8215

P; = 11400 psi, 6P = 700 psi

De2s)f+m=

S = 0.5 in

0*5 In

(CD)f*

.1
=
8215

kfh = 162.6 qBu = 162.6(3224)(1.8235)(0.362~


850
m
= 407 md-ft

- 5.67

A ~ ~Ae-2S)e2S = ~5x102)e2(-5.67) = 6X10-7

The skin factor S is given by:

u can be obtained as:

~P1hr=Pwf !At=o!
s=

~ < (CDe2s)fti

(c~e2s)f

1.15
m

0.1
==

..
+ 3.23]
- log ~
+pcthr$

0.10
407
. 1.151 [9850 - 9670 - log
(65)(24.5x10-6)(0.048)
S50

Notice that
for the build-up case the short
production time was considered to make the appropriate match on the type curve.

+ 3.23] = - 5.52
(0.362)(0.2917)2
According to Warren and

Root:

AWALYSIS
&&

Drawdown
u=
A semilog graph for this well is shown in Fig.
6. According to the log-log analysis, two parallel
semi-log straight lines exist.
For the fissure
system the straight line should start after At =
0.74 hr, and for the total system the straight line
starts after At = 10.3 hr.
Two parallel semi-log
StSai3b.t~in.eSare SeQn..

m = 1080 psi/cycle
Vertical distance 6P is:
PSi

According

to

10

and

Root,

is

given

by:

162.6 auB
m

ilhr
1.15 [m

. 1.15 [41080

TSBT

At = 1 hr

..,3 ~.
2700
(1.S2335)
1080
= 268 md - ft

curves

that

matched

the

test

,.-1, for the fissures

kfh=

kh
log

log (

(Ae-2s)m- 2.4x10-1 for the transition.


From the pressure match - PD match:
141.2q

3.23] =

BV (h)
Ap m

(opct)r~ h

. 141.2 (3350)(1.478)(0.52) (W)

268
(24.5x10-6)(0.048) (0.362)

= 400 ma - ft

(0.231;)2(65))+ 323] = - 564


Build-uP

the

DRAWDWS

(CDe2s)f

The skin factor S is given by~

s=

APPENDIX B
PRSBBURB TRAUSIEWT ASALYSIS POR WELL ALIT-17
LOG-W
AWALYSIS

The solutions
tits were:

m = 10-1 = 0.10

Let us compute kfh:


kfh .

850 = 0.15

PD = 1.1 fOr Ap = 1000 pSi and tD/CD = 14 for


Warren

~
(0=

-2QQ
= 10

The drawdown pressure data far thi= we2~ iS


shown in Table 2. The pressure difference (Pwf pwf (At = 0)) was plotted as a function of time on
tracing paper and then placed over the type curve
as shown in Fig. 14. A match was found at the following point:

Tineslope is:

6P = 1080

10

A horner plot is sh~n in Fig. 5. According to


lo-log analysis, two semi-log straight lines

From the At - tD/CD match, the


storage constant, C, can be obtained as:
c=

JQL
3389 V

{d&_}
tD/CD M

= 0.016 bbl/psi

400
{J}
3389 (0.52) 14

wellbore

USE OF PRESSURE TSANSIENT TESTING TO EVALUATE


FRACTURED RESERVOIRS IN WES!lERN
VENEZUELA

(c~)fm

527
{d}
3389 (0.52) 24

!),8936(0.016)
= (0.038)(74.6x10-6)(24)

0.B936 c
(bet)f~hr$

SPE 13054

.012 bbl/psi

= 1494
(0.375)2
Theu, the akin factwr, S, c-11
-

tilculateu u~:

0.8936 (0.012)
0.8936 C
(cD)fti =
=
(O.O38)(74.6X1O6)(24)
(@c)thr$

1121

(0.375)*

(~e2s)fa
=0.51n~

S = 0.5 in

=-5.15

(CJ))f*

The skin factor,

Which is indicative ofa

stimulated wellbore.

s,

is

then given by:


It,2.5x10-2

s=

5.36

1121

u is given by:
~ ~ (CDe2s)fti

u is given by:

5X1O-*
==0.5
10-1

(CDe2s)f

(cDe2s)f~=

2.5x10-2

0.5

IA)<

(CDe2s)f

and k can be obtained by:

A can

A = (Ae-2s)e2S = (2.4x10-l)e2(-5*15) = 8XI0-6


The (CDe 2s) value for the fissures (0.1) indicates a fractured well 13. In this case, the fracture half-lenght can be computed from the akin as:

be

5X1O-2

computed

as:

2(-5.36) = 4.4X1O-6
A = (Ae-2S)e2S s (2x10-l)e
The fracture half-lenght can be computes from
the skin as:

e-s = 2 (0.375)e+ 5.15 = 129 ft


Xf s 2 r%

Xf = 2 rwe-s = 2 (0.375)e536 = 160 ft

l%sf

SMImc+

The pressure build-up data ia shown in Table 2.


for the drawdown test, the pressure difference
(PW8 - Pwf (At = 0)) was plotted as a function of
time on tracing paper and then placed over the type
13.
curve as shown in Fig.
A match was found at the
following point:

Build-up

ANALYSIS
.

AS

At = 1 hr and tD/CD = 24
Ap = 1000 pai and~
= 1.5
The pressure

curves that match the

test

aata

were:
(CDe2s)f =
~cDe2s)fa

-2,

for

the

fissures

- ~.bxlo

-2
,

fey

the

5x1O

(Le-2s)~ = 2X1O 1

SVntem
-.-f-

tO&d

A horner plot of the build-up data is shown in


Fig. 10. There is not a clear indication of a double porosity reservoir if compared to the log-log
graph. According to type curve matching, the initial semi-log straight line should start at At =
6.4 hr (~=
26). Initially the data is dominated by a slope of 0.5 as characteristic of a
fractured well and a straight line will develop
after At = 6.4 hr. However, the transition period
matrix fracture appears well before the start of
the semilog straight line. For the total sYstem#
should start at At = 18 hr
ae seen in the semilog graph. The
~~~t~a~ght 9.8)line
slope is:
m=

the transition

for

875 psi/cycle

Aps = 1913t3
psi + p~ = 11116 pSi
The value

of (CDe 2s)f indicates

a ractured
f@ lhr

welli3.

The

From the pressure - PD ~tch:


kfh=

141.2qBW

141.2

(1.478)

(0.52) ~

~lhr
1*151 [m

s=
From the At - ~/CD

P,hr

9166

PSi

kfh is given by:

The skin factor, S, is given by:

= 527 md-ft

constant is

product

&Mi

Icfh- 162.6 aBv - 162.6 (3240) (1.478) (0.52~


875
m
= 462 ma - ft

(~)
Ap M

(3240)

= - 50

match, the wellbore storage

1.151 [*875
+
(0.375)*

+ 3.23 + log=]
k
(Opct)r:
P
19
log
(0.038)(0.52)(74.6x10-6)
log

3.23

log

160)]
(
159

=-

5.51

G.

SPE 13054

DA

PRAT, J.MANNUCCI, L. PRADO & E. MILLAN

Drawdown

(cD)fa

0.8936 C

0.8936 (0.02)
(0.0S2)(1.5X10-5)(29)

($ct)fahr~
A graph
of Ap vs log At is shown in Fig. 9. As
for the build-up case there is not a clear indication of a two porosity system by just looking a the
seti-log graph. According to the log-log SOIUtiOn,
the initial straignt Line snoula si=artat At = 5 nr.
For the total system, the semi-log straight line
should start at At = 11 hr. Using the semilog
straight line for the total system we have:

= 25799
(0.175)2
The skin factor, s, is given bY:
(~e2s)fti=

s = 0.5 in

o s In 0.5x102
=
.
25799

(cD)f*

- 2.78

m = 1070 psi/cycle
u

is given by:

plhr = 125 psi


(CDe2s)fti

s .

1.151

skin factor, S, is given by:

~ 1hr

[-

log

(J_

A
A =

3.23]

0.10

,03

(C~e2s)f

1070
The

102
==

a<

kfh = 162.6 (3350)(1.4713)(0.52)_=391 ~d-ft

can be computed as:

-2sje2s ~ ~lo-4)=2(-2078) = 3.9X10-7


(ke

@*ctr$

Drawdown Test

1.151

[=1070

16

log
(0.038)

(0.52)(0.746x~0-4

+ 3.23] = - 5.2
(o.375)~
APPmmIx c
PSES8WSS TRANSIEST ANALYSIS FOR WELL 14824-2X
mL@
AUALYSIS

The drawdown pressure data for this well is


shown in Table 3. The pressure difference~ pws- pwf
(At = O), was plotted as a function of time On
tracing paper and then placed over the type curve
as shown in Fig. 15. From the chosen match point.
tD/CD = 56

At At = 1 hr,
At AP = 1000

pSi,

3.8

BUILD-UP TEST
and for the matched curves:
The build-up pressure data for this well is
show in Table 3. <e pressure difference (Pwa -Pws
(At = 0)] was plotted as a function of time on
tracing paper and then placed over the type curve as
From the chosen match point:
shown in Fig. 16.
at At = 1 hr,
at

tD/cQ = 27

(CDe2s)f+m

102,

for

the

total

system

and

(Ae-2s) = 10-5, for the transition.


It corresponds to a dameged/acidized well.

Ap = 1000 psi, pD = 3.7

From the pressure - PD match have:

The pressure curves solutions that matched the


data were:
( CDe 2s)f

(CDe2s)f = 103, for the fissures

kfh =

141.2qBP

= 103, for the fissures

(~)
Ap M

141 .2(2160)(1.2816)(1.8142)(~)

. 2625 md-ft
(CDe2s)f+m
= 102, for the total system
~Ae-2s) = 10-4, for the transition

and
From the At - t~CD

c= A

From the pressure - PD ~tch:

3389 P
kfh = 141.2qBp
=

141.2

(2160)

{A}
t~CD

.
M

(~)
(1.2816)(M142)(&)

match:
2695
{:}
3389(1.8142)

= 0.01 bbl/psi
=

(cD)fti =

0.8936 C

(Oct)ftihr$
=

2624

0.8936 (0.01)
(O.O52)(1.5X1O-5 )

md-ft
12900
(29)(0.175)2

From the At - ~/CD match, the wellbore storage


constant, C, can be obtained:

The skin factor, S, is given by:


C=a{a]=
3389P t~CD

2624
{+}
3389(1.8142)

= 0.02 bbl/psi

s = 0.5 h

cDe2s)fa
(cD)f*

= 0.5 In&=
12900

- 2.43

USE OF PRESSURS TRANSISNT TESTING TO EVALUATE


FRACTURED RESERVOIRS IN WESTESN VENESUSLA

w is

w<

(CDe2s)fti
~%e2s j~

kfh =

by:

given

2160)(

1.2816)(

1.8142)

3446

nd-ft

237

,02
~=

~ ,

The ekin factor, S, is given by:


s=

A can

162.6[

SPE 13054

as:

calculated

L = (Ae-2S)e2S = 10-5 ~e2(-2.43), = 7.8 10-8

Plhr
1.151 [m
1.151 [-237

log ()
h
~pcth~
log

+ 3.23]

3446
(0.052)(1.5x1u-5)(2s)(0.175)2

+ 3.23] = -0.57
~

AWALYSIS

Suild-up Test
A horner graph of the build-up data is shown in
Fi9. 8. Almost all the data points fit a straight
line; therefore, it is difficult to conclude that we
are dealing with a fractured system. According to
the log-log analysis the semilog straight line for
the ii sure system should start at At = 3.9 hr
t+ft
(~
= 29.9), and, for the fissure plus matrix
system, the semilo straight line should stati at
t+A?
At= 4.8hr (~-=
24.4). The slope is:
n = 268 psi/cycle

APlhr = 1220 Psi

p* = 7685 psi, P,hr = 7135 psi


The product kfh is given by:

$h

= 162.6 aBM=
m
= 3047 md-ft

162.6(2160)(1.2816)(1.8142)
268

The skin factor S is given by:


s=

1.15

[~-log
m

= 1.151 [w268

kh

,3,23

+log~]

($pct)hr~

P
3047
log
(0.054)(1.5x10-5)(29)(0.175)2

113.5
+ 3.23 + log 1
112.5

=-

2.14

Drawdown
A plot of Ap vs log At is shown in Fig. 7. As
compared with the horner plot for the same well, the
data points form an S shape that could be attributed to two porosity systems.
For this caee, the
log-log analysis can tell where the initial semilog
etraight line should stati.
15,
According to Fi+
it
should start at At = 2.3 hr. As can be seen,
there is only one point satisfying this condition.
It is believed that the system is already on the
transition period after At = 2.3 hr. For the total
system the semilog-straight line starte at At = 2
hrs. Using thie line, we have:
m = 237 psi/cycle

ApIhr

= 1415psi

lhr = 6265 pSi

Let us assume, for the sake of comparison,


that two parallel semilog straight lines exist and
apply Warren and Roots original model. In this
case, w is given by
125

-g
1A)=1O

.lO-=

=0.30

which is quite different from the value calculated


via log-log analysis (w = 0.10).

TABLE 1. DATA FOR WELL t4Acn-3x


TABLE 2. DATA FOR WSLL ALT-17
~=
h
B

3224 B/D

[Build-up)

, 9 = 2700

B/D

(Drawdown)

= 651
= 1.8235

RB/STB
= 0.362 Cp

iiiid&ata

Reservoir

anti

B/D

(Build-up) q = 3350 B/D (Drawd~n)

3240

CL = 24.5
X 10-6 psi-l
$ = 4.8 %
rw = 0.2917
T = 270F,tp = 56 hr
p(At=O)
= 9670 PSi

DRAWDOWN

BUILD-UP TEST

At(hr)

At(hr)

Pw~(Psi)

0.25
0.50
0.75

10095
10255
II)*51

0.25
i).5u

10564
10631
10703
10743
10806
10814
10830
10854

0.75
1.00
1.25
1.50
1.75
2.00
2.50
3.00

1.00
1.25
1.50
1.75
2.00
2.25
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
12.00
14.00
16.00
18.00
20.00
24.00
28.00
32.00
36.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
55.00
70.00
72.00
75.00
79.00
83.00
87.00
92.00
97.00
102.00
107.00
112.00
117.00
122.00
127.00
13s.00
140.00
142.00
145.00
148.00
153.00
1s7.00
160.00
164.00
169.00
174.00
178.00
1B3.00

ii3876
1087s
10902
10902
10917
10925
10933
10941
10941
10950
10959
10958
10973
10982
10939
10989
10989
11045
11109
11109
11109
11141
11149
11149
11156
11165
11165
11181
11181
111s9
11197
11200
11200
11200
11200
11229
11229
11252
11252
11268
11284
11292
11300
11300
11308
11316
11316
11316

~e~g
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
12.00
14.00
16.00
18.00
20.00
24.00
28.00
32.00
36.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
55.00
66.00
67.00
69.00
71.00
74.00
77.00
80.00
84.00
88.00
92.00
96.00
100.00
104.00
108.00
112.00
116.00
120.00
131.00
132.00
134.00
136.00
138.00
143.00
148.00
153.00
158.00
163.00
168.00
173.00
178.00

DRAWDOWN

BUILD-UP TEBT

TEST

Pwf(psi)
11347
10989
lIJb30
10486
10359
10343
10271
10215
101s3
10136
10112
10080
10056
1004B
10040
10032
10016
10000
9984
9968
9960
9936
9920
9904
9880
9864
9832
9816
9?92
9759
9735
9703
9679
9647
9487
9479
9463
9455
9447
9431
9423
9406
9382
9358
9342
9326
9302
9294
9270
9246
9230
9150
9142
9134
9125
9117
9109
9085
9061
9037
9021
9013
9005
8981

At(hr)
0.08
0.17
0.25
0.33
0.42
0.50
0.5s
0.66
0.75
0.s3
0.92
1.00
1.15
1.30
2.00
3.00
5.00
7.00
10.00
15.00
19.20
25.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
55.00
60.00
63.00
63.50
64.00
65.00
67.00
70.00
73.00
78.00
83.00
8S.00
93.00
98.00
103.00
108.00
113.00
11s.00
123.80
127.00
132.00
137.00
147.00
157.00
167.00
175.00
182.30

TEST

Pw=(Psi)

At(hr)

Pwf(Psi)

9216
9381
9449
9505
9547
9581
9606
9623
9638
9652
9667
9676
9690
9717
9742
9777
9832
9917
9984
10067
10176
10255
10346
10409
10459
10507
10551
10588
10613
1(3(s39
10650
10652
10654
10657
10662
10673
106B2
10696
10711
10723
10737
10745
10751
10758
10764
10769
10774
10786
10793
10803
10816
10842
10861
10B71
10896

10896
10S61
10851
10s00
10770
10728
10700
10646
10590
10552
1051s
10498
10462
9il*Aa
,.,-~
10281
1019s
100s5
10003
9905
97s0
9679
9592
9517
9460
9406
9353
9302
9264
9227
9145
~i33

0.08
0.17
0.25
0.33
0.42
0.50
0.58
0.66
0.75
0.83
0.92
1.00
1.50
2.00
3.00
5.50
7.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
55.00
60.00
63.00
67.00
70.00
73.00
78.00
S3.00
S8.00
93.00
98.05
108.00
113.00
118.00
123.00
125.00
126.00
128.00
130.00
132.00
134.00
136.00
139.00
144.00
149.00
154.00
159.00
164.00
169.00
172.00

9115
9098
9070
9045
9016
S993
8967
S918
8901
8877
SS58
8S02
8797
S790
s7a3
8776
8766
8764
8761
S739
8727
8716
8701
S686
8671
S663

sJ?Ei305~

TABLE 3.

DATA FOR WELL 14RN-2X

Reservoir and fluid data

q = 2160 B/D (Buiid-up and Drawdown)


tp = 112.5 hr
= 29
= 1.2816 RS/STB
= 1.8142 Cp
1.5 x 10-5 psi-l
Ct
=
@=5.2%
rw = 0.175
T = 255F
~f(At=O) = 7680 pSi; PwS(At=O) = 5915 PSi

h
B
P

DRAWDOWW

BUILD-UP TEST

TEST

At(hr)

Pw8(Psi)

At(hr)

pwf(pai)

0.25
0.33
0.42
0.50
0.67
0.s3
1.00
1.25
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
4.50
6.00
S.oo

6904
6960
7020
7059
7070
7097
7126
7155
7179
7214
7239
7264
7316
7345
7372
7396

0.25
0.33
0.42
0.50
0.67
0.83
1.00
1.25
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
4.50
6.00
B.00

6328
6313
6297
6290
6259
624S
6221
6202
6171
6161
6148
6133
6123
6116
6102

10.01
12.50
15.00
20.00
25.00
30.00
40.00
~~=g~
60.00
So. oo
100.00
125.00

TABLE 4.

60SS
6076
6067
6052
6024
6007
5979
5966
5935
5s97
5s51
5735

10.01
12.50
15.00
20.00
25.00
30.00
40.00
45.00
60.00
80.00
100.00
125.00

7417
7435
7464
7485
7497
752S
1535
7562
7586
7610
7638

SUMMARY

MACH- 3X

OF

RJ?SJLTS

ALT-17

14RN-2x

AWALYSIS
kh
md-ft

kh

kh

TYPE CURVE
BUILD-UP

420

-5.67

0.10

6X10-7

527

-5.36

0.5

4X1 O-6

2624

-2.7S

0.10

3.9X1 O-7

TYPE CURVE
DRAWDDWW

302

-5.53

0.10 Sx10-7

400

-5.15

0.5

8X10-6

2695

-2.43

0.10

7.SX1O-8

BUILD-UP

407

-5.52

0.15

462

-5.51

3047

-2.14

SBMI-LOG
DRAWDOWH

268

-5.64

0.10

391

-5.2

3446

-0.57

SEMI-L(X

0.30

sf?Ei3054

,/
../]

f=

OscAll

-j

/
u-

~m,

c:
u
CADIUAS

Dmc

ETA

o
nCIA

LA9UI11LLAS

J
IIAmnycs
~
>:

/ ~

aAu
&AU

Jc

JIMMI

2(

%1

~. j43i9,Y0mhicd
-._=T . hxatkm

WELL:

F@.2-W

d fields.

14-RN-2X

bg for14RN-2X.

sREi3054
-.

x
I

-/ ..J

;~-

I P

_:

-22

.-.

_-.,

--

I;=_l=

--*:--

_r
____.,_

.-_+---.

----

-+--.

::-L-=3-

-.--7-

=-

A
z

lb

..+.
,.

_.

-..

..

MJd3a

,
.
.
=

:;

8.

m:
-!

-,
2,
=:
~[
::

II

1~,
N

?.
_,.

_.-.-+*

:-*-=-+%.-m

~wi!

,: . . . -
.

, -

,,,

1 -

,, ..:....

J--.l,~
~~
..y-j!jLbdEiJ
,.

%-

4..

-~

~, :!---,_

MACH- 3X/

MACH31X/ BUILDUP

20CQ
.=

DRAWDOWN

*\m=850cc
>~

z
lWIO-

m: 1080psi/cyclo

1000
-

500

0.
lo+

.-+-

At, hrs

tp+ At/At

Fig.6-AP

Fig. S-Homer gmfih


for
WallMACH-3X.

WELL 14 RN2X- ORAWDOWM

2s

.-

rn:237psi/cydt
$P :125psi
APB,:
1415psi
~,,: 6265 psi
0
0
0

~3

~o
0
0

/
/
i

F-J]

w
0

1no

I
,.2

1
10

At, hrs
F@.7--AP vs. @l AtforWall14RN-2X.

I
s+

vs. LogAtforWallMACH-3X.

14RN-2X/

BUILDUP
300(

B = 268 psi/cyclo

IIP*: 1770 psi i P*: 7685 psi


dq~:

1220psi; ~k~ 7135 psi

m :1070 psi/cyclo

100
o

10IL,

!i~

APB,: 125 psi

0
0

I
10

I
~s

At, trrri
F@ 9-AP w. Lcq At h WI ALT-17.

ALT-17/BulLo-uP

n :675

psi/cycle

AP*= 1!)00 p$i

!73

I-J

w
o
u-l
-f=

IIJ

tp+htllit
Fig.
6-Homw@m ixWll1411N-2X.

tp+Atl At
-rig.lotiomer pbt forWellALT-17,

,
APPROXIMATE
START
OF SEMI-LOG
STRAIGHT

LINE

~o,2~

0,22936 C,2S
@c, hrzw

>

\.

,030

3.

,4

2-

,0-1.
1

8.

10

6
5

4
.

..

. . . ..

5.10-2

;/

0-3

,.-2

..

,..
,.,
...

...

~,.23

,00

~-1

,.2

,.l

.-

,Ao

DIMENSIONLESSTIME
M.

w-T@-Onn

,02

101

A1, hra.

nntchlw An W

lo>

=O.mosw Q ~
pc
W,

MAW-SX.

102APPROXIMATE
START
~~
~~~! . ~Q~
STRAIGHT

- .,,
.0---

0,0936c02S
=-~

LINE
\\

.-. .
10 -J

&

tP

16.
4.
3.

,04

,..1,

6
6
5
4
3
, . . . . . . . . . ....

2
,,. .

. ..

....
. ..
/
....
,.,

,.-2

...
10-=

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