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UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS

SCHOOL OF MECHATRONIC ENGINEERING

EUT440 - ENGINEERS IN SOCIETY

BIL.

STUDENTS NAME

MATRIC NUMBER

1
2
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MUHAMMAD HAFFID BIN ISHAK

131111346

Discuss this statement in detail within the context of the Malaysia environment. Engineers are often
entrusted with the responsibility of implementing large-scale projects involving millions of Malaysian
Ringgits. In view of the large amount of money changing hands, the integrity and ethical standards of
engineers are being put to test. What measures can an engineer take to prevent corruption and unethical
practice of cutting corners in order to safeguard the good image of the engineering profesion?

Nah kawan2, 3 jawapan gabung semua jadi 1 dalam konteks environment Malaysia. Penatttt penattt
fuhhhhh
1. JAWAPAN (IN Malaysia ENVIRONMENT)

Jurutera memainkan peranan yang penting di dalam pembangunan nasional dan masyarakat.
Tanpa seseorang jurutera, kita tidak mungkin dapat menikmati bangunan seperti KLCC, Menara
Kuala Lumpur, Jambatan Pulau Pinang, lebuhraya dan kereta nasional Proton. Professionalisme
di kalangan jurutera adalah penting bagi menjamin keselamatan dan kesejahteraan masyarakat,
harta benda dan alam sekitar. Professionalisme bukan setakat memiliki sijil atau ijazah, tetapi ia
sebenarnya merupakan cara seorang jurutera berfikir untuk melakukan sesuatu dengan nilai
moral dan etika yang tinggi termasuk menjaga maruah profesion kejuruteraan tanpa melibatkan
diri di dalam gejala rasuah dan amalan yang tidak beretika. Di negara kita, terdapat beberapa kes
yang mengaitkan gejala rasuah di kalangan jurutera seperti kes runtuhan bangunan Highland
Towers pada tahun 1993 dan kes retakan 'Middle Ring Road 2' (MRR2) pada tahun 2002. Keskes seperti ini menjadikan profesion jurutera dipandang rendah oleh masyarakat. Oleh itu,
sesuatu perlu dilakukan bagi mengatasi gejala sebegini dikalangan jurutera. Antara langkahlangkah yang boleh diambil oleh seseorang jurutera bagi mengatasi gejala rasuah adalah seperti
berikut:

Mematuhi undang-undang dan peraturan yang sedia ada

Seorang jurutera perlu mengetahui undang-undang dan peraturan yang sedia ada seperti Akta
Pendaftaran Jurutera 1967 (Akta 138). Seksyen 15 akta ini menyatakan bahawa seorang jurutera
dilarang meminta apa jua komisen sewaktu menjalankan tugasnya sebagai seorang jurutera.
Sekiranya beliau tidak mematuhi Akta tersebut, maka beliau harus sedar bahawa beliau boleh
dikenakan tindakan seperti surat amaran, denda (tidak melebihi RM50,000), penangguhan
pendaftaran tidak lebih dua tahun atau pembatalan pendaftaran. Oleh itu, seseorang jurutera
haruslah mematuhi Akta tersebut dalam menjalankan tugasnya dan juga menjaga profesion
jurutera. Selain daripada Akta Pendaftaran Jurutera, akta-akta lain seperti Akta Keselamatan dan
Kesihatan Pekerjaan, dan Akta Kilang dan Jentera juga boleh dijadikan panduan bagi seorang
jurutera di dalam menjalankan tugas dan tanggungjawabnya, seterusnya menjaga maruah
profesion kejuruteraan.

Melaksanakan tugas dan tanggungjawab mengikut prosedur kerja yang betul

Seseorang jurutera perlu melaksanakan tugas dan tanggungjawabnya mengikut prosedur kerja
yang betul. Misalnya, terdapat 'Standing Order Procedure' (SOP) atau 'Work Flow Chart' yang
boleh digunakan untuk melaksanakan sesuatu tugas, dan ini membolehkan jurutera tersebut
melaksanakan tugasnya dengan telus dan tanpa terbabit dalam gejala rasuah.

Mempunyai sikap terbuka dan membuat penilaian yang adil

Seseorang jurutera mesti mempunyai sikap terbuka ('transparent') di dalam menjalankan


tugasnya. Sebagai contoh, sekiranya seseorang jurutera terlibat di dalam tender perolehan
sesuatu produk sebagai ahli teknikal, beliau seharusnya memahami dokumen tender dan

spesifikasi terlibat bagi perolehan peralatan tersebut. Beliau seterusnya perlu membuat penilaian
secara adil ('fair evaluation') terhadap setiap produk yang ditender dan mencadangkan produk
yang paling sesuai supaya pihak pengguna mendapat sesuatu yang bermutu tinggi. Melalui sikap
terbuka, seorang jurutera akan dapat mengatasi gejala yang tidak sihat seperti duit kopi untuk
meluluskan sesuatu tender.

Tidak menyalahgunakan kuasa untuk kepentingan diri sendiri ('conflict of interest')

Misalnya, sebagai seorang ketua kumpulan teknikal suatu tender produk, seorang jurutera tidak
seharusnya menyalahgunakan kuasa atau menggunakan kuasa veto sebagai ketua kumpulan bagi
mempengaruhi ahli-ahli lain untuk memilih sesuatu produk bagi kepentingan diri sendiri.

Membuat pemeriksaan mengejut ('spot check')

Seorang jurutera boleh melaksanakan pemeriksaan mengejut terhadap premis di mana sesuatu
projek dijalankan agar dia mengetahui kedudukan sebenar projek tersebut. Beliau boleh
membuat pemeriksaan terhadap bahan yang digunakan, memeriksa prosedur kerja dan peralatan
yang digunakan dalam projek berkenaan agar produk yang bermutu di perolehi.

Pengauditan kerja ('check and balance')

Seorang jurutera mesti membenarkan kerja-kerja beliau diaudit oleh pihak ketiga (jurutera lain)
dan menerima sebarang komen dengan tujuan membina diri sendiri di dalam profesion
kejuruteraan.

Membuat sesuatu keputusan kejuruteraan melalui jawatankuasa

Seseorang jurutera seboleh-bolehnya perlu membuat keputusan tentang sesuatu projek melalui
satu jawatankuasa yang dilantik supaya satu keputusan sebulat suara diperolehi tanpa ada
kepentingan kepada pihak tertentu.

Memastikan agar bahan sub-standard tidak digunakan

Bagi memastikan ketulenan sesuatu bahan bagi sesuatu projek, seseorang jurutera haruslah
mendapatkan contoh bahan daripada pembekal untuk dibuat ujian terlebih dahulu agar dapat
mengelakkan bahan 'sub-standard'.

Mengamalkan prinsip Zero Tolerance terhadap rasuah

Seorang jurutera perlu melaporkan kesalahan gejala rasuah kepada pihak berkuasa seperti Badan
Pencegah Rasuah (BPR) sekiranya terdapat unsur-unsur atau perbuatan rasuah di dalam sesuatu
projek atau proses kejuruteraan.

Menjadi lebih kompeten

Seseorang jurutera boleh menjadi kompeten dengan menyertai organisasi seperti IJM serta
mengambil bahagian di dalam aktiviti-aktiviti yang dikendalikannya seperti seminar, lawatan,
perbincangan dan mesyuarat. Dengan menyertai aktiviti-aktiviti sebegini, seseorang jurutera
dapat bertukar informasi, pengetahuan, pengalaman serta idea di mana secara tidak langsung
menjadikannya lebih kompeten bagi menangani amalan rasuah ini. Jurutera memainkan peranan
yang penting di dalam meningkatkan sosio-ekonomi sesebuah negara. Oleh itu, seseorang
jurutera mestilah mempunyai nilai keperibadian yang tinggi agar gejala rasuah dapat ditangani
bagi meningkatkan taraf hidup masyarakat dan negara secara keseluruhannya.

2. JAWAPAN (GENERAL NO 1)

ENGINEERS invent the future. Their works invariably affect the lives of people and their
environment. Attaining the moral high ground in this profession is the prime focus in
ascertaining the sanctity of the profession. In this regard, we are expected to be aware of, to
recognise and to comply with the ethical aspects of engineering in techno-commercial dealings
and business decisions when discharging our duties and fulfilling the expectations of
stakeholders. It is virtually impossible for engineers to not face challenges in upholding integrity
and maintaining high ethical standards on a daily basis. We are, inevitably, involved in handling
finances and holding commercially sensitive documents. When it comes to money, we must be
aware of the measures for preventing possible corruption. Cutting corners and crossing ethical
boundaries, whether deliberate or out of sheer ignorance, are examples of gross acts that need to
be stamped out completely. In combining the objective of ensuring a good image within the
engineering fraternity, the following steps can be taken:

1. Not participating in any dishonest activity


Due to the pressure to maximise profit and ensure business survival, it is paramount to
successfully bid for projects. In an increasingly competitive marketplace, there are instances
when engineers participate in segmentation of market-areas between friends working in
competitor organisations. This can lead to a cartel, which is a straightforward breach of the
antitrust law. Market segmentation creates exclusivity within the demarcated territories and
enables price fixing to effectively dismantle the free market. Engineers must always subscribe to
the free market enterprise system by competing openly, fairly and independently, based on merit
i.e. superiority of technology offerings, intelligence of market benchmarking and smart pricing
strategies. This will give customers a wider choice besides maintaining an improved quality and
competitiveness in pricing at each time of offering. The objective is to protect the interests of
consumers and ensure entrepreneurship. Engineers should avoid such traps at all costs as

history has shown that it never pays to conduct businesses this way. In essence, antitrust
practices and conflict of profesional interest cases can be mitigated through mere actions of
avoidance, refusal and structured disclosure. The golden rule is to be responsible at all times by
proactively distancing oneself from any inappropriate conduct.

2. Report any activity suspected to be dishonest and to seek guidance

Whistle-blowing of corrupt and malpractice within the organization gained momentum when
Parliament passed the Whistleblower Protection Act in late 2010, part of the many major
initiatives under the Corruption National Key Results Area (NKRA) of the Government
Transformation Programme (GTP). In many cases, information can be sensitive, leading to
potential harm to the whistleblower. Many organisations committed to the highest standard of
integrity, openness and accountability in the performance of their businesses have acknowledged
the need for a robust avenue for disclosure or reporting concerns of any act of misconduct within
the organisation through strictly confidential and safe avenues. The engineers however, should
exercise fine judgment and a clear conscience when dealing with non-compliance cases even
though they are protected against retaliation under the law. This is simply because of respect, a
profound moral value that needs to be upheld especially as cases concern colleagues and fellow
industry players. Besides private, confidential documents, guarding such sensitive information
e.g. compliance complaint against exposure into the public domain is also part of values that
engineers should hold firmly to.

3. Abide by the ethical code of the company charter and professional institution

The code of conduct consists of a set of values and sound behavioral attributes, setting the
fundamental guidance for engineers to perform duties to the best of their ability within the
contours of the laws and regulations. The set of obligations covers the complete spectrum of
stakeholders, society, profession as well as the environment. Besides their companys integrity
charter, engineers must also exercise zero tolerance for unethical behavior as set forth by the
local governing engineering bodies, (in the case of Malaysia, these are the Board of Engineers
and Institution of Engineers). The code of conduct is therefore central to the way we protect,
develop and sustain our reputation. It is the innate responsibility of engineers to perform services
only in their areas of technical competence and to be honest about skill-gaps as doing otherwise
would lead to a compromise in engineering quality for the sake of economic advantage. In
addition, engineers are duty bound to not mislead about engineering matters to their employers,
non-technical owners or fund managers which may result in financial loss, damage to reputation
as well as injury and even death.

4. Conclusion The equation: Techno-skills + Business target + Profound ethics = Success

The increasingly demanding roles of engineers to meet the business target must be done without
crossing the line with respect to business ethics, environment, health, safety and social standards.
They must integrate ethical behaviour in their daily work attitude instead of treating it as an
additional demand. Essentially, ethical considerations are to be built into the engineering
practice. Above and beyond, integrity and compliance to the code of conduct should be the DNA
of each and every engineer in fulfilling their duties, even during off-work. The ultimate
challenge is to do the same when no one is watching or checking!

3. JAWAPAN (GENERAL NO 2)

1. Introduction
Engineering is one of the most challenging professions on earth. The engineering profession is
a high-risk profession, which involves construction and development etc. Engineering could be a
rather lucrative profession if manage properly. As the saying goes, high gain is always associated
with high risk. The same goes for engineering industry. Engineers, especially civil engineers are
often entrusted with the responsibility of implementing large-scale projects involving millions of
dollars. As a result, the integrity and ethical standards of engineers are seriously being put
into test. In the following section of this essay, I would like to discuss the necessary measures
that an engineer could adopt to prevent corruption and unethical practices of cutting corners in
order to safeguard the good image of the engineering profession in the country.

2. Measures to prevent corruption and unethical practice


2.1 Code of Ethics
Various measures can be adopted by engineers in the direction to prevent corruption and
unethical practices in the engineering profession. One of the most important measures is
the familiarization with the code of ethics. Engineers must get themselves familiar with the code
of ethics that govern the duties and responsibilities of engineers. Ethics means something more
than law and morals; it carries an additional connotation of rightess. The Code, therefore,
is not a list of rules to govern every problem of conduct, nor is it a broad statement of ideals. It is
a statement of the principles of rightness, of broad scope, and with enough detail to enable an

intelligent man to deduce for himself the course of his own professional conduct. The
engineering code of ethics explain and illustrate the right tasks that an engineer should perform
and the wrongdoings that he/she is prohibited from undertaking such as unwise practices of
cutting corner, corruptions etc.
2.2 Self Awareness
Apart

from

familiarization

should possess relatively high

with

the

engineering

self-awareness of

code

of

ethics,

engineers

their duties and obligations towards

the society and country. Engineers are involving in construction activities such as construction of
buildings, houses and infrastructures etc. that can profoundly affect the life of members of the
society.

As

result,

engineering

tasks

are

significantly

important

and

any mistakes or negligence leading to collapse of the buildings due to unwise practices
would claim hundreds to thousands of lives. In this respect, engineers must possess a relatively
high self-awareness of their responsibilities and obligations towards the society and country in
order to minimize possible unethical practices and corruptions.
2.3 Checker
One of the most effective means in preventing corruptions or cutting corners is to engage a third
party as checker for the design works or construction project. This third party, called a checker,
could play the role as an inspector for all related construction works inclusive of design,
construction supervision and commissioning of works. The engagement of the checker is to
ensure that all related project works are carried out in accordance to international best practices,
sound engineering judgements and all works are complying with relevant engineering codes.
This has been one of most effective measures that are being widely adopted in the engineering
industry to prevent and minimize possible unethical practices from taking place.
2.4 Stiffer Penalty
Apart from engaging a third party as checker for the project, another effective measure that has
not been widely practiced in Malaysia is to impose stiffer penalties for those who committed
wrongdoings such as unethical practices and corruptions. The laws in Malaysia have been too

lenient to the developers, contractors and engineers. Stiffer penalties should be imposed to
those who has been found guilty of adopting unethical practices. Penalties such as heavy
financial penalties combined with imprisonment, revoke license of developers, contractors or
engineers etc. could be enforced in order to prevent the widespread unethical practices in the
engineering industry.
2.5 To organize awareness talk
Other effective measures in the direction to prevent corruption and unethical practices in the
engineering profession are to organize awareness talks, seminars or workshops in a more
frequent basis. These events would target those that are involved in the construction industry
including developers, contractors, engineers etc. in order to instill high awareness in all parties of
the importance in adopting good practices in the engineering profession.