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Definition of Speaking

Tarigan (1990:3-4) defines that speaking is a language skill that is developed in child
life, which is produced by listening skill, and at that period speaking skill is learned.
Based on Competence Based Curriculum speaking is one of the four basic
competences that the students should gain well. It has an important role in communication.
Speaking can find in spoken cycle especially in Joint Construction of Text stage (Departmen
Pendidikan Nasional, 2004). In carrying out speaking, students face some difficulties one of
them is about language its self. In fact, most of students get difficulties to speak even though
they have a lot of vocabularies and have written them well. The problems are afraid for
students to make mistakes.
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Technique Teaching Speaking (Technique for Teaching Speaking)


If you see a model Speaking of learning, still rely on memorizing dialogue models then come
forward to practice. This activity is carried out usually because teachers want the teaching
and learning activities rapidly completed without the bother, or do not know what to do in
teaching speaking.
Temporary assumption, Speaking of learning the complicated and it takes courage students to
produce speech. This is often feared teachers. Speaking They thought it took a long time and
it is difficult for students to adapt.
Okay, let's examine 9 Speaking following teaching techniques. With these techniques the
assumption that it is difficult Speaking for students, can be eliminated.
1. Ask and Answer.
Students are asked to do a question and answer session. The process, have students record
some interview questions that need to be memorized. Then release the students asked a friend
in the class. Customize the question by theme. Eg Personal theme Identitiy, Shopping List,
Map and others. To check whether students perform the task, ask them to make a record that
should be reported to the teacher after the learning process ends. Teachers only monitor
students
and
provide
time
for
students
do
question
and
answer.

2. Describe and Draw.


Students are paired. Student A has an image that is not known by the student B, and vice
versa. A student describes his images have and students and to draw the appropriate
description A student A. After students finished, replace the students and explain the picture.
Have them compare the picture and give value according to their tastes.
3. Discussion.
Define a topic and have students discuss topics in groups according to the picture. The
technique is suitable to be applied to the intermediate and advanced learners.
4. Guessing.
Teacher or several students have an information that should be guessed by the students or
other groups to ask in English.
5. Rememberring
Students close their eyes and remember the example image of objects in the classroom or the
location of places. This technique is effective to sharpen memory and minimizing forget to
vocabulary.
6. miming.
A student practicing certain expressions such as feelings, do an activity, and more. While
other students guess.
7. Ordering.
Students are asked to sort things by asking where is it to find a suitable place.
8. Completing a form questionnaire.
Students questioning, or to provide certain information to complete a form or a quiz. This
technique effectively applied to subjects related to identity, such as job form, passport and
other
charging.
9. Role play.
This technique is suitable for learners who have reached the intermediate level and above.
Students practice a situation such as at police stations, courts, drama, and others. Students are
only required to use expressions which never studied or used the help of the card. Teachers
act giving direction and monitoring activities.
10. Guided Speaking
Guided Speaking with limited emphasis on pronunciation and speaking with a
clue-clue or a track that had been planned in advance.

11. Responsive Speaking.


The ability to speak can be stimulated from the text (in English), and the
literature is very rich with vocabualary and structure of language. In this
technique, Traffic speaking students came up with this reading stimulation.
12. Productive Speaking.
Speaking with extensive discourse in this technique is its primary purpose, but
can only be obtained if the student has mastered speaking ability of the first and
second techniques have understood and controlled properly.

Technique of Teaching Speaking


Harmer (in Tarigan, 1990: 13) writes that when teaching speaking or producing skill,
we can apply three major stage, those are:
1. introducing new language
2. practice
3. communicative activities.
When introducing new language, the teacher should find out the genre or the text,
which is meaningful. In this stage teacher can ask students to pronounce the unfamiliar
words, find out the meaning of the expression used in the text.
Other technique used for teaching speaking:
1. information gap by using pictures
2. by using photographs
3. by using song
4. by using mysterious thing
5. Educational drama which covers miming, role play, the empty chair, simulation.
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MEDIUM OF TEACHING SPEAKING


1.Body Language

Body Language simply means body language and gesture language also means
the body movement. how it can be a medium in teaching Speaking? Basically the
students in general have gotten English vocabulary is not small, it is because
English has been introduced since the level of pre - childhood. so the important
thing is how to bring up memories of their vocabulary with conjecture or guess
the gesture, a gesture which is strung in a single unified simple story.
2. T-card

T-card is a card that read the word design certain key words related to animals. These cards
are made of cardboard boxes of instant noodles, old calendars, pictures and some blank cards
shaped like the letter "T" are included in the former site of a box of envelopes. T-card is
designed as attractive as possible to foster students' curiosity and stimulate students to
explore the ability of speaking and writing to a text report.
3. Games by Town Map
The function of this games is to identify the names of places or buildings by
Town Map in English. For example: a city park = City Park, Post Office = Post
Office, Station = Station. The first activity will help students add their Vocabulary
of unusual places and buildings that they meet everyday in the city. When
finished identifying all the places and buildings in the map. Each representative
group with the help of teachers were asked to come forward and recite the name
of a place or building in the English language in a way to show it on the map.

METHOD OF TEACHING SPEAKING


1. Audio Lingual Method
Audio Lingual Method is a method of learning English in which teachers practiced a
short dialogue that any means can not be translated by the students. Teachers provide
instruction to students to follow the dialogue and the students to guess the purpose of
dialogue of gestures, poses a dialogue, and a variety of things practiced by a teacher.
Students are invited to memorize dialogue that even they do not know the meaning of
the writing and clearly. They are forced to think to understand the contents of dialog
and memorize it in a short time without allowed to read or write. After the students
memorize, only then can they be given the words that exist in the dialogue. Students
read, then they wrote it.
This method is believed effective to make the students learn English quickly. They are
taught a language like infancy advance. Because the language is taught through
dialogue without the sense of hearing, and their knowledge of facial expressions,
poses dialogue and gesture. After listening, students are encouraged to speak and

memorize with the provision of the intentions of the word, but without a clear
meaning in detail. Then, reading and writing only after the students listen and talk.
2. Silent Way
Silent Way is actually used by Celeb Cattegno to teach mathematics. However, this
adult English language learning method called silent way is a powerful method when
applied to learning English.
Silent way is a method of using rods or rod as a medium. Rods have different colors
and lengths. With rods, a teacher teaches many things, especially about the speaking
and grammar in English.
This method is broadly have the same concept with audi lingual method. Students are
invited to listen, speak, read, and write new. There is one interesting case where
students were invited to establish or inner sense criteria that make them able to detect
and repair themselves if there are errors in using the English language.
3. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
Communicative Language Teaching is an approach in foreign language teaching
which emphasizes the concept of interaction, both in process and objectives of the
learning process. Historically, CLT has arisen as a response to the Audio-Lingual
Method (ALM), which is considered inappropriate in language learning.
This method departs from the understanding that language is a tool to communicate is
not just a set of rules. Therefore, language teaching should cling to that understanding,
that learning a language is learning to use language instead of learning about the
language.
4.

Method of Conversation (Conversation Method)


Teaching foreign languages such as English by direct way, this method
invite the students chatting / talking in a foreign language is being taught
this. Of course, begins with the words or sentences or phrases that are
commonly applicable to the activities of everyday life, such as: Good
Morning, How are you? What are you doing? Can you speak English? Etc;
or sentences, conversations in classrooms around the school, home office,
and so on; increasingly widespread and diverse.
5. Methods Phonetic (Hear and Say)
This method of prioritizing ear training and training speak that way of
presenting foreign language lessons through listening exercises followed
by exercises pronounce words and phrases in a foreign language being
studied.

6. Metode Practice Theory

Learning a foreign language first and primarily practice, then accompanied


with theory (grammar).
So here the emphasis is how students / pupils can speak foreign languages
was practically not theoretical. Therefore, teaching should be directed to
the communicative abilities or conversation, grammar can be taught while
passing.