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A Project Report On:Benefits of organic food..

Submitted By
Ariba Shaikh 54
Mehrunnisa Syed- 69
Shahab Ali - 66
Saddam Hussain- 48
Abubaker Chandwala - 07

Chapter-1
Introduction to Organic Food
The term organic refers to the way agricultural products are grown and processed. Specific
requirements must be met and maintained in order for products to be labeled as "organic."
Organic crops must be grown in safe soil, have no modifications, and must remain separate from
conventional products. Farmers are not allowed to use synthetic pesticides, bioengineered genes
(GMOs), petroleum-based fertilizers, and sewage sludge-based fertilizers.
Organic livestock must have access to the outdoors and be given organic feed. They may not be
given antibiotics, growth hormones, or any animal-by-products.
Benefit of Organic Food
Organic foods provide a variety of benefits. Some studies show that organic foods have more
beneficial nutrients, such as antioxidants, than their conventionally grown counterparts. In
addition, people with allergies to foods, chemicals, or preservatives often find their symptoms
lessen or go away when they eat only organic foods. In addition:

Organic produce contains fewer pesticides. Pesticides are chemicals such as

fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides. These chemicals are widely used in conventional
agriculture and residues remain on (and in) the food we eat.

Organic food is often fresher. Fresh food tastes better. Organic food is usually fresher
because it doesnt contain preservatives that make it last longer. Organic produce is often
(but not always, so watch where it is from) produced on smaller farms near where it is
sold.

Organic farming is better for the environment. Organic farming practices reduce
pollution (air, water, soil), conserve water, reduce soil erosion, increase soil fertility, and
use less energy. Farming without pesticides is also better for nearby birds and small
animals as well as people who live close to or work on farms.
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Organically raised animals are NOT given antibiotics, growth hormones, or fed
animal byproducts. The use of antibiotics in conventional meat production helps create
antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. This means that when someone gets sick from
these strains they will be less responsive to antibiotic treatment. Not feeding animal
byproducts to other animals reduces the risk of mad cow disease (BSE). In addition, the
animals are given more space to move around and access to the outdoors, both of which
help to keep the animals healthy.

Organic food is GMO-free. Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) or genetically


engineered (GE) foods are plants or animals whose DNA has been altered in ways that
cannot occur in nature or in traditional crossbreeding, most commonly in order to be
resistant to pesticides or produce an insecticide. In most countries, organic crops contain
no GMOs and organic meat comes from animals raised on organic, GMO-free feed.
Mumbai has one of the highest number of organic food outlets in the entire country of
India. Gone are the days when organic food was difficult to find. Organic food is
available in every part of the city, which is a wonderful way to keep you and your family
healthy, no matter where you live!

There are organic food store available in Andheri, Bandra, Thane, Vashi,
Borivali, Chembur, Charni Road, Churchgate, Colaba, CST, Fort , Juhu Etc.
Organic foods are foods produced by organic farming. While the standards differ worldwide,
organic farming in general features cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster
cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity.
Synthetic pesticides and chemical fertilizers are not allowed, although certain organically
approved pesticides may be used under limited conditions. In general, organic foods are also not
processed using irradiation, industrial solvents, or synthetic food additives.[1]
Currently, the European Union, the United States, Canada, Mexico, Japan and many other
countries require producers to obtain special certification in order to market food as organic
within their borders. In the context of these regulations, organic food is food produced in a way
that complies with organic standards set by national governments and international
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organizations. Although the produce of kitchen gardens may be organic, selling food with the
organic label is regulated by governmental food safety authorities, such as the US Department of
Agriculture (USDA) or European Commission
While there may be some differences in the nutrient and anti-nutrient contents of organically and
conventionally produced food, the variable nature of food production and handling makes it
difficult to generalize results, and there is insufficient evidence to support claims that organic
food is safer or healthier than conventional food Claims that organic food tastes better are
generally not supported by evidence.
Meaning and origin of the term.
For the vast majority of its history, agriculture can be described as having been organic; only
during the 20th century was a large supply of new chemicals introduced to the food supply.The
organic farming movement arose in the 1940s in response to
the industrialization of agriculture known as the Green Revolution.
In 1939, Lord Northbourne coined the term organic farming in his book Look to the
Land (1940), out of his conception of "the farm as organism," to describe a holistic, ecologically
balanced approach to farmingin contrast to what he called chemical farming, which relied on
"imported fertility" and "cannot be self-sufficient nor an organic whole." Early soil scientists also
described the differences in soil composition when animal manures were used as "organic",
because they contain carbon compounds where superphosphates and haber process nitrogen do
not. Their respective use effects humus content of soil. This is different from the scientific use of
the term "organic" in chemistry, which refers to a class of molecules that contain carbon,
especially those involved in the chemistry of life. This class of molecules includes everything
likely to be considered edible, and include most pesticides and toxins too, therefore the term
"organic" and, especially, the term "inorganic" (sometimes wrongly used as a contrast by the
popular press) as they apply to organic chemistry is an equivocation fallacy when applied to
farming, the production of food, and to foodstuffs themselves. Properly used in this agricultural
science context, "organic" refers to the methods grown and processed, not necessarily the
chemical composition of the food.

Ideas that organic food could be healthier and better for the environment originated in the early
days of the organic movement as a result of publications like the 1943 book, The Living SoilGardening and Farming for Health or Disease,
Early consumers interested in organic food would look for non-chemically treated, non-use of
unapproved pesticides, fresh or minimally processed food. They mostly had to buy directly from
growers. Later, "Know your farmer, know your food" became the motto of a new initiative
instituted by the USDA in September 2009.Personal definitions of what constituted "organic"
were developed through firsthand experience: by talking to farmers, seeing farm conditions, and
farming activities. Small farms grew vegetables (and raised livestock) using organic
farming practices, with or without certification, and the individual consumer monitored.
Small specialty health food stores and co-operatives were instrumental to bringing organic food
to a wider audience. As demand for organic foods continued to increase, high volume sales
through mass outlets such as supermarkets rapidly replaced the direct farmer connection.Today
there is no limit to organic farm sizes and many large corporate farms currently have an organic
division. However, for supermarket consumers, food production is not easily observable, and
product labeling, like "certified organic", is relied on. Government regulations and third-party
inspectors are looked to for assurance.
In the 1970s, interest in organic food grew with the publication of Silent spring and the rise of
the environmental movement, and was also spurred by food-related health scares like the
concerns about Alar that arose in the mid-1980s.
Legal definition
Organic food production is a self-regulated industry with government oversight in some
countries, distinct from private gardening. Currently, the European Union, the United States,
Canada, Japan and many other countries require producers to obtain special certification based
on government-defined standards in order to market food as organic within their borders. In the
context of these regulations, foods marketed as organic are produced in a way that complies with
organic standards set by national governments and international organic industry trade
organizations.
5

In the United States, organic production is a system that is managed in accordance with the
Organic Foods Production Act (OFPA) of 1990 and regulations in Title 7, Part 205 of the Code of
Federal Regulations to respond to site-specific conditions by integrating cultural, biological, and
mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve
biodiversity. If livestock are involved, the livestock must be reared with regular access to pasture
and without the routine use of antibiotics or growth hormones.
There are four different levels or categories for organic labeling. 1)100% Organic: This means
that all ingredients are produced organically. It also may have the USDA seal. 2)Organic: At
least 95% or more of the ingredients are organic. 3)Made With Organic Ingredients': Contains at
least 70% organic ingredients. 4) Less Than 70. Organic Ingredients: Three of the organic
ingredients must be listed under the ingredient section of the label. To be certified organic,
products must be grown and manufactured in a manner that adheres to standards set by the
country they are sold in:

Australia: NASAA Organic Standard

Canada:

European Union: EU-Eco-regulation


o Sweden: KRAV
o United Kingdom: DEFRA
o Poland: Association of Polish Ecology
o Norway: Debio Organic certification

India: NPOP, (National Program for Organic Production

Indonesia: BIOCert, run by Agricultural Ministry of Indonesia.

Japan: JAS Standards


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United States: National Organic Program (NOP) Standards

In the United States, the food label "natural" or "all natural" does not mean
that the food was produced and processed organically.

Public perception
There is widespread public belief, promoted by the organic food industry, that organic food is
safer, more nutritious, and tastes better than conventional food. These beliefs have fueled
increased demand for organic food despite higher prices and difficulty in confirming these
claimed benefits scientifically.
Psychological effects such as the halo effect, which are related to the choice and consumption
of organic food, are also important motivating factors in the purchase of organic food. An
example of the halo effect was demonstrated by a study of Schuldt and Schwarz. The results
showed university students who inferred that organic cookies were lower in calories and could be
eaten more often than conventional cookies. This effect was observed even when the nutrition
label conveyed an identical calorie content. The effect was more pronounced among participants
who were strong supporters of organic production, and had strong feelings about environmental
issues. The perception that organic food is low-calorie food or health food appears to be
common.
In China the increasing demand for organic products of all kinds, and in particular milk, baby
food and infant formula, has been "spurred by a series of food scares, the worst being the death
of six children who had consumed baby formula laced with melamine" in 2009 and the 2008
Chinese milk scandal, making the Chinese market for organic milk the largest in the world as of
2014. A Pew Research Centre survey in 2012 indicated that 41% of Chinese consumers thought
of food safety as a very big problem, up by three times from 12% in 2008.

Taste
A 2002 review concluded that in the scientific literature examined, While there are reports
indicating that organic and conventional fruits and vegetables may differ on a variety of sensory
qualities, the findings are inconsistent. There is evidence that some organic fruit is drier than
conventionally grown fruit; a slightly drier fruit may also have a more intense flavor due to the
higher concentration of flavoring substances.
Some foods, such as bananas, are picked when unripe, are cooled to prevent ripening while they
are shipped to market, and then are induced to ripen quickly by exposing them
to propylene or ethylene, chemicals produced by plants to induce their own ripening; as flavor
and texture changes during ripening, this process may affect those qualities of the treated fruit.
The issue of ethylene use to ripen fruit in organic food production is contentious because
ripeness when picked often does affect taste; opponents claim that its use benefits only large
companies and that it opens the door to weaker organic standards.
Anti-nutrients
The amount of nitrogen content in certain vegetables, especially green leafy
vegetables and tubers, has been found to be lower when grown organically as compared to
conventionally.When evaluating environmental toxins such as heavy metals, the USDA has
noted that organically raised chicken may have lower arsenic levels,while early literature reviews
found no significant evidence that levels of arsenic, cadmium or other heavy metals differed
significantly between organic and conventional food products. However, a 2014 review found
lower concentrations of cadmium, particularly in organically grown grains.
Pesticide residues
The 2012 meta-analysis determined that detectable pesticide residues were found in 7% of
organic produce samples and 38% of conventional produce samples. This result was statistically
heterogeneous, potentially because of the variable level of detection used among these studies.
Only three studies reported the prevalence of contamination exceeding maximum allowed limits;
all were from the European Union. A 2014 meta-analysis found that conventionally grown
produce was four times more likely to have pesticide residue than organically grown crops.

The American Cancer Society has stated that no evidence exists that the small amount of
pesticide residue found on conventional foods will increase the risk of cancer, though it
recommends thoroughly washing fruits and vegetables. They have also stated that there is no
research to show that organic food reduces cancer risk compared to foods grown with
conventional farming methods.
The Environmental Protection Agency has strict guidelines on the regulation of pesticides by
setting a tolerance on the amount of pesticide residue allowed to be in or on any particular food.
Organic meat production requirements
Organic meat certification in the United States authenticates that the farm animals meet USDA
organic protocol. These regulations include that the animals are fed certified organic food and
that it contains no animal byproducts. Further, organic farm animals can receive no growth
hormones or antibiotics, and they must be raised using techniques that protect native species and
other natural resources. Irradiation, and genetic engineering are not allowed with organic animal
production.One of the major differences in organic animal husbandry protocol is the pasture rule.
The minimum requirements for time on pasture do vary somewhat by species and between the
certifying agencies, but the common theme is to require as much time on pasture as is possible
and reasonable.

Purpose For The Study


We had been undergone the study, so as to get aware of the responses of the population about the
organic foodstuffs and their perception about the taste,preference,cost,nutritional values,impact
on environment etc through a practical implementation of IBM SPSS Statistics 20 to study
this project.
Objective Of The Study
Before beginning with the objective we made ourself engage in introspection and selfexamination to determine with how to begin with this project. Our objective was to gain the
ample of knowledge about Benefits of organic food the population perceives for consumption.
The view though complex should be quite feasible for the study and its application of it onto our
project book.
Sources Of Data Collection
The collected data is out from two sources, primary sources and secondary sources. Data
collected from primary sources are known as primary data and data collected from secondary
sources are called secondary data.
Primary data are also known as raw data. Data are collected from the original source in a
controlled or an uncontrolled environment. Example of a controlled environment
are experimental research where certain variables are being controlled by the researcher. On the
other hand, data collected through observation or questionnaire survey in a natural setting are
examples data obtained in an uncontrolled environment. Secondary data are data obtained from
secondary sources such as reports, books, journals, documents, magazines, the web and more.
1. Primary Data:SOURCES:1. It is an Original Data directly collected from the students of the college through
questionnaire.
2. Secondary Data:1. Reference Books
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2. Websites

Chapter 2
Analysis and interpretation
Hypothesis:
A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. For a hypothesis
to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one
can test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on previous observations that cannot
satisfactorily be explained with the available scientific theories. Even though the words
"hypothesis" and "theory" are often used synonymously, a scientific hypothesis is not the same as
a scientific theory. A working hypothesis is a provisionally accepted hypothesis proposed for
further research.
In statistical hypothesis testing, two hypotheses are compared. These are called the null
hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. The null hypothesis is the hypothesis that states that
there is no relation between the phenomena whose relation is under investigation, or at least not
of the form given by the alternative hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis, as the name suggests,
is the alternative to the null hypothesis: it states that there is some kind of relation. The
alternative hypothesis may take several forms, depending on the nature of the hypothesized
relation; in particular, it can be two-sided (for example: there is some effect, in a yet unknown
direction) or one-sided (the direction of the hypothesized relation, positive or negative, is fixed in
advance)
Null hypothesis: There is no relationship between the organic food and the health of an
individual and environment (society)

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Alternate hypothesis: There is relationship between the organic food and the health of an
individual and environment (society)
Variables: Health and Environment

Q1. Who does gocery marketing for your house?

In most of the home, females are the decision maker and they do the grocery shopping for the
entire home.
Q1 Who does gocery marketing for your house? And
Q2. Are you aware of the organic food?
Objective: to understand the awareness of organic food with respect to the person who goes for
buying groceries.
Null hypothesis: There is no relationship between the gender who buys grocery and awareness
for organic food.
Alternate hypothesis: There is relationship between the gender who buys grocery and awareness
for organic food.
Variables:

Grocery purchaser Independent variable


12

Awareness of organic food Dependent variable

Q2. Awareness about


Organic Food * gender
of respondents

Outcome:
Case Processing Summary
Cases
Valid
Missing
N
Percent
N
Percent

Total
N
Percent

50

50

100.0%

0.0%

100.0%

Q2. Awareness about Organic Food * gender of respondents


Cross tabulation
Count
gender of
Total
respondents
male
female
Yes
28
17
45
Q2. Awareness about
Organic Food
No
2
3
5
Total
30
20
50

Value
Pearson Chi-Square
Continuity Correctionb
Likelihood Ratio
Fisher's Exact Test
Linear-by-Linear
Association
N of Valid Cases

.926a
.231
.904
.907

Chi-Square Tests
df
Asymp. Sig. Exact Sig. (2- Exact Sig. (1(2-sided)
sided)
sided)
1
.336
1
.630
1
.342
.377
.310
1

.341

50
13

a. 2 cells (50.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.00.
b. Computed only for a 2x2 table

Q1. Who does grocery marketing for your house? And


Q3. Do you purchase Organic Products more than non-organic products?
Objective : study of purchasing habit and consideration of health
Variable: gender who purchase and purchase of organic food
Outcome:
purchase of organic food over non-organic food * gender of
respondents Crosstabulation
Count
gender of
Total
respondents
male
female
purchase of organic
Yes
22
5
27
food over non-organic
No
8
15
23
food
14

Total

30

Value

20

50

Chi-Square Tests
df
Asymp. Sig. Exact Sig. (2- Exact Sig. (1(2-sided)
sided)
sided)
1
.001
1
.002
1
.001
.001
.001

Pearson Chi-Square
11.286a
Continuity Correctionb
9.424
Likelihood Ratio
11.706
Fisher's Exact Test
Linear-by-Linear
11.060
1
.001
Association
N of Valid Cases
50
a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 9.20.
b. Computed only for a 2x2 table

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Q1. Who does grocery marketing for your house? And


Q4. Why do you buy Organic Products?
Objective: To understand correlation between the gender and purchasing habit of an individual.
Outcome:

Reason for buying


organic * gender of
respondents

Case Processing Summary


Cases
Valid
Missing
N
Percent
N
Percent

Total
N
Percent

50

50

100.0%

0.0%

100.0%

16

Reason for buying organic * gender of respondents Crosstabulation


Count
gender of
Total
respondents
male
female
Taste Better
8
2
10
contains Fewer
2
4
6
Reason for buying
Pesticides
organic
Always Fresh
8
4
12
Environmental Friendly
12
10
22
Total
30
20
50

Chi-Square Tests
Value
df

Asymp. Sig.
(2-sided)
.268
.255

Pearson Chi-Square
3.939a
3
Likelihood Ratio
4.062
3
Linear-by-Linear
.782
1
.377
Association
N of Valid Cases
50
a. 4 cells (50.0%) have expected count less than 5. The
minimum expected count is 2.40.

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Q6. How often do you consume Organic Food?


Objective: To understand the consumption cycle of organic food.
Outcome:
Statistics
Consumption of Organic
food
Valid
50
N
Missing
0

Consumption of Organic food


Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Valid Several Times a Week
20
40.0
40.0
More than Once A
9
18.0
18.0
Week

Cumulative
Percent
40.0
58.0

18

occassionally
Never
Dont Know
Total

13
5
3
50

26.0
10.0
6.0
100.0

26.0
10.0
6.0
100.0

84.0
94.0
100.0

Q7. How important is each attribute to you when purchasing Organic Food?
Objective: To understand the attribute level in dairy products and vegetables respectively.
Outcome:
DAIRY PRODUCTS
Statistics
Organically Low price of Brand name
produce dairy dairy product
of dairy
products
product
N

Valid
Missing

50
0

50
0

50
0

Fat content of Lactos free of Freshne


dairy product dairy product ss of
dairy
product
50
50
50
0
0
0

Organically produce dairy products


19

Frequency
not at all important
Slightly important
quite important
Valid
very important
Extremely
important
Total

Percent Valid Percent

1
10
16
15

2.0
20.0
32.0
30.0

2.0
20.0
32.0
30.0

Cumulative
Percent
2.0
22.0
54.0
84.0

16.0

16.0

100.0

50

100.0

100.0

Low price of dairy product


Frequency Percent Valid Percent

Valid

Slightly important
Quite important
Very important
Extremely
important
Total

12
21
13

24.0
42.0
26.0

24.0
42.0
26.0

Cumulative
Percent
24.0
66.0
92.0

8.0

8.0

100.0

50

100.0

100.0

Brand name of dairy product


Frequency Percent Valid Percent
Valid

Not at all
important
Slightly important
Quite important
Very important
Extremely
important

Cumulative
Percent

4.0

4.0

4.0

5
14
18
11

10.0
28.0
36.0
22.0

10.0
28.0
36.0
22.0

14.0
42.0
78.0
100.0

20

Total

50

100.0

100.0

Fat content of dairy product


Frequency Percent Valid Percent

Valid

Not at all
important
Slightly important
Quite important
Very important
Extremely
important
Total

2.0

2.0

2.0

10
13
19

20.0
26.0
38.0

20.0
26.0
38.0

22.0
48.0
86.0

14.0

14.0

100.0

50

100.0

100.0

Lactos free of dairy product


Frequency Percent Valid Percent

Valid

Not at all
important
Slightly important
Quite important
Very important
Extremely
important
Total

Cumulative
Percent

Cumulative
Percent

2.0

2.0

2.0

10
10
20

20.0
20.0
40.0

20.0
20.0
40.0

22.0
42.0
82.0

18.0

18.0

100.0

50

100.0

100.0
21

Freshness of dairy product


Frequency Percent Valid Percent

Valid

Slightly important
Quite important
Very important
Extremely
important
Total

7
5
17

14.0
10.0
34.0

14.0
10.0
34.0

Cumulative
Percent
14.0
24.0
58.0

21

42.0

42.0

100.0

50

100.0

100.0

22

23

24

Valid
Missing

VEGETABLES:
Statistics
Low price
freshness Packaging
vegetable

Organically
produce
vegetable
50
0

50
0

50
0

50
0

Organically produce vegetable


Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Not at all
important
Slightly important
Quite important
Valid
Very important
Extremely
important
Total

Availibility
vegetable
50
0

Cumulative
Percent

14.0

14.0

14.0

9
10
12

18.0
20.0
24.0

18.0
20.0
24.0

32.0
52.0
76.0

12

24.0

24.0

100.0

50

100.0

100.0

25

Low price vegetable


Frequency Percent
Not at all
important
Slightly important
Quite important
Valid
Very important
Extremely
important
Total

4.0

4.0

4.0

11
19
12

22.0
38.0
24.0

22.0
38.0
24.0

26.0
64.0
88.0

12.0

12.0

100.0

50

100.0

100.0

3
10
21

6.0
20.0
42.0

Valid
Percent
6.0
20.0
42.0

16

32.0

32.0

50

100.0

100.0

Packaging
Frequency Percent
Not at all
important
Slightly important
Quite important
Valid
Very important
Extremely
important
Total

Cumulative
Percent

freshness
Frequency Percent
Slightly important
Quite important
Very important
Valid
Extremely
important
Total

Valid
Percent

Cumulative
Percent
6.0
26.0
68.0
100.0

Valid
Percent

Cumulative
Percent

4.0

4.0

4.0

1
5
15

2.0
10.0
30.0

2.0
10.0
30.0

6.0
16.0
46.0

27

54.0

54.0

100.0

50

100.0

100.0
26

Availability vegetable
Frequency Percent
Not at all
important
Slightly important
Quite important
Valid
Very important
Extremely
important
Total

Valid
Percent

Cumulative
Percent

2.0

2.0

2.0

1
19
17

2.0
38.0
34.0

2.0
38.0
34.0

4.0
42.0
76.0

12

24.0

24.0

100.0

50

100.0

100.0

27

28

Q1. Who does grocery marketing for your house? And


Q9. Do you know that Pesticides cause numerous serious health effect?
Objective: To study the relation between the health consideration and person who purchases
grocery for home.

29

Outcome:

familiar with health


hazards by pesticides *
gender of respondents

Case Processing Summary


Cases
Valid
Missing
N
Percent
N
Percent

Total
N
Percent

50

50

100.0%

0.0%

100.0%

familiar with health hazards by pesticides * gender of


respondents Crosstabulation
Count
gender of
Total
respondents
male
female
Yes
25
19
44
familiar with health
hazards by pesticides
No
5
1
6
Total
30
20
50

Value
Pearson Chi-Square
Continuity Correctionb
Likelihood Ratio
Fisher's Exact Test
Linear-by-Linear
Association
N of Valid Cases

1.547a
.639
1.718
1.516

Chi-Square Tests
df
Asymp. Sig. Exact Sig. (2- Exact Sig. (1(2-sided)
sided)
sided)
1
.214
1
.424
1
.190
.381
.217
1

.218

50
30

a. 2 cells (50.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.40.
b. Computed only for a 2x2 table

31

Chapter3- Conclusion
1. Despite of having a wide awareness about the organic food, the purchase scale
of it is low.
2. The main reason for low purchase is unavailability in the local area.
3. As per consumers, the organic food are just termed to be organic but in fact they
are adulterated to meet higher consumer demands.
4.The study claim that there are various perception about organic food and people
do consider it.
5. There are various attributes for buying different organic food.
6. People are highly aware about the health hazard with food pesticides and
adulteration.
7. There are different consumption patterns of organic food.

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