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LTE SON as a concept for NW automation

LTE SON podejciem do automatyzacji dziaania sieci

LTE SON
Outline

1.

SON Introduction

2.

Self-Configuration Algorithms (PCI, ANR)

3.

Self-Optimization Algorithms (ICIC, ESM)

4.

SON Coordinaton

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SON Introduction

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SON Introduction

SON Concept Drivers for SON


PRB conf
HO thresh

Increasing complexity of networks


Multitude / growing number of parameters with interdependencies
Multitude of RRM algorithms working at different time scales

TimeToTrig
Hysteresis

AC

AC thresh

PSched

Heterogeneous Network to be cooperatively managed


Macro/Micro/Pico/Femto cells and Relays

cdma
2000

Overlaying multiple networks for a single operator


2G/3G/LTE/WiFi

LTE
WiFi
Core

GSM

UMTS

Higher operational frequencies


Increase number of cells required / higher NW cost

High performance required


Growing number of BW hungry services
Growing number of devices and change of device character (M2M)

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SON Introduction

SON Concept Evolution Path Towards Autonomous System


3. Predictive

2. Managed

1. Basic

Approved

OAM

OAM
Action
Auto
Algs

Action

Suggested
change

Meas
Meas

Collect & aggregate info from NEs into


few consoles where required configs
are initiated manually

All NEs are managed


independetly

4. Adaptive

Automatic algs (e.g. SON) recommend actions


based on gathered info. Actions need to be
approved

One time high level


policy definition

5. Autonomic
Adjust policy

Approved

Approved

Adjust policy

OAM
Auto
Algs

Policy

Suggested
change

Long term
performance report

System automatically takes action based on measurements


controlled by low level policies set/adjusted by operator
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OAM
Auto
Algs

Policy

Suggested
change

Fully integrated system is dynamically managed based


on business rules and policies
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SON Introduction

SON Concept Challenges for SON


Although SON promises huge benefits towards having reliable and optimum mobile networks, the benefits come with challenges in making
them reality M. Marvangi (ICIMU 2011, Malaysia)

Challenge

Convince operators to change NW management


Redefinition of OAM/Planning/Optimization Procedures
Gain trust on automation gradual introduction of SON

SON Solution Requirement


Flexible SON configuration:
Fully controlled SON
Partly controlled SON
Fully automatic SON

Easy migration from non-SON to SON NW

Resolve conflicts between different SON functions

Assure that SON features taken from different vendors will


cooperate

Assure that SON solutions will operate in multi-RAT NW


E.g. single tilt change for LTE optimization might influence
badly other RATs if single antenna used

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SON Cooperation /
SON Coordinator

Standardization Effort for


multi-vendor and coordination

Standardization Effort for


InterRAT SON

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SON Introduction

SON Within 3GPP Standardization (1/2)


SON: set of Use Cases that govern the NW including: planning, setup & maintanence
SON objective: minimization of manual changes of RAN configuration and optimization

SON

Self Configuration

Self Optimization

Self Healing

Optimize powers
HO params
PRACH params

Plug in

Recovery
actions
Alarm

Network

RF failure

eNB

Configuration
downloading

eNB

eNB

restart
eNB

take
over UEs
eNB

3GPP approach for SON (3GPP TS 32.500):


SON algorithms themselves will not be standarized in 3GPP
3GPP standarizes measurements, procedures and open interfaces to support SON

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SON Introduction

SON Within 3GPP Standardization (2/2)


Standard / Operator

SON targets / policies

Non-standard / Vendor dependent

SON Framework

SON algorithms

Standard

Settings, parameters

Standard

Nodes and interfaces

Non-standard / Operator
(counters / threshold / KPI)
Standard

eNB, UE measurements

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SON Introduction
Key Parts of SON

SON supporting functions

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Main areas of SON

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Self-Configuration

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Self-Configuration

Self Configuration Procedure Example


Self-Configuration (S-Conf): Process which brings a network element into service requiring minimal
human operator intervention or none at all.

Already deployed eNB

New eNB
5. Auto X2 with neighbor setup
eNB

eNB

O&M

3. Auto software
and configuration download
(e.g. PCIs, neighbors)

2. Get the IP address


eNB

6. Configure
the PCIs for
cells
4. Autosetup the
S1 connection

7. Set the neighbor


cells (ANR)

DHCP
Server

1. Auto connect to
backhaul

Backhaul

MME

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Automated Configuration of PCI


PCI Usage and PCI Assignment Criteria

504 PCIs
To be distributed among cells

PCI = 6
PCI = 3

PCI = 4

PCI = 1

Used at:
Synchronization (PSS/SSS)
Measurement reports
Handover requests
Cell reselection meas.
PHY signals (CRS, DRS)

PCI = 2
PCI = 5

Criteria for PCI Assignment


Collision- and confusion-free assignment

Avoid reconfigurations

Adaptability to different NW deployments

.. but, PCI reuse is


required
(especially for
HetNets)

Applicability to initial and evolutionary deployment scenarios


Specific PHY and operator policy constraints
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Automated Configuration of PCI


Collision and Confusion Free

Possible Problems with PCI assignment


Collision
two neighbors have the same PCI

PCI = 1

Collision free
each two neighbors shall have different PCIs

PCI = 1

PCI = 1

PCI = 2

UE is not able to differentiate between these two cells


UE in connected mode can synchronize to the cell that it is not attached to

Confusion
two neighbors of a given (center) cell have the same PCI

PCI = 1

The assignment of PCI shall be

PCI = 2

PCI = 1

Confusion free
all neighbors of a given (center) cell shall have different PCI

PCI = 1

PCI = 2

PCI = 3

If UE reports to cell 2 of strong cell 1 (left hand), the eNB can direct the user to
right hand cell 1 in HO (which is not the reported neighbor)

We may need a central assignment and reassignment the PCI to all eNBs
(using e.g. graph coloring algorithm in RNP tool or a central node for assigning the IDs)

Conflict avoidance approaches for distributed SON


Listen on the radio interface (Listening module at eNB before setting PCI)
UE assisted PCI detection (UE report all received PCIs, eNB assigns temporar PCI)
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Automated Configuration of PCI


Example Approach to Centralized PCI Assigment

Usage of Graph Coloring Approach

Use different colours for each node of the graph


Use lowest number of different PCIs with collision / confussion free approach

2. Representation of the NW by graph

1. Example network layout

Node cell
Edge neighborhood relation to direct neighbor or
neighbor of neighbor
Neighbor of neighbor relation

Considered Cell

Neighbor of neighbor
Considered Cell
Direct neighbor
relation
Direct neighbor

Approach: two connected nodes need to have different colours

4. Collision and confusion free PCI assignment

PCI B

PCI C

PCI A
PCI C

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3. Coloured Graph

PCI B

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Automatic Neighbor Relation Function


Neighbor Relations Importance
No ANR

With ANR

Succesful HO

Measure Cell B
and report

Succesful HO

Measure Cell B
and report

Cell B

NR Table
Cell B
Cell Z

NR Table
Cell B
Cell Z

Cell A
(serving)
Cell C

Cell A
(serving)

Cell C

Cell C

NRT update and


HO control to cell C

No Cell C
measurement
RLF and re-est
in cell C

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Cell B

Cell C discovery /
measurement
and report

Succesful HO

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Automatic Neighbor Relation Function


UE Based LTE Cell Discovery (LTE ANR)
Core

6. TNL address of
eNB with ECGI = 30

PCI = 1
EGCI = 20

PCI = 2
EGCI = 30

2. RRC Meas. Rep. (PCI = 2)


5. Report (ECGI = 30)

3. Request to report ECGI for PCI = 2

4. Read BCCH (ECGI = 30)

NR Table
PCI 10
PCI 12
PCI 2

1. Measure signal (PCI = 2)

eNB

eNB

PCI 1

7. New entry
(upd. NRT)

PCI 2

NR Table
PCI 11
PCI 13
PCI 1
9. New entry
(upd. NRT)

8. Establish X2 interface (X2 Setup)

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Self-Optimization

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Self-Optimization

Self Optimization Algorithm (High Level View)


Keep monitoring
Monitor input data

Analyse input data with


optimization algorithms

Yes

UE measurements
UE signalling (e.g. RLF)
Cell global counters

Meet the
targets?
No

Apply optimization
algorithm and
parameter adaptation

Execute corrective actions

Fallback
mechanism
System state better after the
corrective actions execution?

Yes

No

Restore the system to


the previous state
(before the corrective
actions were executed)

One time self-optimization


procedure ends

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Inter-Cell Interference Coordination


ICIC Scenarios

ICIC goal: Control the inter-cell interference (possible for PUSCH, PDSCH, PUCCH)

Downlink

Uplink
Useful
signal

Interference

eNB measures
interference

UE measures interference and


sends info to eNB over
measurement reports

Static parameters are not changed (PFR or full reuse 1)


Semi dynamic slow adaptations of resources and CEU/CCU
threshold
Dynamic ICIC scheme frequent adjustments of parameters
(requires a lot of X2 signalling)

Example semi-dynamic scheme Partial Frequency Reuse


Power

Power

CEU

CEU

SON ICIC decides on:

CCU
f

Inner / outer zone threshold


BW part for each zone
Outer zone reuse scheme for neighbors

BW

f
BW

Inner
zone

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CCU

Outer
zone

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Inter-Cell Interference Coordination


Example ICIC Operation on UE Mobility

Cell 1

Cell 2

Power

Power
2
1

4
5

BW
1

BW
2

UE is scheduled to
outer subband where
cell 2 doesnt transmit

UE is scheduled to inner subband


with low interference (due to large
pathloss) from cell 1
UE is handed over from
cell 1 to cell 2

UE is scheduled to inner subband


with low interference (due to large
pathloss) from cell 2

UE is scheduled to
outer subband where
cell 1 doesnt transmit

Useful signal
Interference
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Inter-Cell Interference Coordination


Proactive vs Reactive Approaches

Reactive approach

Ive measured
interference at
PRB x
1

Ill adapt power levels


of UEs to decrease
interference

eNB

Proactive approach (Dynamic PFR/SFR)

Using indicators of experienced interference


(interference is present)

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Ill not use PRB x


2

eNB

OI = per UL PRB report on experienced interference

Ill schedule UE at
PRB x

eNB

eNB

HII = bitmap of UL PRB interference sensitivity


RNTP = bitmap of DL PRB power threshold exceeding

Announcing scheduling decisions


(requires a lot of signalling)

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Energy Saving Management


Example Daily Traffic Profile
100

Load voice % of max capacity of cell

Load data % of max capacity of cell

RF output power % of max output power

90
80
70

[% ]

60
50
40
30
20

23-0

22-23

21-22

20-21

19-20

17-18

16-17

15-16

14-15

13-14

12-13

11-12

10-11

9-10

8-9

7-8

6-7

5-6

4-5

3-4

2-3

1-2

0-1

10

Hour

Possiblity to
switch off cell
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High traffic
scenario
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Energy Saving Management


ESM Introduction and Usage Scenario

ESM goal: Cost savings and reduced environmental impact. Focused on automatic
adaptations of offered capacity by NW to actual traffic demand at given point of time

Example actions

Radio solutions:
Not scheduling in certain subframes
Switch off some antennas to save power in MIMO modes
Adapt transmission power
Switch off some carrierrs
NW solutions:
Switch off cells (e.g. for HeNBs, capacity booster Pico cells etc)

Considered scenarios

Cell overlaid use case


eNB can enter ES mode if theres radio coverage from other
system
Capacity limited network use case
Coverage area of a group of eNBs is taken care by one of
more of its eNBs while others go into ES state

Example scenario capacity booster / capacity limited NW


Coverage based macro-cells and capacity based pico-cells

No-ES

Switch-off capacity-boosters when


capacity is no longer needed

No-ES

No-ES

No-ES

No-ES

No-ES

High traffic situation


(e.g. busy hour)

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No-ES

ESaving

ESaving
(cap booster)

ESaving

ESaving

ESaving

EScompensate
(macrocell)

ESaving

Low traffic situation


(e.g. night hours)

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SON Coordinator

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Interaction Between SON Use Cases


Problems with Interactions

Multiple SON use cases

UE
measurements

SON
Use Case 1

eNB
measurements

SON
Use Case 2

SON
Use Case 3

Can alter the same parameter


Interact with each other

Parameter 1

Can work against each other


Performance depends on
multiple use cases

Parameter 2

SON coordination definition (3GPP TS 32.522):


SON Coordination means preventing or resolving conflicts or negative influences between SON functions to make SON functions comply with operator policy

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Interacting Use Cases - Example

Interactions Between Handover Parameter Optimization and Load Balancing


Metric conflict

Unsatisfied
users

Virtual
load
HO offset

Hysteresis

HO param
optimization

RLF ratio
(HPIRLF)
HO ping
pong ratio
(HPIHPP)

TTT

HO failure
ratio
(HPIHOF)

SON algorithms

Control parameters

KPIs / metrics

Weighted sum:
HP = w1 * HPIHOF + w2 * HPIHPP + w3 * HPIRLF

Load balancing

Source: Socrates D5.9 Final report

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Interacting Use Cases Example

SON Coordinator Cooperative Use Case Example (HPO and LB)


Conflict detection and
resolution

E.g. settings of metrics


weights, setting assured
virtual load

Coordination policy
selection

Operator policy

COO1

Alignment

HPO priorty

COO2

Requested

LB priority

changes

COO3
Abnormal situation
detect/solve

SON Coordinator

Collects and processes


PM/FM/CM

Autognostics

Virtual
load

Load
balancing

HO offset

RLF ratio
Hysteresis

HO param
optimization

HO ping
pong ratio
TTT
HO failure
ratio

SON algorithms

Control parameters

KPIs / metrics
Source: Socrates D5.9 Final report

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Interacting Use Cases - Example

HPO and LB Cooperative Use Case Example Results

Av. No of unsatisfied users (%)


Call drop ratio (%)

HO pingpong ratio (%)


HO failure ratio (%)

Performance (%)

30
25
20
15
10
5

0
No SON

HPO

LB

HPO&LB

HPO&LB&
Coordinator

Source: Socrates D5.9 Final report

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Thank you for your attention!

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