Anda di halaman 1dari 16

IQRA UNIVERSITY

Assignment # 1
Research Paper Study
Membership Profile:
1.
2.

Shamsher
Ahmed

Reference:
http://www.eurojournals.com/RJIS_19.htm

Submitted to:
Date:

Mr. Yousuf Sharjeel


25th April 2012

Research Journal of Internatonal Studes - Issue 19 (June., 2011) 60


Adaptation of Outcome Based Assessment System at
Undergraduate Level

Nayer Fardows
Abstract
The paper investigates to gain enhanced understanding in the concept of Outcome Based
Assessment at the undergraduate level. It requires that universities to examine their
curriculum and courses from a different point of view. Assessment is a systematic ongoing,
interactive process of monitoring (recording and analyzing) the students learning
outcomes
and processes in order to determine what we are doing well and what we need to improve.
Students, at present are assessed in terms of courses (inputs) which they take and after
successful completion of required number of credit hours, are considered educated. They
are then expected to exhibit certain outcomes like knowledge, skills and other attributes
which they are required to possess. Responses on the outcome based assessment are
compared in the form of assessment in which judgments are made about students by
measuring their work against set criteria which are independent of the work of the
students.
The study reported here discusses that the growth of assessment movement for enhancing
the quality of education in the universities/institutions requires a paradigm shift which
involves a movement from a focus upon teaching to a focus on student learning. Up till
now, focus on teaching implies that measures used for assessing quality consisted of
things
like number of courses taught, number of students in a class and a course faculty
evaluation. This shift to focus upon student learning reflects that assessment now turns to
an examination of specific student outcomes i.e. student achievements, perception of their
development towards educational objectives, rate of placement and indicators of
performance in graduate students and extended recognition of their achievements. Results
indicate that universities/institutions should bring paradigm shift in their traditional
evaluation emphasis to outcome based assessment with effective quality of learning to
meet
the requirements of the stakeholders. Implications for transformational learning and
leadership theories towards outcome based assessment are analyzed as well as thoughts
about how the development of the faculty competencies may be enhanced and affected
through adopting various learning techniques.
1 Introduction
Education system at present is passing through various reforms especially in the
developing countries,
because it still presents traditional educational structure in which teaching is given
preference over
learning. One of the obvious reasons for bringing new reforms in the education system is
that
traditional teaching does not fulfill the requirements of the stakeholders (organizations
where students
join after graduation). Most of the institutes in the third world countries run their
educational programs
on pre-defined curriculum structure with vague program objectives. Programs lack
documented
outcomes for graduating students, and due to the reason, maximum students do not
perform/demonstrate their learning experiences. In the present traditional education
structure, learning
Research Journal of Internatonal Studes - Issue 19 (June., 2011) 61
revolves around fixed time and calendar which means that courses have inflexible
constraint for
teachers and students. Time is not manipulated to the best advantages of all students,
because some

students learn part of the course sooner, whereas other may take time to understand these
parts. Present
education system is based on competitive approach to standard linked with a possible
success. Learners
go for good grades by using any means and at times by passing certain portion of their
course. Only
few students get access to most challenging areas of the curriculum. The process of sorting
and
selecting begins at school level and evolves into inflexible system of curriculum tracking by
higher
institutions. Institutes have also adopted same approach by reflecting/publicizing names of
higher
grades achievers for material gains. Faulty examination system exists in the institutions,
three hours
exam is taken at the end of the semester on a fixed date and time. The system emphasizes
and rewards
students for how well they perform during only three hours of time. Those who have better
memory
emerge with the best grades and records. Students, who are slower or disturbed by any
other factor (not
feeling well, or someone is not well in the family), will not be able to perform well. These
students
never get the opportunity to truly catch up because their performance of exam day can not
be erased.
As a whole, the present traditional education system encourages indolence in students,
freezes
curriculum, restricts intellectual freedom, explanation and zest for inquiry, encourages rote
memory
and establishes different standards of evaluation through which it is not possible to judge
the
behavioral development of a learner.
Outcome Based Education is a comprehensive approach towards organizing and operating
an
education system that is focused on end products and defined by the successful
demonstrations of
learning sought from each student. It encompasses everything in an educational system
that is essential
for all students to be able to do successfully at the end of their learning experience. This
means that
learning to start with clear objectives, which is important for students to be able to do,
focus on
education, organizing curriculum, instruction and assessment to make sure that learning
will ultimately
take place. These outcomes have to be explicit to ensure that students clearly understand
what is being
assessed to be achieved. This changes the currently conducted assessments which are
designed for the
purpose of comparing students with one another, whereas outcome based assessment is a
form of
assessment in which judgments are made about students by measuring their work against
set criteria
that are independent of the work of the students. The criteria are in terms of outcomes of
the courses.

Currently education is viewed in terms of inputs in which students undertake a particular


set of
courses and when the required numbers of credit hours are completed; they are declared
qualified and
are considered educated. These students once exposed to their stakeholders, then their
real tests starts.
At times individuals with average grades perform much better than those with higher grade
degrees.
The reason is simple; they might have not done well due to an unavoidable reason on a
particular exam
day, however, their learning experiences allowed them to effectively demonstrate
performance during
their professional career. The academic community strongly believes that paradigm shift
from
traditional educational system to outcome based approach will help students to prove
worthy of
requirements of their stakeholders for which universities are required to evaluate their
courses and
curriculum from a different point of view that is application of the knowledge and
demonstration of
required skills and values within specific context. This study reveals that paradigm shift,
from focus
upon teaching to focus upon learning, is mandatory in our education system particularly at
undergraduate level.
1.1. Objective of the Study
The study reported in this paper was guided by following two objectives:
1.1.1. To introduce outcome based assessment at the undergraduate level with a view to
ensure
effective learning and to meet the requirements of the stakeholders.
Research Journal of Internatonal Studes - Issue 19 (June., 2011) 62
1.1.2. To adopt a methodology for defining program/course outcomes and develop criteria
and
tools necessary to measure these outcomes.
2. Methodology
The data was collected from the sources below:
2.1. Document Analysis
It includes reports and publications on outcome based education/assessment, criteria used
by the
public/private institutions for different aspects of their undergraduate programs, along with
technical
reports on curriculum development and evaluation, and research in the relevant field.
Document
analysis of educational files, record and reports can prove to be an extremely valuable
source of Data
(Bell, 2005). It is a technique that enables researchers to study human behavior in an
indirect way
through analysis of their communication (Fraenkol and Wallon, 2006, P.483). In this study,
document
analysis provided a major source for collecting data. Through comprehensive review of
literature and
meeting with experts, indicators for various aspect of outcome based assessment in an
undergraduate

program were identified. In view of the indicators identified in the light of Garrins (1987)
eight
dimensions of quality products were made. These indicators were shared with the experts
accordingly.
As a result of the meetings, a detailed list of indicators of outcome based assessment was
finalized.
Rubrics for each compliance condition were developed with the help of experts in the field
of outcome
based assessment.
2.2. Subjects
The sample of study included total 200 respondents.50 faculty members and 50 students
from 18
different institutions of Pakistan. 100 stakeholders were also added in the sample list
including 50
parents and 50 managers from 10 different organizations. All the teachers included in the
sample were
engaged in teaching to undergraduate programs. The samples from the institutions,
parents and
organizations were selected by using random sampling. Out of 18 institutions, 9 were
affiliated with
public sector universities, while 9 belonged to private sector. Six institutions were taken,
where
outcome based education was in practice, six institutions with traditional education system
and
remaining six having mixed of traditional/outcome based education. During the last 15
years, private
sector institutions have emerged with rapid expansion and a substantial number of
students taking
undergraduate level programs in the institutions. Hence, it was decided to include equal
number of
private sector institutions in the sample.
2.3. Questionnaire
The questionnaire used in this study has been developed/adopted from a research
workshop organized
by the Higher Education Commission (HEC) under the supervision of the University of
Management
and Technology, Lahore (2010). The questionnaire had two parts. The first part dealt with
outcome
based assessment and the second part covered traditional teaching. The questionnaire had
eight
categories. The first category included the program mission, objectives and outcomes with
six
statements. Second category consisted of eight items covering curriculum design and
organization.
Third category pertained to laboratories and computing facilities, fourth covered the
portion of student
support and advising, fifth highlighted process control; sixth covered a portion regarding
faculty,
seventh institutional facilities and eighth category pertained to the institutional support.
The
questionnaire, as a whole, consisted of 36 statements in each part. The categories are
actually different

aspects of institutions teaching/learning process. The questionnaire was in a bipolar form,


means that
two statements were given for each part. One statement was in the left hand column
depicted outcome
based assessment and the second statement in the right hand column depicted the
traditional education
Research Journal of Internatonal Studes - Issue 19 (June., 2011) 63
system. In the centre of these statements, three boxes were given for respondent to record
their
responses against each statement by applying tick mark (_) either in the left hand box or
right hand
box. They were asked to tick (_) neutral box, if they feel indifferent regarding the two
options.
2.4. Data Analysis
Percentage of the given responses was calculated for each item. Results of the study have
been
presented in a tabular form. Table one gives overall views of the respondents toward
having outcome
based learning at the undergraduate level programs being run in different institutions or
traditional
teaching system. Respondents views with respect to different variables such as program
mission,
objectives and outcomes, curriculum design and organization, laboratory facilities, student
support and
advising, process control, faculty, institutional facilities/support and assessment present
the best results
for improvement in teaching which have been discussed in results/discussion part of this
paper.
3. Results and Discussion
The detail of responses (teachers, students and stakeholders) to the questionnaire is
reflected in table
one. The result shows that respondents view, about the teaching/learning process, reflects
towards
outcome based learning. Programs at present, in most of the institutions of the country, are
run under
the traditional education system. Overall analysis of respondent reveals that 20% public
sector
institutions are running their courses with well defined program mission, objectives and
outcomes;
however, private sector institutes have 24.45% percentage. 59.45% respondents view that
their
curriculum does not support the program documented objectives. Only 30% responses
were of the
opinion that institutions have been producing students with knowledge, which they can
demonstrate at
the end of their learning experiences. 40% supports that laboratories and computing
facilities are
available to faculty and students. 67% respondents were of the view that curriculum being
taught in the
institutes is pre-defined and not structured according to the clearly defined outcomes
expected from all
students. If analyzed in terms of statements (total 36 statements), 70% respondents are of
the view to

have outcome based assessment in institutions.19% expressed to stay with the traditional
educational
system. There was only11% in which faculty/students and stakeholders expressed their
neutral views.
Analysis of responses with respect to different aspects of Traditional Education System and
Outcome
Based Assessment are given at the end of table.
3.1. Table-1
Table 1: Percentage of respondents beliefs in Traditional or Outcome Based Assessment
System
Outcome Based Education (OBE) O N T Traditional Education System (TES)
Criterion 1 Program Mission, Objectives and Outcomes
1. Program has documented measurable objectives
that supporting institutions mission statement.
7 1 2 1. Program is constructed with the aim to
produce better results.
2. Program is documented for graduating students 8 2 3 2. Program is designed for
acquiring degree
3. Outcomes support the program objectives 9 0 1 3. Teaching is given emphasis.
4. Graduating students are capable of performing
these outcomes
5 1 6 4. Students to get good grades in the final
examination.
5. Department assess its overall performance
periodically by using quantifiable measures
8 0 2 5. Department performs teaching assignment
even with the limited resources.
6. Result of the Program assessment is
documented.
4 2 5 6. Results of the degree are recorded.
Research Journal of Internatonal Studes - Issue 19 (June., 2011) 64
Table 1: Percentage of respondents beliefs in Traditional or Outcome Based Assessment
System (continued)
Criterion 2 Curriculum Design and Organization
7. Curriculum is consistent. 8 0 6 7. Curriculum is designed.
8. Curriculum supports the programs documented
objectives
9 1 3 8. Curriculum Supports broad policy of the
Government.
9. Theoretical background, problem analysis and
solution design are stressed within the
programs core material.
7 1 4 9. Curriculum contains data required for
completion of the course.
10. Curriculum satisfies the core requirements laid
down by respective accreditation bodies /
Higher Education Commission (HEC).
9 0 3 10. Curriculum satisfies requirements of the
course package.
11. Curriculum satisfies the general education, arts
and professional requirements of other
disciplines laid down by the accreditation
body/council.

6 2 5 11. Curriculum satisfies requirement of the


specific discipline.
12. Information technology components are
integrated throughout the program.
9 0 4 12. Curriculum is designed by the subject
experts.
13. Oral and written skills of the students are
developed and applied in the program.
8 1 4 13. Skills of the students are tested through
annual examinations.
Criterion 3 Laboratories and Computing Facilities
14. Laboratory manuals, documentation,
instructions for experiments are available and
readily accessible to faculty and students.
8 1 5 14. Required apparatus/material for the
laboratory is available.
15. Adequate numbers of support personnel are
there for instruction and maintaining the
laboratories
8 2 4 15. Laboratories are maintained even with less
manpower.
16. Universitys infrastructure and facilities are
adequate to support the programs objectives.
7 1 4 16. Available infrastructure supports the
teaching requirements.
Criterion 4 Student Support and Advising
17. Courses are offered in sufficient frequency for
the students to complete the program in timely
manner.
7 4 2 17. One main program is designed for the
degree in a fixed time framework.
18. Courses are structured to optimize interaction
between the students, faculty and teaching
assistants.
6 3 4 18. Interaction between students and faculty is
available.
19. University provides academic guidance on
course decisions and career choices to all
students.
8 0 2 19. Students choose different courses based on
marks obtained previously.
Criterion 5 Process Control
20. Process to enroll students is based on
quantitative and qualitative criteria.
9 0 5 20. Students are enrolled on the basis of their
academic standards.
21. Process to register students and monitoring their
progress is documents.
7 1 4 21. Students performance is measured through
the result of annual examinations.
22. Process to recruit and retain faculty in place and
documented.
9 0 4 22. Experienced faculty is utilized.

23. Processes and procedures to ensure that teaching


and delivery of course material emphasize
active learning that course learning outcomes
are met.
8 1 4 23. Emphasis is paid on teaching and
completion of course.
Outcome Based Education (OBE) O N T Traditional Education System (TES)
Criterion 6 Faculty
24. Process to ensure that graduates have completed
the requirements of the program based on
standards and documented procedures.
6 2 6 24. It is ensured that course is completed in
time.
25. Enough fulltime faculty members to provide
adequate coverage of the program areas/courses
with continuity and stability.
9 0 3 25. Courses are sufficiently covered even with
the deficiency of faculty.
Research Journal of Internatonal Studes - Issue 19 (June., 2011) 65
Table 1: Percentage of respondents beliefs in Traditional or Outcome Based Assessment
System (continued)
26. Qualifications and interests of faculty members
sufficient to teach all courses, plan, modify and
update courses and curricula.
8 0 2 26. Experienced teachers teach the courses.
27. Faculty members possess a level of competence
that would be obtained through graduate work
in the discipline.
9 1 3 27. Experience is counted with the number of
years worked for teaching different
disciplines.
28. Majority of faculty members hold a Ph.D.
degree in their discipline.
9 2 4 28. Less number of Ph.D faculty is available.
29. Faculty members dedicate sufficient time to
research to remain current in their discipline.
7 1 4 29. Research is negligible.
30. Mechanisms are in place for faculty
development.
7 4 2 30. Faculty improves their qualifications at
their own.
31. Faculty members are motivated and satisfied so
as to excel in their profession.
5 1 7 31. Faculty is satisfied through their
promotions/appointments.
Criterion 7 Institutional Facilities
32. Institutions have the infrastructure to support
new trends such as e- learning.
9 1 3 32. E-learning concept does not exist.
33. Library contains technical collection relevant to
the program and is adequately staffed.
8 0 4 33. Library contains limited number of books
and staff.

34. Classrooms and offices are adequately equipped


and capable of helping faculty to Carry out their
responsibilities.
7 3 2 34. Classrooms and offices are insufficiently
equipped.
Criterion 8 Institutional Facilities
35. Sufficient support and finances are available to
attract and retain high quality faculty.
7 0 4 35. Only permanent faculty is Available.
36. Adequate number of high quality graduate
students, teaching assistants and Ph.D. students
are available.
7 3 3 36. Sufficient number of students qualifies the
examinations.
Key: O= Outcome Based Assessment, N=Neutral, T= Traditional Teaching
3.2. Program Mission, Objective and Outcomes
There were six statements pertaining to the program mission, objectives and outcomes. In
the five
statements respondents expressed their views towards outcome based assessment. Only
one item which
pertains to recording of results, percentage of respondent, holding traditional as well as
outcome based
views, were almost equal, that was 41% believing that result of program should be
documented while
41% believing that results of examinations be recorded as per traditional way. According to
Prof Dr.
Abdul Rauf, each educational program should develop its programs objectives, design
program
outcomes and then assess if these objectives have been achieved or not. Prof Dr. Abdul
Rauf further
states that good program statement of any institute carries some features which are, a) be
relevant to
the mission of the institution, b) must address one or more needs of the program
constituents, c)
understandable by the program constitutions, d) clear, concise and consistent, e)
realistic/achievable, f)
measurable, g) based on long term forward looking, h) manageable number of statements
and, j) focus
on students learning. According to Academic Development, University of Management and
Technology Lahore, setting objectives for a program requires that each degree course must
have
specific learning objectives. These must be in line with the institutional mission and vision.
As a
whole, these objectives are statements of broad goals that the program expects to achieve
in terms of
knowledge, skills and competence that student will acquire. The statement also reflects the
cognitive,
affective and behavioral characteristics of the graduates. It should also reflect the
expected
accomplishment of graduates during their first few years. After developing program
objectives, it must
be checked that these are relevant to the mission of institution, address the needs of the
stakeholders,

are clear, concise and understandable by the faculty, realistic and based on the context of
the
Research Journal of Internatonal Studes - Issue 19 (June., 2011) 66
environment of the industry, measurable, forward looking and manageable with limited
number of
statements and focusing on student learning.
3.3. Curriculum, Design and Organization
Seven statements of questionnaire were pertained to the curriculum, design and
organization. In six
statements, respondents supported the views related to outcome based assessment
indicating that
curriculum should be consistent, support the program documented objectives, and satisfy
the
requirements of accreditation bodies. In one item respondents favored the traditional
educational
system by opting to have curriculum which satisfy requirement of the specific discipline.
William G.
Spady (Outcome Based Education) states that curriculum coverage is the dominant
responsibility
teachers should carry in the system. Their role is to be sure that the content for each
curriculum
segment is covered to each class within the calendar defined constraints of the system.
This completes
teachers to get through the curriculum in the time allowed regardless of how individual
students might
do with the material.
3.4. Laboratories and Computing Facilities
Three items of the questionnaire were pertained to the laboratories and computing
facilities. In all three
items, respondents held the views which were consistent with outcome based assessment
indicating
that required laboratories manual, instructions for experiments should be available and
readily
accessible to faculty and students. Adequate number of support personnel for instruction
and
maintaining the laboratories increase the credibility.
3.5. Student Support and Advising
Three items from 17-19 assessed by the respondents views about student support and
advising. In all
three statements, respondents have supported their views regarding interaction between
students and
faculty (outcome based assessment), courses being offered in sufficient frequency and
provision of
academic advising.
3.6. Process Control
Five statements were meant for process control. In four items, views were consistent with
outcome
based assessment. Respondents were of the views that students to be enrolled in a
program on the basis
of quantitative and qualitative basis. They also stressed that students progress be
monitored
continuously, strong criteria for recruiting faculty be introduced and graduates to complete
the

requirements of the program based on standards and documented procedures. In one item,
respondents
views were equal that the students performance is measured through the result of annual
examinations.
3.7. Faculty
Seven items pertained to the faculty. In six items, majority of the respondents expressed
their view
towards learning outcomes indicating that there should be full time faculty to provide
adequate
coverage of the program with continuity and stability. They also supported that faculty
members
should be qualified and keep full interest to teach all courses with flexible mind to modify
and update
courses and curriculum. Respondents were of the opinion that teachers must possess a
high level of
competence; majority of the teachers should possess PhD degree in their discipline and be
able to
dedicate sufficient time to research to remain current in their discipline. In one item,
respondents
opinions were consistent with traditional views that faculty should be experienced rather
than qualified
and experience must be transferred to the learners.
Research Journal of Internatonal Studes - Issue 19 (June., 2011) 67
3.8. Institutional Facilities
Three items pertained to institutional facilities. In all three items, respondents clearly
supported the
views towards outcome learning indicating that institution should have infrastructure to
support new
trends such as e-learning. They also stressed that classroom and offices should be
adequately equipped
and capable of helping faculty to carryout their responsibilities.
3.9. Institutional Support
Two items were assessed by the respondents regarding institutional support. Maximum
respondents
were of the opinion that institute must support and finance to attract and retain high
quality faculty to
produce high quality graduates.
As already mentioned, the overall results of this study indicate respondents views
regarding
paradigm shift in our education system by introducing outcome based education . Out of
36 items,
twenty six items are those in which respondents hold their views consistent with outcome
based
approach. The results are in line with William G. Spady (Outcome Based Education, page
182), who
concludes that outcome based approaches are inherently part of larger societal shift to the
information
age taking place around us. Spady stresses that those who would eagerly embrace
outcome based
education as a major force in shaping future of education should frequently revisit its
paradigm
purpose, premises and principle. He is of the view that curriculum, instructional strategies,
assessments

and performance standards are developed and implemented to facilitate key outcomes.
Spady also
holds that curriculum, instruction and assessment should be viewed as flexible and
alterable means for
accomplishing clearly defined learning ends.
The subjects in this study have been drawn from different pools of professionally trained
teachers, students and stakeholders. Most of the teachers had more than 10 years of
teaching
experience, students still studying in the institutions and graduated students who joined
different
organizations. Stakeholders were parents of students and managers of the organizations
where
graduated students joined to demonstrate at the end of the significant learning experience.
While developing comparison between traditional and outcome based education on the
bases of
views received from respondents, we experienced that in the outcome based education
learners can
actually do with what they know and have learned. William (Outcome Based Education1994) argues
that outcomes involve actual doing rather than just knowing, therefore, these must be
defined
according to the actions. Educators use observable action words while defining program
outcomes like
apply, identify, solve, construct etc. They avoid vague words that might be open to
interpretation i.e.
understand, know, believe and think etc. Dr. Rauf summarizes features of good program
outcomes as,
a) relative to the missions of the program and institutions, b) describe the expected
learning outcomes
for students from individual courses/the program as a whole, c) reflects what students are
expected to
know and be able to do rather the course/program intends to cover and, d) describes an
area of
knowledge and skill that a person is expected to possess. Spady argues (1994) that
program outcomes
can be measured effectively through two assessment methods which are direct and
indirect. In the
direct assessment method: It can directly be determined that students have mastered the
content of their
academic programs through standardized examinations, locally developed examinations,
oral
examinations, assignments, performance appraisal, oral presentations, projects,
demonstrations, case
studies, simulations, capstone experience, juried activities, evaluation of filed work, and
behavioral
observations. Spady also stresses that Direct Assessment methods require students to
display their
knowledge and skills as they respond to the instrument itself (objective tests, essays,
presentations and
classroom assignments). He described that through indirect assessment students are asked
to reflect on
their learning/learned experiences that include written surveys and questionnaires,
interviews, focus

groups, external examiners and archival records. Kit J. Marshal argues (Beyond Traditional
Outcome
Based Education-1991) that program outcomes help students to learn more effectively, it
makes clear
Research Journal of Internatonal Studes - Issue 19 (June., 2011) 68
what should be expected from their educational experience by encouraging students to be
intentional
learners who direct and monitor their own learning. It also helps faculty to design courses,
curriculum
and programs. Make graduate skills and knowledge clear to employers and accrediting
agencies. In
contrast, traditional system have predefined curriculum structure with an assessment and
credentialing
system in place. Curriculum is usually not structured around clearly defined outcomes
expected by the
students. By and large, curriculum and assessment systems are treated as end in
themselves.
A big misconception revolves around the faculty members and they feel that they are
already
taking learning outcome approach to education and all they need to do is change some
terminology on
their course outlines to ensure that their course objectives are measurable. Faculty
members see the
emphasis on outcomes as pressure for making education more directly serve the short
term needs of
business community rather than development of students critical thinking. These
misconceptions of
faculty must be removed and faculty must embrace and take ownership of the student
learning outcome
approach. Evaluation of systems should be encouraged. Success for all students and staff
philosophy
should be promoted by ensuring that all students are equipped with the knowledge,
competence and
qualities needed to be successful after they exit the educational system. Institutes must be
structured
and operated so that outcomes can be achieved and maximize for all students. Spady says
(Competent
Based Education) that program outcome must flow directly from
department/mission/program
objectives and it must be focused on specific knowledge and skills which students have to
acquire. It
must be observable and measurable and should be focused on demonstrable behaviors
rather than what
students know, think, understand or appreciate. These should be observable and focused
on learning
outcomes rather than curricular inputs as outcomes are related to demonstrated behaviors
of graduates
not characteristics of the program or its faculty.
The study reveals number of draw backs in traditional examination systems in which
hundred
percent choices is provided to the students in the question papers; therefore, they rely on
selected

study. Only one examination at the end of the course decides achievement of the student.
Validity of
the results is always doubtful. Question papers are not balance and contain limited number
of question
given to students to solve in a limited time period. The different examiners have different
expectations
from the students at the same time due to which students get different marks from
different examiners.
S. M Shahid (Education Administration-2000) critically analysis that overall current
education system
is not very much encouraging. Therefore, traditional evaluation/assessment system needs
changes.
Currently, education is viewed in terms of inputs which once provided to the students are
going to
create certain outcomes like knowledge, skills and other attributes which students are
required to
possess. Knowledge is no longer the principle focus. The outcome based approach does not
rely on
these assumptions. In the outcome based assessment, focus is on the application of that
knowledge. Dr.
Rauf describes assessment as a systematic ongoing, interactive process of monitoring
(recording and
analyzing), student learning outcomes and processes in order to determine what students
are doing well
and what they must improve. The aim of program assessment is to understand how
educational
programs are working and to determine whether they are contributing to student growth
and
development. It focuses on programs rather than on individual students and provides
students with the
knowledge, skills and values that graduates should possess in accordance with its mission
and set goals
and learning objectives. Dr.Rauf maintains that program assessment of Student learning
outcomes
tries to get a bigger picture than one student in a class.
Spady suggests that institutes with outcome based learning must function under the four
broad
structures which are, first, standards and accountability structure that determines how
achievements
and performance standards are defined. This structure includes assessment, grading,
report cards,
transcripts and certificates. Second structure is curriculum content and articulation that
determines how
the systems formal learning experiences for students are defined, organized and linked.
The structure
includes programs, courses of study, subject area and courses. Third structure is
instructional process
and technology that determines what tool and technology the system uses to engage
students in
learning the curriculum. This includes the organization of instruction and technology for
carrying it
Research Journal of Internatonal Studes - Issue 19 (June., 2011) 69

out. Forth structure is eligibility, promotion and assignment that determines which students
will work
with which teachers and students on what, when and under which physical arrangements.
This
structure contains everything related to student grouping, scheduling, placement,
promotion and
advancement through curriculum.
4. Conclusion and Recommendations
In the light of discussions, following conclusions and recommendations can be drawn from
the study:4.1 There is a need to bring paradigm shift into our traditional educational system from
emphasis
on teaching to emphasis on learning outcomes to make our graduates successful in their
professional pursuits.
4.2 A well staffed directorate covering the portfolio of, Outcome Based Education (OBE)
should
be established under the direct supervision of Higher Education Commission (HEC). The
directorate should carryout in-depth study on introducing OBE in selected institutions of all
provinces and then OBE be implemented in initially 25% institutes of the provinces. The
existing traditional teaching should continue parallel to alternative structure (OBE) for five
years or completion of courses already enrolled on the traditional system. After successful
implementation, results be monitored and analyzed based on which remaining institutions
should also be brought in line with OBE.
4.3 OBE Directorate to ensure holding of workshops, conferences and seminars for
teachers,
students and stakeholders with a view to provide them sufficient knowledge on progressive
education reforms and begin campaign to ensure that these reforms are not scuttle.
4.4 Faculty of the institutions with OBE system be trained on the pattern of, train the
trainer,
initially few faculty members from each institute be provided opportunity of taking training
at the top class credible universities of the country/abroad by the highly skilled OBE
scholars
and then these trained teachers should further train the remaining faculty at their
respective
institutes. All expenditures on train the trained should be born by the HEC.
4.5 Changes in our traditional examination system are the need of the day. Annual
examination
should be eliminated from our education system and instead continuous assessment of the
students be introduced where curriculum, instructional strategies, assessments and
performance standards of students should be developed and implemented to facilitate
learning outcomes.
4.6 Government to provide special funds and HEC to allocate grants for the improvement of
infrastructure, faculty development and training facilities for institutes.
4.7 Media should create an environment in relation to complex challenges and changes in
teaching/learning process by shaping a culture that is conducive to this vision and inspire
people bringing forth their talent, uniqueness and energies towards OBE future.