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Purpose: To make current and voltage measurements in several electrical circuits, and see if they agree

with Kirchhoff's Rules.

such as voltage sources, resistors, capacitors, inductors, with conducting paths (usually wires) between

them. The rules are:

Loop Rule: The algebraic sum of the changes in potential around any closed loop of a circuit is

zero.

Junction Rule: At any junction point in the circuit, the sum of the currents entering the junction

equals the sum of the currents leaving the junction.

To illustrate these R1 R3

B C D

rules, refer to Fig. 1, which

is a schematic diagram of a

circuit containing two

batteries (labeled E for + + E

E R4 - 2

"emf") and four resistors. 1 -

We can make out three

loops: ABCFA, CDEFC, and

an outer loop, ABCDEFA.

A F E

R2

F ig . 1 . Illu s tra tio n o f K irc h h o ff's R u le s

Kirchhoff's loop rule says the algebraic sum of the potential changes around each of these three

loops is zero. This means that if you start at any point on a loop and proceed either clockwise or

counterclockwise around that loop, when you arrive back at your starting point, the sum of the changes

in potential must equal zero. This requires that you record the proper sign (plus or minus) with each

potential change in the summation. In this way, Kirchhoff's loop rule gives you an equation which can

be checked experimentally or solved algebraically, either alone or with other simultaneous equations.

(a) The potential change along a continuous length of circuit wire is negligible. For example, in Fig.

1, the potential difference between the positive terminal of E1 and the left end of resistor R1 and

that between E and F may be taken as zero and not included in the loop equation.

(b) The magnitude of the potential change that occurs as you "step across" a source of emf such as a

battery is equal to its emf (voltage) and the sign is determined from its polarity. For example, if in

the course of proceeding around the rightmost loop in Fig. 1 you step from D to E, you write down

the potential change as -E2. If the value of E2 is known, say 6.0 V, then you could write –6.0 V.

This would be one of the terms in the complete loop equation.

(c) The magnitude of the potential change that occurs when you traverse a resistor R equals the

product IR, where I is the current through the resistor. The sign is determined from the direction

of the current—in a resistor, current is always in the direction of the electric field, which is in the

direction of decreasing potential. If the current is unknown, show an assumed direction on the

circuit diagram and represent the current by a symbol, such as I1. If in your solution I1 comes out

positive, then it is in the direction you assumed. If its value comes out negative, it is in the

opposite direction.

Kirchhoff's junction rule states that during any given time interval, the total charge which leaves a

junction equals the total charge which enters the junction. The rule follows from two premises:

(a) In steady-state (dc) circuits such as we will be using today, the amount of electric charge located at

any junction in a circuit is constant. (When currents are changing, as in ac circuits, the junction

rule still applies because although the charge at a junction is usually changing, it remains so small

relative to the currents in and out so as to be negligible, which means it can be taken as zero, a

constant.)

(b) Charge is conserved (it cannot simply appear or disappear).

From these two premises, it follows that if in any given time interval a certain amount of charge

flows into a given bit of space (which contains the junction), through one or more pathways

(wires), then an equal amount of charge must flow out of that space in that same time interval via

one or more other wires.

Theory

The principles known as Kirchhoff's rules, in honor of the man who developed them, provide a means

of obtaining enough independent equations to solve for the currents flowing in an electrical circuit.

There are many ways of stating Kirchhoff's rules but this experiment uses the formalism described

below.

Kirchhoff's junction rule states that the algebraic sum of the currents at any branch point or junction in a

circuit is zero. Symbolically, we may write Equation 1, below, as the sum of n currents flowing into a

junction:

(Eq. 1)

In applying this rule, currents flowing into a branch point are taken as positive, while currents flowing

out of the branch point are taken as negative. the opposite sign convention could also be used, but this

would simply multiply the equation by (-1) and therefore would provide exactly the same information.

Kirchhoff's second rule states that the algebraic sum of the potential changes around any complete loop

in the network is zero. Again we may write Eq. 2, symbolically ,as the sum of the potential changes:

(Eq. 2)

There V represents the potential change as we go across a particular circuit element. If in going around

the loop you go from the negative terminal of a source of e.m.f. (E) to the positive terminal, then the

potential increases so that V = + E neglecting the internal resistance of the source of e.m.f.). In

considering the potential change across a resistor, bear in mind that conventional current enters the high

potential side of a resistor and leaves at the low potential side. If you are going around a loop in the

same direction as the current through a particular resistor then V = - I R. of you are going around the

loop in a direction opposite to the direction of the current through a particular resistor then V = + I R.

but how do you know the direction of the currents through the resistors before you solve the problem?

The answer is that in many cases you don't know, but it doesn't matter. the first step in solving a

problem using Kirchhoff's rules is to assume a direction for all the currents in the circuit. Now apply

Kirchhoff's rules and obtain enough equations to solve for all the unknown currents. if your solution for

a particular current comes out a positive number, it means that the current is in the direction you

assumed. If the solution for a particular current comes out as a negative number, it means that the

actual current is opposite to the direction you assumed but that the magnitude you calculated is correct.

However, you must be sure to retain the minus sign in solving your equations for the other currents.

Procedure

(1) Construct the series circuit of Fig. 2. R1

Use the 22 Ω resistor as R1 and the 51

Ω resistor as R2. Draw the circuit

B

diagram in your report and label it,

including the letters A through F, as in 5V

Fig. 2.

A

(2) Set the power supply voltage near 5.0

R2

V. Connect your voltmeter leads to

measure the exact value

(VAB = VB - VA) using a digital volt F E

meter. Fig. 2. Test of loop rule.

(3) Measure and record (directly on the circuit diagram) the voltages VAB, VBC, VCD, VDE, and so

forth around the circuit until you arrive back at point A. As you go, determine for each of these

voltages whether you are stepping up or down in potential and indicate this in your data by a + or -

sign, respectively. Do the values you obtained satisfy the loop rule? To test this, substitute them

directly into the equation which expresses the loop rule: VAB + VBC + VCD + ... + VFA = 0.

In this section, you will check whether the loop rule holds good for a range of different values of

the power supply voltage ("input voltage"), even if one of the resistances in the circuit changes as the

input voltage changes. The circuit will consist of a series combination of a resistor, which stays cool

enough to have a nearly constant resistance, and a miniature lamp, which gets so hot with increasing

current that its resistance increases by about a factor of ten.

(1) Build the circuit of Fig. 2 again, but now use the 22 Ω resistor for R1 and the lamp (#50) in place

of R2.

(2) Connect digital multimeters to make simultaneous measurements of voltages VAB, VCD, and VEF.

(3) Vary the input voltage from 0.5 V to 5.0 V in steps of about 0.5 V. For each input voltage, record

the three circuit voltages simultaneously and enter the data into a spreadsheet. When you have

finished, save the data.

(4) Using the spread sheet, plot VCD/VAB, VEF/VAB and (VCD + VEF)/VAB vs VAB. Plot all three

curves on one graph, using the Add feature under source data for charts. Be sure to label the

curves in your graph (VCD, VEF, etc.). Explain in a sentence or two why the curves of VCD/VAB

vs VAB and VEF/VAB vs VAB appear as they do, and how the graph of (VCD + VEF)/VAB vs VAB

relates to the loop rule.

(1) Open Logger Pro and configure the system to act as three ammeters.

B C D

(2) Construct the parallel circuit of Fig. 3, with

R1 = 22 Ω and R2 = 51 Ω again. Draw the

circuit diagram in your report and label it,

including the letters A through F, as in

Fig. 3.

5V R1 R2

(3) Use logger pro as an ammeters to measure

the current supplied by the power supply,

IAB, the current flowing through R1, ICF,

and the current flowing through R2, IDE.

A F E

Remember, to measure the current through

a circuit element you must break the circuit Fig 3. Test of Junction Rule.

to place a multimeter in series with it.

Record the results directly on the circuit

diagram. Do the values you obtained satisfy

the junction rule? To test this, substitute

them directly into the equation which

expresses the junction rule: IAB = ICF +

IDE.

Part V. Another test of the Junction Rule:

In this section, you will check whether the junction rule holds good for a range of different

values of the input current, even if one of the resistances in the circuit changes as the input current

changes.

(1) Build the circuit of Fig. 3 again, using the 22 Ω resistor for R1 and the lamp in place of R2.

(2) Connect three logger pro ammeters so to make simultaneous measurements of the currents IAB,

ICF, and IDE.

(3) Vary the input current over the attainable range in about ten steps. For each input current, record

the current values and enter the data into a spreadsheet.

(4) Use the spreadsheet plot ICF/IAB, IDE/IAB and (ICF + IDE)/IAB vs IAB. Plot all three curves on one

graph. Explain why the curves of ICF/IAB vs IAB and IDE/IAB vs IAB appear as they do. Do the

internal resistances of the meters play an important role here? Also, explain how the graph of

(ICF + IDE)/IAB vs IAB relates to the junction rule.

using R1 = 22 Ω, R2 = 39 Ω,

and R3 = 51 Ω. Insert R1

ammeters into the circuit to

let you measure I1, I2, and I3.

Insert voltmeters to measure I1 I2 I3

the emfs of the power supply

and the dry cell battery.

this circuit obtained from

Supply R2

Kirchhoff's rules. Take the

nominal values of the Dry Cell E

batt

resistors and the measured

values of the two emfs as

given and the currents as

unknowns. From these Fig. 4. Test of both Kirchhoff rules.

equations, predict the current

in each branch of the circuit.

Also measure them. Finally,

compare your predicted and

measured values.

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