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Engr 2110 Introduction to

Material Science (for Engineers)


Dr. Richard R. Lindeke, Ph.D.

B Met. Eng. University of Minnesota, 1970


Masters Studies, Met Eng. Colorado School of
Mines, 1978-79 (Electro-Slag Welding of
Heavy Section 2 Cr 1 Mo Steels)
Ph.D., Ind. Eng. Penn State University, 1987
(Foundry Engineering CG Alloy
Development)

Syllabus and Website:

Review the Syllabus

Attendance is your job come to class!


Final is Common Time Monday or Tuesday

Or our regularly scheduled time (Tuesday May 12 8-10 AM)

Pop Quizzes and homework/Chapter Reviews (Ch 17/18)


(20% of your grade!)
Dont copy from others; dont plagiarize its just the right
thing to do!!

Course Website:
http://www.d.umn.edu/~rlindek1/ENGR2110/Cover_
Page.htm

Materials Science and


Engineering

It all about the raw materials and how


they are processed
That is why we call it materials

ENGINEERING
M inor differences in Raw materials or

processing parameters can mean

m ajor changes in the perform ance


of the final material or product

Looking At CG Iron Alloy


Development (Processing):

Looking At CG Iron Alloy


Development (Processing):

CG Structure but with great


care!
Good Structure
45KSI YS; 55KSI UTS

Poor Too
Little

Poor Too
Much

Looking At CG Iron Alloy


Development (Structures)

Looking At CG Iron Alloy


Development (Results)

Our Text:
Material Science and Engineering
An Introduction
by William D. Callister, Jr
Seventh Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Materials Science and


Engineering

Materials Science

Materials Engineering

The discipline of investigating the relationships that exist


between the structures and properties of materials.
The discipline of designing or engineering the structure of a
material to produce a predetermined set of properties based
on established structure-property correlation.

Four Major Components of Material Science


and Engineering:

Structure of Materials
Properties of Materials
Processing of Materials
Performance of Materials

And Remember: Materials


Drive our Society!

Ages of Man we survive based on the materials we control

Stone Age naturally occurring materials

Bronze Age

High Strength Alloys

Non-Ferrous and Polymer Age

High Temperature furnaces

Steel Age

Casting and forging

Iron Age

Special rocks, skins, wood

Aluminum, Titanium and Nickel (superalloys) aerospace


Silicon Information
Plastics and Composites food preservation, housing, aerospace and higher
speeds

Exotic Materials Age?

Nano-Material and bio-Materials they are coming and then

And Formula One the future


of automotive is
http://www.autofieldguide.com/articles/050701.html

Doing Materials!

Engineered Materials are a function of:

Raw Materials Elemental Control


Processing History

Our Role in Engineering Materials then is to


understand the application and specify the
appropriate material to do the job as a function of:

Strength: yield and ultimate


Ductility, flexibility
Weight/density
Working Environment
Cost: Lifecycle expenses, Environmental impact*
* Economic and Environmental Factors often are the
most important when making the final decision!

Example of Materials Engineering


Work Hip Implant

With age or certain illnesses joints deteriorate.


Particularly those with large loads (such as
hip).
Adapted from Fig. 22.25, Callister 7e.

Example Hip Implant

Requirements

mechanical
strength (many
cycles)
good lubricity
biocompatibility

Adapted from Fig. 22.24, Callister 7e.

Example Hip Implant

Adapted from Fig. 22.24, Callister 7e.

Solution Hip Implant

Key Problems to
overcome:

fixation agent to hold


acetabular cup
cup lubrication material
femoral stem fixing
agent (glue)
must avoid any debris in
cup
Must hold up in body
chemistry
Must be strong yet
flexible

Acetabular
Cup and
Liner
Ball

Femoral
Stem

Introduction

List the Major Types of MATERIALS


That You Know:

METALS
CERAMICS
POLYMERS
COMPOSITES
ADVANCED MATERIALS

Introduction, cont.

Metals

Steel, Cast Iron,


Aluminum, Copper,
Titanium, many
others

Ceramics

Glass, Concrete,
Brick, Alumina,
Zirconia, SiN, SiC

Polymers

Plastics, Wood,
Cotton (rayon,
nylon), glue

Composites

Glass Fiberreinforced polymers,


Carbon Fiberreinforced polymers,
Metal Matrix
Composites, etc.

Thoughts about these


fundamental Materials

Metals:

Polymers/plastics: Covalent bonding sharing of es

Strong, ductile
high thermal & electrical conductivity
opaque, reflective.

Soft, ductile, low strength, low density


thermal & electrical insulators
Optically translucent or transparent.

Ceramics: ionic bonding (refractory) compounds of


metallic & non-metallic elements (oxides, carbides,
nitrides, sulfides)

Brittle, glassy, elastic


non-conducting (insulators)

The Materials Selection Process


1. Pick Application

Determine required Properties

Properties: mechanical, electrical, thermal,


magnetic, optical, deteriorative.

2. Properties

Identify candidate Material(s)

Material: structure, composition.

3. Material

Identify required Processing

Processing: changes structure and overall shape


ex: casting, sintering, vapor deposition, doping
forming, joining, annealing.

But:

Properties depend on Structure


(strength or hardness)
(d)

Hardness (BHN)

600
30 m

500

(c)

400
(a)

(b)
4 m

300
200

30 m

100
0.01 0.1

And:

30 m

1
10 100 1000
Cooling Rate (C/s)

Processing can change structure! (see


above structure vs Cooling Rate)

Another Example: Rolling of Steel

At h1, L1

low UTS
low YS
high ductility
round grains

At h 2 , L 2

high UTS
high YS
low ductility
elongated grains

Structure determines Properties but Processing determines


Structure!

Optical Properties of Ceramic are


controlled by Grain Structure

Grain Structure is a function of


Solidification processing!

Electrical Properties (of Copper):


6

(10-8 Ohm-m)

Resistivity,

5
4

Electrical Resistivity of
Copper is affected by:

Contaminate level
Degree of deformation

Operating temperature

1
0

-200

-100

Adapted from Fig. 18.8, Callister 7e.


(Fig. 18.8 adapted from: J.O. Linde,
Ann Physik 5, 219 (1932); and
C.A. Wert and R.M. Thomson,
Physics of Solids, 2nd edition,
McGraw-Hill Company, New York,
1970.)

T
(C)

THERMAL Properties
Space Shuttle Tiles:

Thermal Conductivity

--Silica fiber insulation


offers low heat conduction.

Thermal Conductivity
(W/m-K)

of Copper: --It decreases when


you add zinc!

100 m

Adapted from
Fig. 19.4W, Callister
6e. (Courtesy of
Lockheed Aerospace
Ceramics Systems,
Sunnyvale, CA)
(Note: "W" denotes fig.
is on CD-ROM.)

400
300
200
100
0

0
10 20 30 40
Composition (wt% Zinc)

Adapted from Fig. 19.4, Callister 7e.


(Fig. 19.4 is adapted from Metals Handbook:
Properties and Selection: Nonferrous alloys and
Pure Metals, Vol. 2, 9th ed., H. Baker,
(Managing Editor), American Society for Metals,
1979, p. 315.)

MAGNETIC Properties
Magnetic Storage:

vs. Composition:
--Adding 3 atomic % Si makes Fe a
better recording medium!

Magnetization

--Recording medium
is magnetized by
recording head.

Magnetic Permeability

Fe+3%Si
Fe

Magnetic Field
Fig. 20.23, Callister 7e.
(Fig. 20.23 is from J.U. Lemke, MRS Bulletin,
Vol. XV, No. 3, p. 31, 1990.)

Adapted from C.R. Barrett, W.D. Nix, and


A.S. Tetelman, The Principles of
Engineering Materials, Fig. 1-7(a), p. 9,
1973. Electronically reproduced
by permission of Pearson Education, Inc.,
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

DETERIORATIVE Properties
Heat treatment: slows
Stress & Saltwater...

crack speed in salt water!

--causes cracks!
crack speed (m/s)

10-8

as-is
held at
160C for 1 hr
before testing

10-10

Alloy 7178 tested in


saturated aqueous NaCl
solution at 23C

increasing load

Adapted from Fig. 11.20(b), R.W. Hertzberg, "Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of
Engineering Materials" (4th ed.), p. 505, John Wiley and Sons, 1996. (Original source:
Markus O. Speidel, Brown Boveri Co.)

--material:
Adapted from chapter-opening photograph,
Chapter 17, Callister 7e.
(from Marine Corrosion, Causes, and
Prevention, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1975.)

4 m

7150-T651 Al
"alloy"
(Zn,Cu,Mg,Zr)
Adapted from Fig. 11.26,
Callister 7e. (Fig. 11.26 provided courtesy of G.H.
Narayanan and A.G. Miller, Boeing Commercial
Airplane Company.)

Course Goal is to make you aware of the


importance of Material Selection by:
Using the right material for the job.

one that is most economical and


Greenest when life usage is considered

Understanding the relation between

properties, structure, and processing.

Recognizing new design opportunities offered

by materials selection.