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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Satellite Antenna Testing


Presented by
Dr. Jrgen Hartmann
EADS Astrium
Measurement Technology
81663 Munich Germany
+49 89 607 22420
juergen.hartmann@astrium.eads.net
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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Contents
1. Introduction
2. Test Facilities
-

Range Trade-Off
Range Comparison
Compact Test Range

3. Description of EADS Astrium CCRs


-

Facility Heritage
Illumination System
Feeds
Instrumentation

4. Measurement Applications
2

Antenna Pattern and Gain Measurement Setup


Intelsat-IX C-Band Antenna Testing
Payload Measurements

5. Conclusion

AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Introduction

State-of-the-Art Communication Satellite Antennas:


Multiple Beams: Multi-Feed and/or Shaped Reflector Antennas
Multiple Frequencies and Polarizations

Requirements for Antenna Testing:


Time Efficient Measurements
Highly Accurate Measurements

Examples: 1984 German TV-SAT: 1 Beam, 5 Frequencies, 2 Pol.


6 Weeks
1996 Intelsat 8:
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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

8 Beams, 10 Frequencies, 2 Pol.


2 Weeks

Test Facilities

Range Trade-Off
Far-Field Range
Near-Field Range
Compact Test Range

Range Comparison

Compact Test Range


Concepts
Limitations
Plane Wave Quality

Compensated Compact Range (CCR)


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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Test Facilities
Scenario for Communication Satellite Antennas

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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Range Trade-Off
Range Comparison

Far-Field Range

Advantage

Disadvantage

No data transformation required


Real time measurement
Easy operation

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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Large measurement distance required!


Ground reflections / interference!
Weather dependence!
Cleanroom requires Radom!
Gravity Compensation for DUT

Dynamic range?
Measurement Accuracy?

Range Trade-Off
Range Comparison

Near-Field Range
Advantage
Accurate measurements (0.1 - 40 GHz)
Short measurement distance < 5 m:
Low free space losses
Low reflection sensitivity
Indoor measurement range:
Cleanroom conditions
24 hours / day operations
Low reflectivity
Easy Gravity Compensation for DUT

Limitation / Disadvantage

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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Near field measurements:


Fourier transformation required for
calculation of far field pattern
No real-time Measurements
Coupling between Probe and DUT
Usable frequency range:
Typically < 40 GHz limited by
Probe Positioning Accuracy (Limits
Phase Measurement accuracy)

Range Trade Off


Range Comparison

Compact Range
Advantage
Direct far field measurement:
No data transformation required
Real-time measurements
Easy operation
Short measurement distance < 20m:
Low free space losses
Accurate measurements (1.5-200 GHz)
Indoor measurement range:
Cleanroom conditions
24 hours / day operations
Low reflectivity

Limitation / Disadvantage

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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Usable frequency range:


Typical < 500 MHz limited by
diffraction
Typical > 200 GHz limited by
reflector surface accuracy
Feed / test-object direct coupling
Gravity Compensation for DUT

Range Trade-Off
Compact Range Principles

Offset Reflector System


Goal:

Plane Wave
&
Test Zone

Test zone with constant amplitude


and phase behavior (plane wave)

Source Feed
(Spherical wave)

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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Starting Point:
Source feed generating spherical
wave

Parabolic Reflector:
transforms phase front,
spherical wave => plane wave
(equal distances between source
feed and test zone results in
constant phase front)
Amplitude remains almost
unchanged

Requirement:
Source generates uniform
amplitude

Range Trade-Off
Compact Range Principles

Single Reflector
(Paraboloid)

Double Reflector
(2 Cylinder Paraboloids)

Double Reflector
(Hyperboloid + Paraboloid)

Comparison of Complexity:
1 reflector
double curvature

2 reflectors
single curvature

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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

2 reflectors
double curvature

Range Trade-Off
Compact Range Principles

Transforming Geometries of different Compact Range


Concepts

Comparison of Compression Factors for comparable Test Zones:


1:1

1:2

1:4

Plane Wave Uniformity:


Phase ++
Amplitude -- / Asymm.

Phase +
Amplitude - / Asymm.

Phase +
Amplitude ++ / Symm.

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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Range Trade-Off
Compact Range Principles

Co-Polar
-0.3
-0.2

-0.1 dB

-0.1

-0.5
-0.1

-0.2

Cross-Polar
-27
-30 dB

-25
-30

No
Cross-Polarization
-30
-27

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Single Reflector

AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

-30
-25
Dual Reflector (Single Curved)

Dual Reflector (Double Curved)

Range Trade-Off
Compact Range Principles

Two concepts

Influence of Serrationlength on Plane Wave Performance

Rolled
Edges

Serrated
Edges
Rel. Amplitude, dB

21

Case b)

Case c)

21

Case a)
b)
c)

Width in Wavelength

13

14

21

21

Phase in

Case a)

Width in Wavelength

Conclusions:
1) Diffraction reduces Quiet Zone Size to approx. 80% of Main Reflector Dimensions
2) Good Performance at 1.5 GHz requires at least 1.5m Serration Length

AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Description of the Astrium CCRs


Facility Heritage

Measurement
Facility
Heritage

Photo: DSS

Alcatel
BAe
Systems
CNES

SSL
Photo: SSL

Photo: SPAR

CCR 75/60
Turn Key

(closed)

CCR 75/60

CCR 75/60

CCR 75 /60

CNTF - 30
Turn Key

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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Photo: Aerospatiale

Photo: DASA/DSS

Photo: DSS

EMS

LMAS

CCR 75/60

1992

Astrium

CCR 20/17

Photo: LMAS

1995

EADS
Military
Aircraft

CCR 20/17

Munich
University
(FH)

2004

1985

Astrium

CNTF - 8
Turn Key

ISRO
A/B

INTESPACE

Photo: CNES

Photo: DSS

CAST

MELCO

Photo: Siemens

KHI

CCR 75/60
Turn Key

Photo: INTESPACE

Photo: MELCO

Photo: KHI

CCR 75/60

Photo: DSS

CCR 120/100
Turn Key

SCR 50E

Photo: DSS

CCR 75/60
Turn Key

Photo: DSS

CNTF: Cylindrical Near-Field Test Facility


CCR: Compensated Compact Range
SCR: Single Reflector Compact Range

SCR 60

Description of the Astrium CCRs


CCR 75/60

Highly Accurate Antenna Testing required


EADS Astrium CCRs:

CCR 75/60

(5 m QZ)

CCR 120/100 (8 m QZ)


Main Characteristics:
Dual Reflector System (Top Fed Cassegrain)
Double Curved Reflectors (Hyperboloid, Paraboloid)
Large equivalent Focallength (130 m, 237 m)
Low differential Pathloss

Fully Cross-Polar Compensated System


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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Description of the Astrium CCRs


CCR 75/60 at Astrium in Munich

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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Description of the Astrium CCRs


CCR 120/100 of EADS Astrium GmbH

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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Description of the Astrium CCRs


CCR 75/60

Geometrical Data of Reflectors


Parameter
Dimension (W x H)
excl. Serration,

Reflector
Sub

Main

5.6 x 5.3 m

7.5 + 1 x 6.0 m

30 m

40 m

35m RMS

35m RMS

1.5 m

1.5 m

Number of Segments

Back Structure Depth

1.1 m

1.1 m

44 000 kg

77 000 kg

Billboard
Focal Length
Surface Accuracy
Serration Length

Mass
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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Description of the Astrium CCRs


CCR 75/60

Reflector Technology
Spherical Cast Iron Material
Milled by a 5-Axes Laser Controlled Milling Machine
Milling Steps and Tracks ~ 2 .. 3 m
Few monolithic Segments enabling
Easy and fast Installation
Easy and high accurate Alignment

Highly Stiffened Supporting Structure


Good Thermal Conductivity of Segments
Long Term Mechanical Stability
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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Description of the Astrium CCRs


CCR 75/60

Technical Data CCR 75/60


Frequency Range

1.5 200 GHz

Quiet Zone Size (W x H x D)

5.5 x 5.0 x 8.0

Quiet Zone Performance


Amlitude Ripple
Phase Ripple
Cross-Polar Level
Measurement Errors
Sidelobes
Gain
Bore-Sight Accuracy
Scanning Capability
Scan Angle Accuracy
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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

0.5 dB
6 deg
< - 40 dB
1 dB @ 35 dB
0.25 dB
0.014 deg
10 deg
0.0003 deg
Typical Data

Description of the Astrium CCRs


CCR 75/60

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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Description of the Astrium CCRs


CCR 75/60

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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Description of the Astrium CCRs


CCR 75/60

Comparison of Antenna Pattern


Customer Test Facility
0

Co-Polar

-10

-15

-15

-20
-25
-30
-35

-20
-25
-30
-35

-40

-40

-45

-45

-50
-20

-15

-10

-5
0
5
Azimuth Angle [deg.]

10

15

Cross-Polar

-5

-10
Rel. Field Amplitude [dB]

Rel. Field Amplitude [dB]

-5

23

Astrium CCR (Ottobrunn)

20

-50
-20

-15

-10

-5
0
5
Azimuth Angle [deg.]

10

15

20

Test Antenna: Elliptical C-Band Offset Reflector Antenna (Rx: 5.854 6.298 GHz)

AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Description of the Astrium CCRs


Feeds

CCR Feeds of EADS Astrium from 1.5 to 40 GHz

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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Description of the Astrium CCRs


Feeds

Performance Data

7 Dual Linear Polarized Feeds (CCR 75/60):


2 Single Linear Polarized Feeds:
Broadband Behavior:
Medium Gain Horns:
Frequency Independent Radiation Pattern
Amplitude Taper*:
Phase Taper*:
Cross-Polarization*:
Return Loss:
Port to Port Isolation (Dual Pol. Feeds):
Insertion Loss:

*within FoV: 9

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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

1.47 .. 18 GHz
18 .. 40 GHz
27.. 40 % BW
typ. 13.4 dBi
< 0.75 dB
< 3.5
< - 38 .. - 42 dB
< - 15 .. - 18 dB
< - 35 .. - 40 dB
< 0.2 .. 0.5 dB

Description of the Astrium CCRs


Feeds

Performed Measurements:
Co-Polar Pattern:
8 Cuts
Amplitude and Phase (S21): 4 Cuts

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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Discrete Frequencies (3 / Band)


Swept Frequency Mode

Description of the Astrium CCRs


Feeds

Performed Measurements:
Cross-Polar Pattern:
8 Cuts
Amplitude and Phase (S21): 4 Cuts

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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Discrete Frequencies (3 / Band)


Swept Frequency Mode

Description of the Astrium CCRs


Instrumentation

Agilent Measurement System HP85301B/C


Receiver HP8530A
Measurement Speed:
400 s per Data Point for Multiple Frequencies
Synthesized Sources
Distributed Frequency Converter
Fundamental Mixing up to 18 GHz
Low Harmonic Mixing up to 40 GHz
PIN Switches with < 1 s Switching Speed
for Multiple Channel Measurement
for Dual Polarization Measurement

Improved System Dynamic


More Data Sampling in Less Time
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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Description of the Astrium CCRs


Instrumentation

Typical Dynamic Range

Frequency [GHz]
System Dynamic [dB]
(S/N=1, Avg=1)

1,50

3,00

6,00

12,00

18,00

26,50

40,00

80

72

64

73

66

71

58

Avg=128 Avg=128

valid for a DUT Gain of 20.0 dBi

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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Description of the Astrium CCRs


Instrumentation

TTL Triggering Timing Diagram

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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Description of the Astrium CCRs


Instrumentation for Antenna Pattern Measurements
Feed - Room

CCR

RJ

HP87301D

Amplif ier

HP85331A

2x
6 dB

Feed

DUT

4x
6 dB

HP85332A

RJ

4
13
3

15

17

18

16
5

20 dB

14

LNA

HP85320B

HP85320B

10

RJ

19

20

22
21

RJ
Rack

Rack
8

Sy nthesizer
HP83640L

11

LO/IF Unit
HP85309A

Power Ampl. 12
Supply

Cable
Duct

LO/IF Unit
HP85309A23

Power Ampl. 26
Supply

Sy nthesizer
HP83621B

24

HP8348A
9

Bus-Extender
HP37204A

RF Signal
LO Signal

Bus-Extender
HP37204A 28

IF Signal

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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

25

27

Operator - Room

Receiv er
HP8530A

Bus-Extender
HP37204A

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Mult. Ch. Controller


HP85330A
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Description of the Astrium CCRs


Instrumentation for Antenna Gain Measurements
Feed - Room

CCR

RJ

HP87301D

Amplif ier

Power Head B
1. Measurement

2x
HP85331A 6 dB

DUT Power Head B

Feed

2. Measurement

4x
6 dB HP85332A

4
1
3

20 dB

14

LNA

15

17

18

16

13
5

RJ

60 m

HP85320B

22

10

RJ

HP85320B

19

20

21
30 m

RJ

Power Head A
Reference

30 m

Rack

Rack
8

Sy nthesizer
HP83640L

11

LO/IF Unit
HP85309A

Cable
Duct

Power Ampl. 12
Supply

LO/IF Unit
HP85309A23

Power Ampl. 26
Supply

Sy nthesizer
HP83621B

24

HP8348A
9

Bus-Extender
HP37204A

RF Signal
LO Signal

25

27

Bus-Extender
HP37204A 28

Power
Meter

29

Receiv er
HP8530A

Bus-Extender
HP37204A

30

Mult. Ch. Controller


HP85330A
31

IF Signal

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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Operator - Room

Power Measurement Method

Intelsat-IX C-Band Antenna Testing


The INTELSAT-IX Scenario
7 Satellites for
Atlantic Ocean Region (AOR)
Indian Ocean Region (IOR)
EADS Astrium was awarded with the Contract for
16 C-Band Hemi-/Zone-Beam Antennas
Separate C-Band Antennas for Transmit (TX) and
Receive (RX) case; one Set of spare Antennas
Short Development Time
21 months for the 1st Flight Model
Delivery of one TX/RX antenna every 3 months

Efficient RF Test and Analysis Capability Required


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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Intelsat-IX C-Band Antenna Testing

TX Feed Array

TX Antenna @ Compact
Range CCR75/60 of
Astrium
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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Intelsat-IX C-Band Antenna Testing


(Contd)

8 Beams/Antenna with 7 fold frequency reuse require high


cross-pol. / spatial isolation between Beams (> 29 .. 33 dB)
High Isolation (> 27 dB) and Gain Requirements ( 0.25 dB)
Stringent EIRP (36 dBW) / G/T requirements
Beam Forming Network with 3 Wave Guide Switches & up to
7 Coax Switches
Contact-less RF interfaces between different layers of BFN
Dual circular Polarisation: Each horn is individually tuned
Broad operating temperature Range
TX: -50C to +90C
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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

RX: -50C to +78C

Intelsat-IX C-Band Antenna Testing


(Contd)
10

10

Block Diagram

Elevation

Elevation

(six out of nine beams used simeltaneously)

Zone D

Zone B

Zone C

Hemi B

Zone F

Zone E

Zone A
Hemi A

Zone G

Hemi B

Zone D

Zone B/E

Zone C/F/G

Zone A

Hemi A

-10

-10
0

-10

Azimuth

-10

10

Hemi Beams

Azimuth

10

Transmit Beam Forming Network

Zone Beams
10

Elevation

Elevation

10

3.629 GHz RHCP

-10

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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Azimuth

10

Six-Fold Frequency Re-use

3.704 GHz LHCP

-10
-10

-10

Azimuth

10

Intelsat-IX C-Band Antenna Testing


(Contd)
Coverage Design
Hemi Beams

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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Zone Beams

Intelsat-IX C-Band Antenna Testing


(Contd)

Test Drivers
Complex BFN structure with up to 145 SCRIMP horns
Short development time
Only one Protoflight Model (PFM) was foreseen
Strict performance monitoring to detect any malfunction
at an early stage requires

Different Measurement Techniques

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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Intelsat-IX C-Band Antenna Testing


(Contd)

Test Flow
Beam Forming Network
Meas. @ BFN Level

Prior to the
feed integration

Near Field Testing


@ Feed Level

at ambient (+20C) and


extreme temperatures (+85C,
-50C) prior to and after the
environmental tests

Compact Range Testing


@ Antenna Level

with Mock-Up
structure

Compact Range Testing


@ Spacecraft Level
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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Intelsat-IX C-Band Antenna Testing


(Contd)

Processing Steps
1. Measure excitation coefficients
of BFN and calculate the
primary pattern
2. Calculate the spherical wave
expansion coefficients (SWE)
for every horn pattern
3. Calculate the secondary far field
pattern using a synthetic
reflector model
4. Compare with other types of
measurement and/or prediction

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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

BFN - Upper Layer

Intelsat-IX C-Band Antenna Testing


(Contd)
Comparison: BFN Compact Range
Copolar Gain Zone_3 at 3.625 GHz
O dB corr. to Spec.= 25.30 dBi, Max.: 5.98 dB

Elevation

10.0

Far Field Pattern of Zone 3, TX


Black: BFN
Red: Compact Range

-10.0

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-10.0

AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Azimuth

10.0

Intelsat-IX C-Band Antenna Testing


(Contd)
Processing Steps
1.

Measure cylindrical near field of feed


array (BFN with mounted SCRIMP
horns) and calculate the primary
pattern

2.

Calculate the spherical wave


expansion coefficients (SWE)

3.

Calculate the secondary far field


pattern with a synthetic reflector
model

4.

Compare results from different near


field measurements (ambient, hot
(+85C), cold (-50C), prior to and after
environmental testing)

5.

Compare with other types of


measurement and/or prediction

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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Cylindrical Near Field Range

Intelsat-IX C-Band Antenna Testing


(Contd)
Comparison: Near Field Compact Range

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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Far Field Pattern of Hemi 1, TX


Dotted:
Near Field @ Ambient
Solid:
Compact Range

Intelsat-IX C-Band Antenna Testing


(Contd)
Processing Steps
1.

Measure directly the secondary far


field pattern

2.

Compare with other types of


measurement and/or prediction

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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Spacecraft at Compact
Range CCR 75/60 of
Space Systems/Loral

Intelsat-IX C-Band Antenna Testing


(Contd)
Comparison: Compact Range @ Unit Level System Level

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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Far Field Pattern of Hemi 1, TX


Dotted:
Unit Level Testing
Solid:
System Level Testing

Intelsat-IX C-Band Antenna Testing


(Conclusion)

Key Factors for Design and Manufacturing of Multiple


Beam Antennas
Accurate Antenna Design and Modeling Software
Precise Antenna Measurement Techniques

Results
Knowledge of Complex Excitation Coefficients sufficient for
Calculation of Secondary Far field Pattern
Highly Accurate Near Field Testing at extreme Temperatures
possible
Monitoring and Performance Tracing along Manufacturing Process
possible

Conclusion for INTELSAT-IX Project


Successful time delivery of all C-Band Antennas
All Satellites launched with successful In-Orbit Test performed

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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004

Conclusion

Antenna Testing of State-of-the-Art Communication Satellites


requires
Highly Accurate
Time Efficient

Measurement Techniques

Key Factors:
Test Facility
Test Equipment & Instrumentation
Test Philosophy
Test Procedure
Test Personnel
Exemplary Test Campaign shown with INTALSAT-IX Antenna Testing
performed at EADS Astrium in Ottobrunn
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AMTA Europe Short Course 2004