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Finite Element Analysis

in Practice
Instructor Manual

Based on:

Autodesk Algor Simulation


Professional 2011

II

FEA in Practice Instructor Manual Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

2010 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved.


Finite Element Analysis in Practice Instructor Manual
Based on: Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011
Except as otherwise permitted by Autodesk, Inc., this publication, or parts thereof, may not be
reproduced in any form, by any method, for any purpose.
Certain materials included in this publication are reprinted with the permission of the copyright
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FEA in Practice Instructor Manual Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
COURSE INTRODUCTION:
Overview .....................................................................................................VII
Software Installation, Services, and Support ..............................................VII
Installing and Running Autodesk Algor Simulation........................................VII
System Requirements....................................................................................VIII
Autodesk Algor Simulation Help ...................................................................... IX
Subscription Center ......................................................................................... X
Web Links ........................................................................................................ X
Tutorials .......................................................................................................... XI
Webcasts and Web Courses........................................................................... XI
How to Receive Technical Support ................................................................. XI
Updates ..........................................................................................................XII

Navigating the User Interface .....................................................................XII


Toolbars........................................................................................................ XIV
Using the Keyboard and Mouse ..................................................................... XV
Introduction to the ViewCube ........................................................................ XVI
Additional View Controls .............................................................................. XVII
Legacy View Controls in Autodesk Algor Simulation ................................... XVIII

Notes Concerning the Steps for Exercises Section .............................. XVIII

PRESENTATION SLIDESHOW:
Introduction ................................................................................................... 3
FEA Overview and Examples using Autodesk Algor Simulation................. 8
Introductory Example .................................................................................. 12
FEA Concepts............................................................................................. 16
Exercise A - FEA Example by Hand ..............................................................25

Analysis Options ......................................................................................... 30


Element Options ......................................................................................... 36
Meshing and Modeling ................................................................................ 37
Loads and Constraints ................................................................................ 41
Truss Elements ........................................................................................... 49
Exercise B - Truss Frame Model....................................................................50

Beam Elements .......................................................................................... 51


Exercise C - Support Beam Under Gravity .....................................................53
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2-D Elements .............................................................................................. 54


Exercise D - Axisymmetric Thick-walled Cylinder ...........................................56

Plate/Shell Elements ................................................................................... 56


Exercise E - Plate Under Uniform Pressure ...................................................59

Brick Elements ............................................................................................ 59


Exercise F - Cantilever Beam Model ..............................................................60

Comparing Element Types ......................................................................... 61


Exercise G - Comparing Element Types ........................................................61

Mesh Convergence ..................................................................................... 62


Exercise H - Mesh Convergence....................................................................64

Meshing CAD Solid Models ........................................................................ 65


Exercise I - Bracket Model .............................................................................67
Exercise J - Hanger Assembly Model ............................................................69

Combining Element Types .......................................................................... 69


Contact ....................................................................................................... 71
Exercise K - Linear Contact Model.................................................................72

Solving Options ........................................................................................... 73


Results Evaluation ...................................................................................... 74
Presentation of Results ............................................................................... 77
Other Analysis Types .................................................................................. 80
Thermal Analysis ................................................................................... 81
Exercise L - Thermal Model .....................................................................85

Electrostatic Analysis ............................................................................. 86


Fluid Flow Analysis ................................................................................ 89
Mechanical Event Simulation (MES) ..................................................... 92
Exercise M - Nonlinear Material Model .................................................. 101

Combining Analysis Types (Multiphysics) ................................................. 103


Material Models ........................................................................................ 105
Exercise N - Mechanical Event Simulation, Geneva Mechanism ................ 107

STEPS FOR EXERCISES .......................................................... SE.1

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Course Introduction
Overview
This course will introduce the students to the analysis products available within Autodesk
Algor Simulation Professional and the proper usage of these tools. The program
capabilities include static stress with linear and nonlinear material models, mechanical event
simulation, heat transfer, fluid flow, linear dynamics, natural frequency (modal) analysis with
nonlinear materials, transient mass transfer, and electrostatics analyses. The course will
utilize hand-built models and those originating from CAD solid modeling programs. The
students will learn basic Finite Element Analysis (FEA) theory, the various meshing options,
available load and constraint options, and how to create results presentations (including
images, animations, and HTML reports). The Finite Element Analysis in Action course
curriculum is organized into three main sections, as follows.

This Course Introduction section contains necessary prerequisite information concerning


software installation and configuration, how to obtain updates and technical support, and
basics concerning the user interface. The program emulates the view orientations and
mouse actions of many popular CAD packages. However, the procedures detailed within
this course are all based on the default Algor Simulation settings for the views and mouse
functions. Please ensure that all student workstations are set up accordingly so that the
software behavior will be consistent with the text.

The Presentation Slideshow is provided in two forms. Within the second section of this
Instructor Manual, the slides are presented in handout fashion, two per page. In addition, a
separate Microsoft PowerPoint presentation is included for classroom projection.

The Steps for Exercises section includes descriptions of all of the exercises included
within the slideshow presentation along with keystroke-specific procedures for correctly
completing the exercises.

Software Installation, Services, and Support


Installing and Running Autodesk Algor Simulation
The simulation software is distributed on DVDs with the exception of software for the Linux
platform, which is distributed on CDs. In addition, the software may be downloaded from the
Autodesk website. When you place the software DVD into a DVD-ROM drive, a launch
dialog having four options will appear. If you want to set up the software on a client
workstation, whether you will be using a license locked to a single computer or a network
license, press the "Install Products" button. If using a network license, you must already
have the license server software installed to a computer on the network. If you wish to create
pre-configured deployments for installing the product on multiple client workstations, choose
the "Create Deployments" command. If you want to set up the computer as a license server
to control the number of concurrent users through a network, or, if you wish to install optional
reporting tools, press the "Install Tools and Utilities" command. Finally, a fourth command
on the launch screen, "Read the Documentation," leads to a screen from which you can
access a ReadMe file and other installation and licensing guides.

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Course Introduction
During the product installation process, you will need to specify your name, the name of your
organization. You will also need to enter the product serial number and the product key.
Otherwise, you will be limited to a 30-day trial period. To customize the installation location
on your computer, the components to be installed, and/or to specify a network license server,
you will have to press the "Configuration" button that appears on one of the screens during
the installation process. Then, follow the prompts, provide the required information, and click
the "Configuration Complete" button to continue the installation process.
Any time after the installation, you will be able to start the software by using the available
shortcut found in the "Start" menu folder, "All Programs: Autodesk: Autodesk Algor
Simulation." The version number is included in the start menu folder name and shortcut.
The name of the shortcut will depend upon which package has been purchased ("Simulation,"
"Simulation MES," "Simulation CFD," or "Simulation Professional"). In the dialog
that appears when the program is launched, you will be able to open an existing model or
begin a new model. The simulation software will be used to create, analyze, and review the
results of an analysis within a single user interface, regardless of the analysis type.

System Requirements
We recommend the following system specifications for a Microsoft Windows platform
running Autodesk Algor Simulation. These specifications will allow you to achieve the best
performance for large models and advanced analysis types.
32-Bit

64-Bit *

Dual Core or Dual Processor Intel 64 or


AMD 64, 3 GHz or higher

Dual Core or Dual Processor Intel 64


or AMD 64, 3 GHz or higher

2 GB RAM or higher (3 GB for MES and


CFD applications)

8 GB RAM or higher

100 GB of free disk space or higher

30 GB of free disk space or higher

256 MB or higher OpenGL accelerated


graphics card

512 MB or higher OpenGL


accelerated graphics card

DVD-ROM drive

DVD-ROM drive

Supported Operating Systems:

Microsoft Windows 7 (32-bit and 64-bit editions)


Microsoft Vista (32-bit and 64-bit editions)
Microsoft Windows Server 2003 and Windows Server 2008
Microsoft Windows XP (32-bit and 64-bit editions)
Linux **

Other Requirements (All Platforms):

VIII

Mouse or pointing device


Sound card and speakers ***
Internet connection ***
Web browser with Adobe Flash Player 10 (or higher) plug-in ***

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Course Introduction
Notes Concerning System Requirements:
*

We recommend usage of a 64-bit version of the operating system to run large models of any
analysis type and for Mechanical Event Simulation, CFD, and Multiphysics analyses.
While a 32-bit machine can be configured for larger system memory sizes, architectural
issues of the operating system limit the benefit of the additional memory.

**

Linux may be used as a platform for running the solution phase of the analysis only. It
may be used for a distributed processing (or clustering) platform. However, pre- and
post-processing is done in the graphical user interface, which must be installed and run
on a Microsoft Windows platform.

***

These requirements are due to the use of multimedia in our product line and the
availability of distance learning webcasts, software demos, and related media.

Minimum system requirements and additional recommendations for Linux platforms may be
found on the Autodesk website. To navigate to the Autodesk Algor Simulation web page,
access the HELP pull-down menu within the user interface, select the "Web Links" pull-out
menu, and choose the "Autodesk Algor Simulation" link.
Autodesk Algor Simulation Help, often referred to as the Help files or users guide, contains
the following information:

Autodesk Algor Simulation Help

Documentation for all of the model creation options within the user interface
Documentation for all of the Autodesk Algor Simulation analysis types
Documentation for all of the result options available within the user interface
Step-by-step examples that illustrate many modeling and analysis options

How to Access the Help Files

From the user interface, access the HELP pull-down menu and select the "Contents"
command. The Autodesk Algor Simulation Help title page of will appear.

You can navigate through the user's guide via the table of contents to the left or by using
the "Search" or "Index" tabs.

Features of the Help Files

Autodesk Algor Simulation Help is a set of compiled help files that are installed with the
software but are also accessible from the Autodesk website.

Hyperlinks and a table of contents make it easy to move quickly from topic to topic.

The Help window contains a standard Internet browser toolbar, so you can move forward
and backward and print with ease.

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Course Introduction

Figure 1: Autodesk Algor Simulation Users Guide


Search the Help Files using Keywords

All of the pages in the Help files can be searched based on keywords.

The keywords are entered at the top of the "Search" tab on the left side of the Users
Guide screen. Topics that match the search criteria are listed below.

Keywords are used to search the Help files. You may use single or multiple keywords.

Boolean operators (AND, OR, NEAR, and NOT) are available to enhance the search utility.
Also, phrases may be enclosed in quotes to search only for a specific series of words.

Subscription Center
Along with your Autodesk Algor Simulation software purchase, you have the option of
purchasing various levels of Subscription Center access and support. The Subscription Center
is accessible via the "key" icon near the right end of the program title bar and also via the
"Help: Web Links" menu.
Through the Subscription Center, you can download software updates, service packs, and addon applications. You can access training media, such as topical webcasts. Finally, you can
also submit technical support requests via the Subscription Center.

Web Links
Within the HELP pull-down menu of the Autodesk Algor Simulation user interface, there is a
"Web Links" pull-out menu. The following content can be accessed via the web links within
this menu:

Autodesk Algor Simulation product page


Subscription Center
Services and Support information
Discussion Group

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Course Introduction

Training course information


Autodesk Labs where you may obtain free tools and explore developing technologies
Manufacturing Community

Tutorials
Tutorials are available that demonstrate many of the capabilities of the Autodesk Algor
Simulation software. Each analysis is presented through step-by-step instructions with
illustrations to assist the user. The tutorials are accessed from the "Help: Tutorials"
command and the associated model files are in the "\Tutorials\Models" subdirectory within
the program installation folder. The tutorials will appear next to the user interface. You will
be able to follow the steps using the software without switching between the two windows.

Webcasts and Web Courses


Webcasts focus on the capabilities and features of the software, on new functionality, on
accuracy verification examples, and on interoperability with various CAD solid modeling
packages. These streaming media presentations are available for on-demand viewing from
the Subscription Center via your web browser. Similarly, web courses are also available for
on-demand viewing. Web courses are typically longer in duration than webcasts and focus on
more in-depth training regarding the effective usage of your simulation software. The topics
cover a wide variety of application scenarios.
For a list of available webcasts and web courses, follow the "Training" link from the home
page of the Subscription Center. Choose the "Autodesk Algor Simulation" product in the
"Browse the Catalog" list. This leads to the Autodesk Algor Simulation e-Learning page, in
which the available webcasts and web courses are listed according to topic.

How to Receive Technical Support


Technical support is reachable through several contact methods. The means you can use may
depend upon the level of support that was purchased. For example, customers with "Silver"
support must obtain their technical support from the reseller that sold them the software.
"Gold" subscription customers may obtain support directly from Autodesk.
Five ways to contact Technical Support:

Reseller:

Subscription Center: Access the Subscription Center from the link provided in the program
interface. Click the Tech Support link on the left side of the page
and then click on the "Request Support" link.

Autodesk Phone:

(412) 967-2700 [or in USA/Canada: (800) 482-5467]

Autodesk Fax:

(412) 967-2781

Autodesk E-mail:

service.algor@autodesk.com

Obtain phone, fax, and/or e-mail information from your reseller.

When contacting Technical Support:

Have your contract number ready before contacting Technical Support.

Know the current version number of your software.

Have specific questions ready.

Remember, Technical Support personnel cannot perform, comment on, or make


judgments regarding the validity of engineering work.

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Course Introduction

Updates
The software is updated with new functionality on a continual basis. The following three
types of releases are provided:
1.

A major version: Indicated by the four-digit year of the software release (based upon
the Autodesk fiscal year, not the calendar year)

2.

A "subscription" version: Customers with a current maintenance subscription are


eligible for additional releases that may be made available between major product version
releases. These are designated by the addition of the word "Subscription" after the major
version number.

3.

A service pack: Incorporates minor improvements to a major or subscription release and


is indicated by the letters "SP" and a service pack number after the major or subscription
version number.

How to Determine the Software Version


Access the HELP pull-down menu in the user interface and select the "About" command.
This dialog will display the version that you are using. In addition, the program title bar and
the splash screen that appears at each program launch will indicate the major version number
of the software. However, as with the start menu group name and program shortcut, it will
not indicate the subscription and service pack variants.
How to Obtain an Update
Update notifications are provided via the "Communication Center" within the user interface.
The Communication Center icon is located at the right end of the program window title bar.
The state of the Communication Center icon changes whenever new information is available.
The Communication Center provides up-to-date product support information, software
patches, subscription announcements, articles, and other product information through a
connection to the Internet. Users may specify how frequently the Live Update information
will be polledon-demand, daily, weekly, or monthly. When a program update notification
is received, the user will be given the option of downloading and installing it.

Navigating the User Interface


In this section, we will introduce you to the Autodesk Algor Simulation user interface. This
interface is the same for each of the available packages, including the foundational Algor
Simulation product and the Algor Simulation CFD, MES, and Professional products. The
only difference will be with regard to which advanced features or capabilities are enabled.
We will begin with an overview of the major components of the graphical user interface.
Then, we will discuss the toolbars, keyboard, mouse, ViewCube, and additional view
controls. Please note that the behavior of the keyboard, mouse, and ViewCube as discussed
within this manual are based on the default program settings for a clean installation of the
product. Many of the features to be discussed are customizable via tabs and settings within
the "Options" dialog, reachable via the "Tools: Options" pull-down menu command.
Figure 2 on the next page, along with the legend that follows it, introduces the major
components of the user interface. This manual is based on Autodesk Algor Simulation
Professional 2011. Users of other versions may encounter differences between their version
and the interface described herein.

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Course Introduction

Figure 2: Autodesk Algor Simulation User Interface


Interface Legend:
A. Title Bar: The title bar displays the program name and version as well as providing links to the
Autodesk Subscription Center and Communication Center.
B. Menu Bar: The menu bar is located just below the title bar and contains the pull-down menus.
C. Toolbars: The toolbars provide the user with quick access to many commands.
D. Tree View: The tree view has unique contents for each environment of the user interface. For the
FEA Editor, it shows the parts list and the units, various properties, and loads that will be used for
the analysis. In the Results environment, you will see a list of results presentations and other postprocessing-specific content. The components of the analysis report will be listed in the tree view
within the Report environment.
E. ViewCube and Additional View Controls: These tools are used to manipulate the model display
position, rotation, zoom, display pivot point, and so on. There is also an optional Compass feature
that can be activated, providing a compass heading ring around the base of the ViewCube.
F. Display Area: The display area is where the modeling activity takes place. The title bar of the
window displays the current environment and the model name. The FEA Editor environment is used to
create the model, add the loads and constraints and perform the analysis. The Results environment is
used to view results and to create images, graphs, and animations. The Report environment will be
used to produce a formal report of the analysis, including desired results presentations.
G. Miniaxis and Scale Ruler: The miniaxis shows your viewpoint with respect to the threedimensional working area. The scale ruler gives you a sense of the model size,
H. Status Bar: The status bar displays important messages.

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Toolbars
Autodesk Algor Simulation accesses program functions through pull-down menus, context
menus, and toolbars. The available toolbars and menus vary for each program environment
(FEA Editor, Results, and Report). By default, the toolbars are positioned at the top of the
screen, just under the pull-down menus. As is true for the menus, commands are logically
grouped into a number of different toolbars. For example, one toolbar includes predefined
view orientations, another includes various selection tools, still another includes structured
meshing tools, and so on. These may be displayed, hidden, or repositioned as desired.
Most of the toolbars and pull-down menus will not appear until an existing model is opened
or a new model is created. To see the toolbars of the FEA Editor at this time, start the
program. Dismiss the "What's New" screen if it appears, select the "New" icon in the initial
dialog ("Open" / "New"), and click the "New" button. Navigate to a working folder, type in
the name of your choice in the "File name:" field, and click the "Save" button.
How to Display or Hide Specific Toolbars
To display or hide toolbars or to adjust the icon size or style, access the TOOLS pull-down
menu and select the "View Toolbars..." command. To display another toolbar activate the
checkbox for that toolbar. Deactivate the checkbox for each toolbar that you prefer to hide.
Additional checkboxes are provided for the toolbar size and style options. Press the "Close"
button to exit the "Toolbars" screen.
How to Dock Toolbars
Toolbars can be docked on the top, bottom, and/or sides of the display area. To dock a
toolbar, first click on the title bar and drag it toward one of the edges of the display area.
Once you reach the edge, the shape will change to signify that you are at a location where the
toolbar may be docked. Release the mouse and the toolbar will dock at the location of the
mouse. That is, it will snap to the docked position and the title bar will disappear. This is
illustrated in the following images.

Figure 3: Steps to Dock a Toolbar

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Using the Keyboard and Mouse


The keyboard and mouse will both be used to operate within the user interface. The keyboard
will be used to enter the required data for loads, constraints, material properties, and so on. It
will also be used to modify the behavior of particular mouse operations. That is, certain
keyboard keys, when held down, will change the behavior of the mouse.
The software supports a number of different mouse configurations. This document assumes
that the default template for a new installation is in effect. However, user settings, or those
retained from a prior Autodesk Algor Simulation installation, may cause the behavior to differ
from that described herein. To ensure that your mouse actions follow the descriptions in this
book, access the "Tools: Options: Mouse Options" dialog and choose the "Algor
Simulation" template.
The left mouse button will be used to select items. How items are selected will depend upon
the selection mode chosen in the "Selection: Shape" pull-out menu or toolbar. The type of
objects that are selected (such as lines, vertices, surfaces, parts, edges, or elements) will
depend upon the selection mode chosen in the "Selection: Select" pull-out menu or toolbar.
Hold down the <Ctrl> key while left-clicking an object to toggle the selection state of the
clicked object. That is, unselected objects will be added to the selection set and previously
selected items will be removed from the selection set. Holding down the <Shift> key while
left-clicking will only add clicked objects to the selection set (this will have no effect on
already selected items). Finally, holding both <Ctrl> and <Shift> while left-clicking will
only remove clicked objects from the selection set (this will have no effect on items that are
not already part of the current selection set).
Pressing the right mouse button with the cursor hovering over items in the tree view will
access a context menu with commands relevant to the item under the cursor. When items are
currently selected, either within the tree view or display area, the right-click context menu
will display commands and options that are specifically relevant to the selected items. For
example, if a surface is selected, only surface-based commands will appear in the context
menu. You may right-click anywhere in the display area when items are selected to access
the context menu. However, to access the context menu within the tree view area, you must
right-click with the cursor positioned on one of the selected headings.
If a mouse has a wheel, rolling the wheel will zoom in or out on the model. Holding down the
middle mouse button or wheel and dragging the mouse will rotate the model. Press the
<Ctrl> key while holding the middle button and dragging the mouse to pan the model,
moving it within the display area. Press the <Shift> key while dragging the mouse with the
middle button down to zoom in and out, making the model larger as the mouse is moved
upward and smaller as it is moved downward. You will likely find the use of the middle
mouse button and wheel to be more convenient than choosing a command like "Rotate" or
"Pan," clicking and dragging the mouse, and then pressing <Esc> to exit the command.
Finally, the X, Y, or Z key on the keyboard may be held down while dragging the mouse with
the middle button held down. Doing so will rotate the model, as before, but constraining the
rotation to be only about the corresponding X, Y, or Z global axis direction. You may also
use the left and right cursor keys on the keyboard while holding down X, Y, or Z to rotate
about these axes in fixed increments (15 degrees by default). The rotation increment is
customizable via the "Tools: Options: Graphics: Miscellaneous" dialog.

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Introduction to the ViewCube


As is true for the mouse, the software also supports a number of different view configurations.
This document assumes that the default view options template and view navigation settings
for a new installation are in effect. However, user settings, or settings retained from a prior
Autodesk Algor Simulation installation, may cause the view orientations and behavior to
differ from those described throughout this document. To ensure that your view commands
follow the descriptions in this book, access the "Tools: Options: Views Options" dialog and
choose the "Algor Simulation" template.
Next, access the "Graphics" tab of the same "Options" dialog, select "Navigation Tools" from
the items listed on the left side of the dialog, and click on the "View Cube" button. Click the
"Restore Defaults" button followed by OK to exit the "ViewCube Properties" dialog.
Finally, click the "Steering Wheel" button. Click the "Restore Defaults" button followed by
OK to exit the "SteeringWheels Properties" dialog. Click OK to exit the "Options" dialog.
The ViewCube will be located in the upper right corner of the display by default but may be
relocated. The appearance will change depending upon whether the view is aligned with a
global plane and whether the cursor is near the cube or not. The ViewCube, in its various
appearances, is shown in Figure 4.

(a) Cursor not near the


ViewCube
(b) Cursor on ViewCube
(view not aligned to a
standard face)
(c) Cursor on ViewCube
(standard face view)
Figure 4: ViewCube Appearance
The six standard view names, as labeled on the cube faces, are the Top, Bottom, Front, Back,
Left, and Right. These may be selected by clicking near visible face names on the cube, as
shown in Figure 4 (b) or by clicking the triangular arrows pointing towards the adjacent faces, as
shown in Figure 4 (c), which shows the cursor pointing to the arrow for the Bottom view.
In addition, there are clickable zones at each corner and along each edge of the ViewCube.
Clicking on a corner will produce an isometric view in which that particular corner is
positioned near the center and towards you. Clicking an edge will produce an oblique view,
rotated 45 degrees, half-way between the views represented by the two adjacent faces.
When the cursor is near the ViewCube, a "Home" icon will appear above it and to the left,
providing easy access to the home view. This is an isometric view having the corner between
the Front, Right, and Top Faces centrally positioned and towards you by default. The home
view may be redefined by right-clicking the Home icon and choosing the "Set Current View
as Home" command while viewing the model positioned as desired.
When one of the six standard views is active and the cursor is near the ViewCube, two curved
arrows will appear above and to the right of the cube, as seen in Figure 4 (c). These are used
to rotate the model to one of the four possible variants of the particular standard view. Each
click of an arrow will rotate the model 90 degrees in the selected direction.
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When the face being viewed is changed via the ViewCube, the model may move to the
selected view in the manner that requires the least amount of motion. For example, say we
are first looking at the Right view, with the word "Right" positioned upright (that is in the
normal reading position). Now, if we click the downward arrow above the cube, the model
will rotate 90 degrees to reveal the top face. The Top view will be rotated 90 degrees
clockwise from the upright orientation (that is, the word "Top" will read in the vertically
downward direction). Activating the "Keep scene upright" option will cause the Front,
Back, Left, and Right views to automatically be oriented in the upright position (Top above,
Bottom below) when changing to any of these views. You may, however, rotate the view
after initial selection, if desired. Go to "Tools: Options: Graphics: Navigation Tools:
View Cube" to locate the "Keep scene upright" setting. It is activated by default.
The point of this discussion is that whenever a new face is selected using the ViewCube, the
resultant view rotation may differ, depending upon the prior position of the model. If the resultant
orientation is not what is desired, simply click one of the curved arrows to rotate the view.

Immediately below the ViewCube is a pallet of additional view controls. This


consists of seven tools, each of which may be individually enabled or disabled.
All are on by default. Figure 5 shows the view control pallet.
From top to bottom, the seven tools are as follows:

SteeringWheels
Pan
Zoom
Orbit
Center
Previous View
Next View

Each of these icons, except for the Previous and Next commands, function as a
toggleclicking it once to activate a command and again to deactivate it.
Several of these tools, such as Pan, Previous, and Next are self-explanatory.

Figure 5: Additional View Controls Pallet

Additional View Controls

The "Zoom" tool includes a fly-out menu allowing the choice of one of four different zooming
modesZoom, Zoom (Fit All), Zoom (Selected), and Zoom (Window). The first of these
causes the model to become larger as the cursor is moved upward in the display area and smaller
when it is moved downward. The Fit (All) mode encloses the extents of the whole model. After
selecting objects in the display area, the Zoom (Selected) tool fits the selected items into the
display area. Finally, after selecting the Zoom (Window) tool, you can click and drag the mouse
to draw a window defining the area you wish to expand to fill the display area.
The "Orbit" tool has two variants, selectable via a fly-out menuOrbit, and Orbit
(Constrained). The former allows the model to be rotated freely in any direction. The
Constrained option causes the model to rotate only about the global Z-axis, similar to pressing
the Z key while dragging the mouse with the middle button depressed.
The "Center" tool is used to center a point on the model within the display area. Click with
the mouse to specify the desired center point after selecting the Center command. This point
also becomes the display pivot point, about which the model pivots when being rotated.

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The "SteeringWheels" tool is customizable and, in its default setting, produces the Full
Navigation Wheel shown in Figure 6. The full navigation wheel floats above the model view,
following the cursor position. It provides an additional access method for several functions
found elsewhere on the view tools pallet as well as a few additional functions.

Figure 6: Full Navigation Wheel


The "Rewind" button on the navigation wheel presents a timeline of thumbnails representing
various views that have been used during the modeling session. Simply release the mouse
button with the cursor positioned at the thumbnail representing the view to which you wish to
jump. This is more convenient than pressing the previous or next view buttons multiple times.
For additional information concerning these view controls, consult the User's Guide.

Legacy View Controls in Autodesk Algor Simulation


Traditional view controls and options are also provided via the pull-down menus and toolbars
at the top of the user interface window. Options for displaying or hiding the mesh or model
shading may be found here as well as eight pre-defined, standard view orientations. The
orientations will depend upon the currently active views options template (previously
discussed in the "Introduction to the ViewCube" section of this introduction).
There is also a "User-defined Views" dialog that may be used to save, modify, or restore
custom views. Additional capabilities include a local zoom feature and display toggles for the
scale ruler, miniaxis, and perspective mode.
The "Local Zoom" feature displays a small rectangle that represents the area to be
magnified. A larger rectangle shows an overlay of the magnified region. You may click on
and drag the local zoom window to position it anywhere on the model within the display area.
The size of the local zoom area and magnified overlay and also the zoom level can be
customized via the "Tools: Options: Graphics: Local Zoom" dialog.
For additional information concerning the legacy view controls, consult the Help files.

Notes Concerning the Steps for Exercises Section


Exercise descriptions and step-by-step solutions are provided in a separate section at the back
of this Instructor Manual. Excerpts from the Steps for Exercises section may be printed and
distributed to the students as desired.
In addition, please refer to the Forward portion of the Steps for Exercises section for detailed
information regarding the necessary program setup parameters. Using the specified
configuration at each workstation will ensure the expected software behavior for instructor
and student alike.
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Beam Elements (continued)


NOTE:

For details concerning beam element


orientation, access the Contents tab of
the Help files, go to Autodesk Algor
Simulation: Setting Up and Performing
the Analysis: Setting Up Part 1: Linear:
Element Types and Parameters: Beam
Elements. Scroll down the resultant page,
and click on the Beam Element
Orientation heading.

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Slide 157:

Other Analysis Types

Thermal
Analyses

2010 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 158:

Thermal Analyses
The following two types of thermal analysis
are available:

Steady-State Heat Transfer


Transient Heat Transfer

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Slide 159:

Thermal Elements

Thermal elements are geometrically


identical to the corresponding structural
elements. The available types are:

Rod (this is a line element)


2-D
Plate
Brick
2010 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 160:

Thermal Nodal Loads

Initial Temperature

Specify the temperature of a node(s) at the


beginning of the analysis (transient analysis).

Applied Temperature

Specify a temperature at which a node(s) will be


held during the analysis. A stiffness value specifies
the amount of thermal energy (heat source or heat
sink) available for maintaining the temperature.

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Slide 161:

Thermal Surface Loads

Convection

Assign a convection coefficient and the ambient


temperature.

Radiation

Assign the radiation function and the ambient


temperature.

Heat Flux

Assign the amount of heat added or removed per


unit area.
2010 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 162:

Thermal Element Loads

Heat Generation

Enter the amount of volumetric heat generated in a


given part.

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Slide 163:

Body-to-Body Radiation

Define the surfaces that will exchange heat


through radiation and assign emissivity
values.

Define body-to-body radiation enclosures


(i.e., groups of surfaces that will radiate
to/from each other).

The processor will automatically calculate


the view factors between elements.

2010 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 164:

Thermal Contact

Used to simulate imperfect thermal conduction


between two parts or the resistance of a
substance that is not modeled (such as epoxy)
between two parts.

Define contact pairs in the FEA Editor


environment.

Define the resistance value between the


surfaces.

Applicable to 3D CAD, hand-built, and 2-D


models.
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Slide 165:

Thermal Results

Temperature
Heat flux (energy / time / length2)
Heat rate of face (energy / time)

2010 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 166:

Exercise L - Thermal Model

Objective: Analyze
the thermal effects of
a material containing
hot and cold water
passages. Use a mesh
size of 80% of default.

Material: Steel (ASTM - A514)


Loads:

Largest Hole:

Convection coefficient = 1.4


Ambient temperature= 65F

in lbs
in 2 sec F

Second Largest Hole:

Convection coefficient = 2.8


Ambient temperature = 180F

in lbs
in 2 sec F

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Slide 167:

Other Analysis Types

Electrostatic
Analyses

2010 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 168:

Electrostatic Analyses
The following two types of electrostatic
analysis are available:

Electrostatic Field Strength and Voltage


Electrostatic Current and Coltage

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Slide 169:

Electrostatic Elements

Electrostatic 2-D and brick elements are


geometrically identical to the analogous
structural elements.

2010 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 170:

Electrostatic Nodal Loads

Applied Voltages

Specify a certain voltage at which a node(s) will


be held, due to a voltage source.

Temperatures

Specify the temperature of a node(s) to influence


the electrostatic results when temperaturedependent material properties are being used.

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Slide 171:

Electrostatic Results

Voltage (Volts or mV)


Current (Amps or mA / length2)
Current Rate of Face (Amps or mA)
Electric field (voltage/length)
Displacement field (force/voltage * length)
Electrostatic force
Electrostatic charge (current * time)

2010 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 172:

Electrostatic Analysis Exercise


Refer to the softwares Help: Tutorials menu
command. Follow the Radial Comb Motor
Electrostatic Analysis tutorial listed under
Analyzing and Evaluating Results Tutorials
for further information on performing an
electrostatic analysis.

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Slide 173:

Other Analysis Types

Fluid Flow
Analyses

2010 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 174:

Fluid Flow Analyses


The following four types of fluid flow analysis
are available:

Steady Fluid Flow


Unsteady Fluid Flow
Flow Through Porous Media
Open Channel Flow

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Slide 175:

Fluid Flow Elements

The fluid flow 2-D and brick elements are


geometrically identical to the analogous
structural elements.

2010 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 176:

Fluid Flow Loads

Prescribed Velocity

Can be used to specify an inlet velocity or zero


velocity along a wall.

Surface Prescribed Inlet/Outlet


Fan Curves

Can be used to model flow generated by intake,


exhaust or internal fans.

Rotating Frames of Reference

Can be used to model flow in rotating machinery.

Gravity
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Slide 177:

Fluid Flow Loads (continued)

Pressure/Traction

Applied normal to the edge of 2-D elements (selected


as surfaces since the edges represent surfaces).
Applied normal to the face of 3-D elements.
Applied in a specified vector direction to the edge
surface of 2-D elements or the face of 3-D elements.

Buoyancy Force

Apply thermal results from a steady-state heat


transfer analysis to a steady fluid flow analysis.

Surface Prescribed Turbulence Condition


Surface Prescribed Wall Roughness
2010 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 178:

Fluid Flow Results

Velocity (length/time)
Pressure (force/length2)
Stress tensors (force/length2)
Reaction forces

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Slide 179:

Fluid Flow Analysis


Refer to the softwares Help: Tutorials menu
command. Follow the Ball Valve Fluid Flow
Analysis tutorial listed under Analyzing and
Evaluating Results Tutorials for further
information on performing a fluid flow analysis.

2010 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 180:

Other Analysis Types

Mechanical
Event
Simulation
(MES)
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Slide 181:

Mechanical Event Simulation (MES)


MES overcomes many limitations of static stress
analysis by accounting for

Geometric nonlinearity (large deformations that change


the load and/or constraint positions and directions)

Acceleration/inertia

Nonlinear material behavior (such as plastic deformation


due to exceeding the material yield strength).

Damping
Motion-enabled contact or impact (that is, surface-tosurface contact that changes over time due to motion or
component deformation)

2010 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 182:

Mechanical Event Simulation (MES)


(continued)
Other MES characteristics:

Loads and results are time-dependent, providing


many instantaneous results snapshots over a
user-defined period of time.

Load curves are used to define how the given


loads vary over time.

Multiple results time steps are provided for postprocessing.

Results may be graphed versus time. The integral


and first or second derivative of the results may
also be graphed.
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Slide 183:

Comparison of Linear Static Stress and MES


Previously, we introduced the following governing
equation for static stress analysis:

{f} = [K] {d}


Where: {f} = force vector, [K] = stiffness matrix, {d} = displacement vector

For MES, additional terms are included, resulting


in the following equation:

{f } = [K ]{d}+ [c]{d }+ [m]{d}

Where: [c] = damping matrix, [m] = mass matrix,


d = velocity vector (first derivative of displacement),
= acceleration vector (second derivative of displacement)
d

{}
{}

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Slide 184:

MES Shell Elements

MES shell elements are similar to


linear plate elements. They are
triangular or quadrilateral, are
planar (or nearly planar), and have
three or four corner nodes.

There are several available


formulations (consult the Help files
for more information).

Composites are a subset of shell


elements in MES, rather than a
separate element type.
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Presentation Slideshow

Slide 185:

MES Kinematic Elements

Kinematic elements can be either 2-D or


3-D elements.

Kinematic elements do not experience strains


and do not report stresses. Otherwise, these
elements behave just like flexible brick
elements.

They have an advantage over conventional


brick elements because of their small
contribution to the size of the global stiffness
matrix. This results in faster run times.
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Slide 186:

MES Contact Elements

Contact elements can have


different stiffness values in
compression and tension.

These elements can also have a


breaking stress at which point
the stiffness will be zero.

These elements can be used to


simulate cables.

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Presentation Slideshow

Slide 187:

MES Coupling Elements

Coupling elements aid in the


simulation of parts that "couple"
at a known length.

This coupling is modeled by


introducing a stiffness when it
reaches this length. This
stiffness is calculated using the
modulus of elasticity, a coupling
area, and the length of the
element.
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Slide 188:

MES Dashpot Elements

Dashpot elements can be used


to apply local damping to a
model.

You can specify a damping


coefficient that will control how
much these elements affect
motion.

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Presentation Slideshow

Slide 189:

MES Actuator Elements

Actuator elements are line


elements whose lengths can
change over time.

They are used to simulate


defined movement of a part
(such as hydraulic cylinders or
solenoids).

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Slide 190:

MES Slider Elements

A slider element consists of two


collinear lines connected at one
node.

The node in the middle will be


allowed to move along the line
defined by the other two points,
letting the node slide such as
if it were in a guide or slot.
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Presentation Slideshow

Slide 191:

MES Pulley Elements

Pulley elements consist


of three nodes: driver,
pivot, and slack.
As the driver node
moves toward or away
from the pivot, the slack
node will move in the
opposite direction by a
set relationship.

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Slide 192:

MES Pipe Elements

Pipe elements allow you to


model piping systems under
internal pressure loads.

The pipe elements can be either


straight sections or bends.

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Slide 193:

MES Hydrodynamic Elements

Hydrodynamic elements
can be either 2-D or 3-D
elements.

These elements allow for


the simulation of the
interaction of fluids with
solids without considering
the details of the flow.

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Slide 194:

MES Impact Planes

Specify a wall, floor, or ceiling parallel to


the global X, Y and Z axes.

Objects will not be able to pass through this


plane.

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Presentation Slideshow

Slide 195:

MES Surface-to-Surface Contact

Specify two or more surfaces that may come


into contact during the event duration.

Can include static and dynamic friction effects.

Consult the Help files for more information


concerning the various surface contact options
and parameters.

A slide, no bounce option is available to


prevent objects from separating once theyve
come into contact.

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Slide 196:

Mechanical Event Simulation Example


For an introductory level mechanical event
simulation (MES) example, refer to the
softwares Help: Tutorials menu command.
Follow the Piston Mechanical Event
Simulation tutorial listed under Analyzing
and Evaluating Results Tutorials.
Also, refer to Example M (next slide) for a
more complex and challenging MES example
involving surface number reassignment and
surface-to-surface contact.
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Presentation Slideshow

Slide 197:

Exercise M MES, Geneva Mechanism

Center of Joint 1 (0, 0, -0.125) & Joint 2 (1.414214, 0, -0.125): Fixed except for Rz
Center of Joint 3 (0, 0, 0.875) & Joint 4 (1.414214, 0, 0.875): Tx, Ty, Rx & Ry constrained

Slide 1 of 4

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Slide 198:

Exercise M (continued)
1. Before meshing, set the default contact = Free/No Contact and define a surface
contact pair between Part 1 and Part 2, which will prevent mesh matching
between the parts (this is desirable for MES contact surfaces).

2. Mesh the model at an absolute mesh size of 0.0625 (1/16th of an inch).


3. Modify line attributes to consolidate the contact surfaces. Use surface 100 for
the 1st contact pair, 101 for the 2nd, and 102 for the 3rd include chamfers. For
the drive wheel, surfaces 100 and 101 will each encompass about one-third of the
perimeter of the wheels C-shaped cylindrical contact surface.

4. From the General Surface-to-Surface Contact screen, redefine the first pair to
be Part 1/Surface 100 to Part 2/Surface 100. Create two more pairPart 1/
Surface 101 to Part 2/Surface 101 and Part 1/Surface 102 to Part 2/Surface 102.
Set the contact element Updating to Automatic. Set the contact parameters
for all three pair as follows

Contact problem type = High Speed Contact (Impact)


Contact type = Surface to Surface
User specified contact stiffness = 1000 lbf/in
User specified contact tolerance = 0.0011 (eliminates the effects of 0.001 part clearances
and prevents chatter, resulting in a quicker and more stable solution).

Slide 2 of 4

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Presentation Slideshow

Slide 199:

Exercise M (continued)
5. Create four universal joints, one at each end face of the four stub shafts,
entering the specified vertex coordinates from the preceding diagram.

6. In the element definition screen for parts 1 and 2, set the analysis type to
Large Displacement. Set the material for the drive wheel to Brass, Red and
for the driven wheel to Plastic Nylon Type 6/6. For all four joints Change
the element type to Pipe In the element definition screen, set the OD to
0.1 and the wall thickness to 0.03 The material is to be custom defined,
E=100e6; all other values remain at zero.

7. Apply the nodal boundary conditions and loads specified on the preceding
diagram to the center points of the four joints. For Joint 4s lumped mass,
specify a uniform mass of 0.00088 lbfs2/in and a mass moment of inertia in the
Z-direction of 0.00135 lbfs2in. These values simulate a steel disk 1/8 thick
with a diameter of 3.5.
Use load curve 1 for the prescribed displacement (rotation) and load
curve 2 for the nodal moment. Load curve 1 ramps linearly from 0 to 1 in
1 second. Load curve 2 is constant at 1. Set a death time of 1 second in the
active range data dialog for the prescribed displacement.
Slide 3 of 4

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Slide 200:

Exercise M (continued)
8.

In the analysis parameters screen, set the event duration to 1 second and
the capture rate to 90. This will produce a time step for every two degrees
of drive wheel rotation.

9.

Under the equilibrium tab of the advanced analysis parameters, uncheck the
Automatic box for the displacement tolerance and set the value to 0.02.

10.

Run the Analysis and review the results. Generate a von Mises stress
animation and a plot of displacement magnitude vs. time for two
nodes one on the drive wheels indexing pin and one on the perimeter of
the driven wheel.
***

NOTE: Depending upon the computer hardware, this analysis may take several
hours to run. You may wish to allow several steps to converge, stop the
analysis, and then load the already completed model from the provided
archive file, Exercise M\Results Archive\Exercise M.ach.

Slide 4 of 4

102

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FEA in Practice Instructor Manual Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Presentation Slideshow

Slide 201:

Finite Element Analysis in Practice

Combining
Analysis Types
(Multiphysics)

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Slide 202:

Multiphysics

A multiphysics analysis combines the effects of


multiple analysis types.

The initial analysis is performed.

For some analyses, iterations are required to


reach a converged solution.

Steady or unsteady coupled fluid flow and


thermal analyses solve for fluid and thermal
results simultaneously.

Another analysis is set up using the results from


the initial analysis as the loading in the
subsequent analysis.

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Presentation Slideshow

Slide 203:

Examples of Combining Analysis Types

Apply temperature results from a heat transfer


analysis to a stress analysis to analyze thermal
stress.
Apply boundary forces from a fluid flow analysis to
a stress analysis (fluid/structural interaction).
Apply velocity results from a fluid flow analysis to a
heat transfer analysis to analyze the effect of forced
convection on the temperature distribution (where
the temperature does not significantly influence the flow
pattern).
Apply temperature results from a heat transfer
analysis to a fluid flow analysis to drive natural
convection (where the flow does not significantly
influence the temperature distribution).
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Slide 204:

Examples of Combining Analysis Types


(continued)

Apply current results from an electrostatic


analysis to a heat transfer analysis to analyze
Joule heating.

Apply electrostatic attraction/repulsion forces


from an electrostatic analysis to a stress
analysis to determine displacements and
stresses (commonly used in the analysis of
micro electromechanical systems MEMS).

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Presentation Slideshow

Slide 205:

Multiphysics Example:
Analysis of Stresses due to
Electrostatic Forces
Refer to the softwares Help: Tutorials menu
command. Follow the Radial Comb Motor
Static Stress Analysis tutorial listed under
Analyzing and Evaluating Results Tutorials
for further information on performing a
multiphysics analysis of structural stress and
displacement due to electrostatic forces.
2010 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 206:

Finite Element Analysis in Practice

Material
Models

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Presentation Slideshow

Slide 207:

Background on Material Models

Material models are subsets of the element


types.

These models allow you to make decisions


on what type of material properties will be
used for each part in the model.

For example, if a part will see the plastic


region of a stress versus strain curve, you
should select one of the von Mises material
models for an elastic/plastic analysis.
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Slide 208:

Isotropic

This is the standard material model. The


material properties are independent of
direction.

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Presentation Slideshow

Slide 209:

Orthotropic

This material model can have different


properties in the three orthogonal
directions.

The required properties are identical to the


isotropic material model. However, you
enter separate values for the three
directions.

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Slide 210:

Temperature-Dependent

For some elements, the properties for both


isotropic and orthotropic materials can be
defined on a temperature-dependent basis.

The values are linearly interpolated between


the specified temperature points.

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Presentation Slideshow

Slide 211:

Elastic-Plastic (von Mises)

von Mises: This material models is based on a bilinear


simplification of the stress-strain curve. The modulus
for the elastic region, the yield point, and the modulus
for the plastic region must be defined. If the material
library includes the elastic modulus, yield point,
ultimate strength, and elongation; the program will
automatically calculate the plastic modulus for you.

von Mises Curve: This material model uses either an


approximated stress-strain curve or actual stress-strain
data. As above, if the material library includes the
elastic modulus, yield point, ultimate strength, and
elongation; the approximated stress-strain curve will be
generated automatically. Alternately, you may define a
table of true stress-strain data (either within the material
library manager or the material application screen).
2010 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 212:

Elastic-Plastic (von Mises)


(continued)

Isotropic hardening and kinematic hardening


variants of the von Mises material models are
available.

Use the von Mises with Isotropic Hardening model for


non-reversing load conditions.

The von Mises with Kinematic Hardening model is


recommended for greater accuracy when reversing
strain cycles will occur.

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Presentation Slideshow

Slide 213:

Hyperelastic and Foam Material Models

The following rubber-like (hyperelastic)


material models are available:

Mooney-Rivlin
Arruda-Boyce
Ogden

Yeoh
Neo-Hookean
Van der Waals

The following foam-like material models are


available:

Blatz-Ko
Hyperfoam (accounts for compressibility)
2010 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 214:

Drucker-Prager

This material model is used to model rock


and concrete.

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Presentation Slideshow

Slide 215:

Viscoelastic and Viscoplastic

These material models are used to account


for rate-dependent material behavior due to
dissipative losses from viscous effects.
The viscoelastic material models are
variants of the previously listed
hyperelastic material models.

A material model that can be used to model


thermal creep is also available (Thermal
Creep Viscoelastic).
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Slide 216:

Thermoelastic and Thermoplastic

These material models are used for thermal


stress analyses. The Thermoplastic model
is used when stresses beyond the yield
point occur.

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Slide 217:

Piezoelectric

This material model is for parts that


experience stress due to a voltage
distribution.

2010 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 218:

Curve

This material model allows you to input a


bulk modulus versus strain curve to control
the behavior of the part.

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Presentation Slideshow

Slide 219:

Reinforced Concrete

This material model allows different tensile


and compressive behaviors. It can simulate
cracking and crushing failure of concrete
under relatively monotonic loading. A
maximum of three independent directions
of rebar are allowed for the concrete
material. The rebar locations (in height or
depth) are not considered; they are treated
as "smeared" throughout the part.
2010 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved.

Slide 220:

Exercise N - Nonlinear Material Model

Objective: Analyze a cantilever beam


using beam elements and an elastic
material model. Determine if yielding
occurs. If it does, reanalyze the beam
using a plastic material model.

Geometry: The beam is 10 long


and is 5 x 5 square.

Material: Steel (ASTM - A36)

Constraints: The fixed end is fully


constrained.

Duration: 10 seconds.

Loads: 56,000 pounds in the


-Y direction at the free end.

Load curve:

Capture rate: 2 steps per second.


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Finite Element Analysis


in Practice
Steps for Exercises

Based on

Autodesk Algor Simulation


Professional 2011

SE.2

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

STEPS FOR EXERCISES


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Foreword........................................... SE.5
Introductory Example Motor Mount .................................................................. SE.7
Exercise A FEA Example by Hand ................................................................... SE.17
Exercise B Truss Frame Model ........................................................................ SE.23
Exercise C Support Beam under Gravity ......................................................... SE.33
Exercise D Axisymmetric Thick-Walled Cylinder.............................................. SE.43
Exercise E Plate under Uniform Pressure ........................................................ SE.49
Exercise F Cantilever Beam Model .................................................................. SE.57
Exercise G Comparing Element Types ............................................................ SE.67
Exercise H Mesh Convergence ........................................................................ SE.79
Exercise I Bracket Model .................................................................................. SE.85
Exercise J Hanger Assembly Model ................................................................ SE.91
Exercise K Linear Contact Model ..................................................................... SE.97
Exercise L Thermal Model.............................................................................. SE.105
Exercise M Mechanical Event Simulation (MES), Geneva Mechanism ......... SE.111
Exercise N Nonlinear Material Model ............................................................. SE.129

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

SE.3

SE.4

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Foreword
Starting Autodesk Algor Simulation
The software may be started by:

Accessing the Windows "Start" menu and selecting the "All Programs" pull-out menu,
followed by selecting the "Autodesk" group and the "Autodesk Algor Simulation" folder
within it. Select the "Autodesk Algor Simulation" command.

In addition, the program may be started by choosing the "Autodesk Algor Mesh" command
within supported CAD solid modeling applications. This method starts the program and transfersin the CAD solid model in one operation.

Defaults
Each exercise is written using the default program settings, as if the software has been opened for the first
time after installation. In this way, a user can work through the exercises in any order. If a user will be
working through several exercises during one session, some settings from one exercise may be retained,
creating incorrect or invalid steps in the following exercise. To minimize this possibility, exit the program
at the end of each exercise and reopen it to begin a new exercise. It is possible for an experienced user to
work through several exercises without this precaution, but extra care should be taken to review that input
is correct and appropriate.
It is important that the user access view commands exactly as described, except as otherwise indicated (that
is, from the pull-down menus or toolbars). These commands ensure a constant and repeatable view
orientation that is not ensured when using the ViewCube. Specifically, while the displayed plane will be
correct, the rotational position may not be as expected when using the ViewCube.
Several program settings are global. That is, once set, they will influence the program behavior for every
model until the settings are changed again. In particular, the solution steps in this manual may be
invalidated if a deviation is made from any of the settings listed below. These are the program settings
upon which the solution procedures are based:

"Tools: Options"
o

"Analysis"
"Automate Analysis" Activated
"Ask to show mesh results after CAD meshing" Activated
"Default Modeling Units" = English (in)

"CAD Import: Global CAD Import Options"


"Knit surfaces on import:" = No
Automatically generate contact pairs:" = No

"Graphics: Navigation Tools: View Cube"


"Fit-to-View on view change" Activated

"Mouse Options: Mouse settings templates" = Algor Simulation

"Views Options: Views settings templates" = Algor Simulation

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

SE.5

Forward

Input Files and Archives


The University Course Curriculum is distributed in the form of an executable, self-extracting archive and is
delivered electronically. Hardcopies of the curriculum are not available. When the downloaded archive is
extracted, various documents and folders will be created within the folder at the extraction location. Along
with the Instructor Manual (PDF file) and the presentation slides (PPT file), there is a set of folders
containing the example and exercise model input files and results archives. These are clearly identified by
the folder structure and naming convention. Discretion should be used with regard to which files and
folders are made available to the students via a shared network drive. It is recommended that the instructor
only shares the example and exercise model input files and results archives. The Instructor Manual and
presentation slideshow should not be shared. However, exercise handouts may be provided for the students
by selecting and printing the appropriate pages of the Instructor Manual or by printing excerpts as PDF
files and sharing these with the students on a per-assignment basis.
Many of the exercise input files are in the form of CAD universal formats. A number of the
input files, and all of the results files for the course examples and exercises, are in the form of
Algor Simulation archive files (*.ach). These input files and results archives must be copied
to the local computer workstations for each student before they are opened. Do not try to
open or run models directly from a shared network drive. This will produce excessive
network traffic, slow down the analyses, and some analyses may fail to run across a network
connection. For this reason, students who have their My Documents folders mapped to a
shared network drive, as is a common practice in university settings, should NOT place FEA
models in their My Documents folder. Instead, a folder for FEA models should be created
on each local workstation hard drive. Models can be archived to the shared folder for
portability during the setup process or after they have been solved.

Opening Archives
1. Copy the set of folders and files to your local computer from the class directory.
2. Start Autodesk Algor Simulation and select the "Open" icon at the left side of the dialog.
3. Select the "Algor Simulation Archive (*.ach)" option in the Autodesk Algor Files section of the
"Files of type:" drop-down box.
4. Double-click to open the desired folder, highlight the desired file, and press the "Open" button.
5. In the "Browse for Folder" screen, select a folder on the hard drive for the location of the
restored model files.
6. Click the OK button.
The model will be restored to the selected folder and automatically opened in the FEA Editor environment.
For exercises based on CAD solid models, the input files will be universal formats (such as STEP, IGES,
and so on), rather than Algor Simulation archives. These files should be placed in the desired working
folder prior to opening them. The FEA files will be created in the folder where the CAD file resides when it
is opened.

Printing of Exercise Descriptions and Solution Steps


Individual exercise descriptions and/or solution steps within this manual may be printed and distributed to
the students at the instructor's discretion. However, they are not to be distributed beyond or outside of the
current class of the university or trade school that owns the Autodesk Algor Simulation license.

SE.6

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Introductory Example
Motor Bracket Assembly Model
Brick Elements
Objective:

To perform an analysis on a motor bracket that is loaded with surface forces.

Geometry:

Use the file MotorMount.stp located in the "Introductory Example\Input File" directory
as the input file for this exercise. Mesh the model at the default mesh size.

Loads:

Surface force loads of 75 lbf each will be applied to the top of the two brackets. The
direction of the load will be normal to the selected surfaces.

Constraints:

The two holes at the ends of the shaft will be fully constrained.

Elements:

Brick

Material:

Steel (ASTM-A36) All Parts

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

SE.7

Introductory Example

SE.8

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Introductory Example

Solution
Meshing the Model
Start Autodesk Algor Simulation from the Windows Start menu.
"Open"

Select the "Open" icon at the left side of the dialog.

Mouse

If the desired analysis type is not already set, click on the


arrow button next to the "Choose analysis type:" field,
select the "Linear" pull-out menu, and choose "Static
Stress with Linear Material Models."
Select the "STEP (*.stp, *.ste, *.step)" option in the CAD
Files section of the "Files of type" drop-down box.
Navigate to the directory where the model is located.
Select the MotorMount.stp file in the "Introductory
Example\Input File" directory.

"Linear: Static Stress with


Linear Material Models "
"STEP (*.stp, *.ste, *.step)"
MotorMount.stp

Press the "Open" button.

"Open"
"Use STEP file units"
OK

OK

A "Select Length Units" dialog will appear. Choose the


"Use STEP file units" option from the pull-down menu if
it is not already selected and click the OK button.
A dialog will appear asking you to choose the analysis type for
this model. Click the OK button to accept the default of
"Static Stress with Linear Material Models". The model
will be displayed in the FEA Editor as shown in Figure 0.1.

Figure 0.1: Model in the FEA Editor Environment


FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

SE.9

Introductory Example

Mouse

Access the MESH pull-down menu and select the "Model


Mesh Settings" command.

Mouse

Move the slider in the "Mesh size" section to 75%.


Press the "Mesh model" button in the "Model Mesh
Settings" dialog.
Press the "No" button when asked to view the mesh results. A
mesh will be displayed on the model as shown in Figure 0.2).

"Mesh model"
"No"

Figure 0.2: Meshed Model

Defining the Material Data


Mouse
<Ctrl>Mouse
<Ctrl>Mouse

SE.10

Click on the "Material" heading for Part 1 in the tree view.


Holding down the <Ctrl> key, click on the "Material"
heading for Part 2 in the tree view.
Holding down the <Ctrl> key, click on the "Material"
heading for Part 3 in the tree view.

Mouse

Right-click on one of the selected headings.

"Modify Material"

Select the "Modify Material" command.

"Steel (ASTM - A36)"

Within the "Element Material Specification dialog, expand


the "Steel" branch of the Autodesk Algor Material Library,
scroll down towards the bottom of the list, and select the
material, "Steel (ASTM - A36)," as shown in Figure 0.3.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Introductory Example

Figure 0.3: Defining the Materials


OK

Click the OK button to accept this material for all three


parts.

Adding Loads and Constraints

Mouse

"Selection: Select: Surfaces"

Click and hold the middle mouse button to rotate the model
view. Drag the mouse to position the model for clear
visibility of the top surfaces of the brackets and then release
the mouse button.
Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the
"Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Surfaces" command.

Mouse

Click on the top surface of one of the brackets.

<Ctrl>Mouse

Holding down the <Ctrl> key, click on the top surface of


the other bracket.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Surface Forces"

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Surface


Forces" command (see Figure 0.4).

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

SE.11

Introductory Example

Figure 0.4: Applying Surface Loads


75

Type "75" in the "Magnitude" field. This is the force


applied per selected surface.

OK

Click the OK button to accept this load.

Mouse
Mouse
<Ctrl>Mouse

Click and hold the middle mouse button to rotate the model
view. Drag the mouse to position the model for clear
visibility of the holes at each end of the shaft.
Click on one of the inner surfaces of one of the holes in the
shaft.
Holding down the <Ctrl> key, click on the remaining three
inner surfaces of the two holes.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Surface Boundary


Conditions"

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Surface


Boundary Conditions" command.

"Fixed"

Press the "Fixed" button in the "Predefined" section.

OK

Press OK to accept these surface boundary conditions.

Running the Analysis

"Analysis: Perform
Analysis"

SE.12

Access the ANALYSIS pull-down menu and select the


"Perform Analysis" command to run the analysis. At
the completion of the analysis, the program will
automatically transfer to the Results environment.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Introductory Example

Viewing the Results


The von Mises stress contour on the displaced shape will appear as shown in Figure 0.5.

Figure 0.5: von Mises Stress Results


Other types of results can be displayed by accessing the RESULTS pull-down menu and selecting from among the
various available results. In addition, the amount of displacement exaggeration may be altered and the
undisplaced shape can be overlaid on the displaced shape plot.
"Results: Displacement:
Magnitude"
"Results Options: Displaced
Model Options"

Mouse

Mouse
"Transparent"
Mouse

Access the RESULTS pull-down menu, then the


"Displacement" pull-out menu, and select the "Magnitude"
command. Note the maximum displacement magnitude.
Access the RESULTS OPTIONS pull-down menu and
select the "Displaced Model Options" command to
access the "Displaced Model Options" dialog.
Increase the displacement scale from 5% to 10% by dragging
the slider towards the right. The displaced plot will now be
exaggerated so that the displacement is approximately 10% of
the overall model size.
Under the Scale Factor heading, activate the "As an
Absolute Value" radio button. The scale factor field will
now show the actual displacement multiplier.
Select the "Transparent" radio button in the "Show
Undisplaced Model As" section.
Press the
button in the upper right corner of the
"Displaced Model Options" dialog.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

SE.13

Introductory Example
We will now capture a screen image of the displacement results for inclusion within the analysis report.

Portable network graphics


file (*.png)
Motor Mount
Displacement

Access the FILE pull-down menu, select the "Export"


pull-out menu, and choose the "Image" command.
Click once in the display area to make this window active
and press <Enter> to automatically select the entire display
area and open the Save image as dialog. (Note that it is
also possible to click and drag to select only a portion of the
display for capture.)
Choose Portable network graphics file (*.png) from the
drop-down list in the Save as type: field.
Type Motor Mount Displacement in the File
name: field.

Save

Click the Save button.

File: Export: Image

Mouse

Generating an HTML Report


"Tools: Report"

Access the TOOLS pull-down menu and select the


"Report" command to change to the Report environment.

Mouse

Right-click on the "HTML Report" heading in the tree view.

"Configure Report"

Select the "Configure Report" command.

Mouse

Activate the Logo checkbox. Drag the horizontal scroll


bar towards the right to see the full logo. The Configure
Report dialog will now appear as shown in Figure 0.6.

Figure 0.6: Report Configuration Utility


NOTE: When selecting portions of the report to modify, click on the item name and not on the checkbox. Clicking
on the checkbox will toggle the inclusion state of the item (that is, whether it is to be included or excluded
from the HTML report).
SE.14

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Introductory Example

Mouse

Select the "Project Name" heading.

Mouse:
Introductory Exercise
Mouse:
Analysis of a Motor
Mount under a 150 lbf
Load.

Click and drag the mouse to select the text "Design


Analysis" and type "Introductory Exercise" to replace it.

Mouse

Select the "Title and Author" heading.

Your Name

Type your name into the "Author" field.

Your Department

Type your department name into the "Department" field.

Mouse

Deselect the "Executive Summary" item by clicking on


the associated checkbox. This item will be excluded from
the report.

Click and drag the mouse to select the text "Project Title
Here" and replace this text by typing "Analysis of a Motor
Mount under a 150 lbf Load".

NOTES: Text can be added as desired within the "Executive Summary" section using the built-in word processor
features. A variety of font and paragraph styles are included, such as bullet or numbered lists, tables, tabs,
and various text justification settings.
The following sections are automatically generated and cannot be modified. The analyst may only include
or exclude these items or alter their order of appearance within the report:

Summary
Analysis Parameters
Parts
Element
Material
Loads
Constraints
Probes
Rotating Frames (applicable to fluid flow analysis)
Results Presentations
Processor Log Files Group
Code Checking General
Code Checking Detailed

We will now deactivate the default results presentation image and instead add the displacement image that
we captured previously. We will position the image within the report just before the processor log files.
Mouse
Tree: Add Image File(s)
Portable Network Graphics
(.png)
Motor Mount
Displacement.png
Open

Deselect the "Results Presentation" item by clicking on


the associated checkbox to exclude it from the report.
Access the TREE pull-down menu and choose the Add
Image File(s) command.
Choose Portable Network Graphics (.png) from the
drop-down list to the right of the File name: field.
Browse to and select the file, Motor Mount
Displacement.png that was previously created.
Click the Open button. A heading matching the image
name will appear at the bottom of the report tree view.
Also, the default header text will match the filename.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

SE.15

Introductory Example

Mouse

"Generate Report"

Click on the Motor Mount Displacement heading and


drag it upward in the tree view to reposition this item within
the report. Release the button with the cursor over the
Processor Log Files heading. The image will now
precede the log files.
Press the "Generate Report" button. This will automatically
bring up the report, which will appear as shown in Figure 0.7.
You can scroll through and review the full report.

Figure 0.7: Completed Report


NOTES:

The default title image is the model as it currently appears within the FEA Editor environment.
A different image may be substituted for this one and/or the image may be resized using the
report configuration utility. To resize the image, click and drag the handles that appear around
the image border while it is selected within the report configuration utility.
Within the folder where any given model resides there will be a subfolder named
"modelname.ds_data" (in this case, "MotorMount.ds_data"). Within this folder, there will be one
numbered subfolder for each design scenario that was built and analyzed. In this case, only the
folder ("1") will exist, since only the first design scenario was used. Finally, within the numbered
design scenario folder there will be a subfolder named "ds_rpt." This folder contains the HTML
report and all of its attachments, style sheet, and table of contents. This folder may be zipped and
sent to anyone who wishes to review the report. They do not need to have the Algor Simulation
software installed on the system in order to review the report. The HTML document may be
opened in a web browser (like Internet Explorer). Merely extract the report and double-click on
the file "modelname.htm" to open it in the default web browser. Note that the report can also be
saved in a variety of other formatsWord 97, Word 2007, PDF (Adobe portable document
format), and RTF (rich text format).

To review a completed archive of this exercise, refer to the file MotorMount.ach in the "Introductory
Example\Results Archive" directory.
SE.16

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise A
FEA Example by Hand
Truss Elements
Objective:

Construct and analyze a system of three trusses supporting a vertical load.

Geometry:

Draw the trusses in the XY plane (Top View).


L = 10 feet
Cross-sectional area = 2 in2
= 45

Loads:

F = 10,000 pounds

Constraints:

Fully fixed at nodes 2, 3 and 4.


Constrain translation in the Z direction at point 1.

Elements:

Truss

Material:

Modulus of elasticity = 30e6 psi

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

SE.17

Exercise A FEA Example by Hand

SE.18

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise A FEA Example by Hand

Solution
Building the Model
Start Autodesk Algor Simulation from the Windows Start menu.
"New"

Select the "New" icon at the left side of the dialog.

Mouse
"Linear: Static Stress with
Linear Material Models "

If the desired analysis type is not already set, click on the


arrow button next to the "Choose analysis type:" field,
select the "Linear" pull-out menu, and choose "Static
Stress with Linear Material Models."

"New"

Press the "New" button.

Exercise A

Type "Exercise A" in the "File name:" field in the "Save


As" dialog. Note the default folder location where the
analysis files will be created. This location can be changed
by navigating to an alternate working folder if desired.

"Save"

Press the "Save" button.

"Geometry: Add: Line"

Access the GEOMETRY pull-down menu and select the


"Add" pull-out menu. Select the "Line" command.

Mouse

Deactivate the "Use as Construction" checkbox.

120<Enter>

Type "120" in the "Y:" field in the "Vertex" section of


the "Define Geometry" dialog and press <Enter> to define
the point (0, 120, 0) as the first vertex.

<Enter>

Press <Enter> to define the origin as the next vertex.

120<Enter>

Type "120" in the "X:" field in the "Vertex" section of


the "Define Geometry" dialog and press <Enter> to define
the point (120, 0, 0) as the next vertex.

<Esc>

Press <Esc> to begin a new line.

<Enter>

Press <Enter> to define the origin as the first vertex.

120<Tab>120<Enter>

Mouse
"View: Orientation: Top
View"

Type "120" in the "X:" field in the "Vertex" section of


the "Define Geometry" dialog, press <Tab>, type "120"
and press <Enter> to define the point (120, 120, 0) as the
final coordinate.
Press the
button in the upper right corner of the "Define
Geometry" dialog to close it.
Access the VIEW pull-down menu and select the
"Orientation" pull-out menu. Select the "Top View"
command.

Defining the Element and Material Data


Mouse

Right-click on the "Element Type" heading for Part 1 in


the tree view.

"Truss"

Select the "Truss" command.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

SE.19

Exercise A FEA Example by Hand


Mouse
"Modify Element
Definition"
2

Right-click on the "Element Definition" heading for Part 1


in the tree view.
Select the "Modify Element Definition" command.
Type "2" in the "Cross-Sectional Area" field.

OK

Click the OK button.

Mouse

Right-click on the "Material" heading for Part 1 in the tree


view.

"Modify Material"

Select the "Modify Material" command.

"Edit Properties"

Press the "Edit Properties" button.

30e6

Type "30e6" in the "Modulus of Elasticity" field.

OK
OK

Click the OK button to close the Element Material


Specification dialog.
Click the OK button to close the Element Material
Selection dialog.

Adding Loads and Constraints


"Selection: Select: Vertices"

Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the


"Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Vertices" command.

Mouse

Click on the vertex at point 1.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Nodal Force"

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Nodal


Force" command.

-10000

Type "-10000" in the "Magnitude" field.

"Y"

Select the "Y" radio button in the "Direction" section.

OK

Click the OK button.

Mouse

With point 1 still selected, right-click again in the display area.

"Add: Nodal Boundary


Condition"

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Nodal


Boundary Condition" command.
Activate the "Tz" checkbox in the "Constrained DOFs"
section.

Mouse
OK

Click the OK button.

Mouse

Click on the vertex at point 2.

<Ctrl>Mouse

Holding down the <Ctrl> key, click on the vertices at points


3 and 4.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Nodal Boundary


Conditions"

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Nodal


Boundary Conditions" command.
Press the "Fixed" button in the "Predefined" section of the
dialog.

"Fixed"
OK

SE.20

Click the OK button.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise A FEA Example by Hand

Running the Analysis

"Analysis: Perform
Analysis"

Access the ANALYSIS pull-down menu and select the


"Perform Analysis" command to run the analysis. At
the completion of the analysis, the program will
automatically transfer to the Results environment.

Viewing the Results

"Results: Displacement: X"

"Results: Displacement: Y"

"Results: Stress: Beam and


Truss: Axial Stress (Local 1
Direction)"
"Inquire: Results"
Mouse
Mouse
Mouse

Access the RESULTS pull-down menu and select the


"Displacement" pull-out menu. Select the "X" command.
The maximum displacement in the X direction is about
0.00414 inches.
Access the RESULTS pull-down menu and select the
"Displacement" pull-out menu. Select the "Y" command.
The maximum displacement in the Y direction is about
-0.01586 inches.
Access the RESULTS pull-down menu and select the
"Stress" pull-out menu. Select the "Beam and Truss"
pull-out menu and select the "Axial Stress (Local 1
Direction)" command.
Access the INQUIRE pull-down menu and select the
"Results" command.
Click on the fixed end of the horizontal truss. The axial
stress should be about -1,036 psi (compression).
Click on the fixed end of the vertical truss. The axial stress
should be about 3,964 psi (tension).
Click on the fixed end of the diagonal truss. The axial
stress should be about 1,464 psi (tension).

To review a completed archive of this exercise, refer to the file Exercise A.ach in the "Exercise A\
Results Archive" directory.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

SE.21

Exercise A FEA Example by Hand

SE.22

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise B
Truss Frame Model
Truss Elements
Objective:

Construct and analyze a frame of truss elements loaded with forces.

Geometry:

Model is built in the XY plane (Top View).


Cross-sectional area = 1 in2

Loads:

A nodal force of 2,000 pounds downward will be applied to point C.


A nodal force of 1,000 pounds downward will be applied to point E.

Constraints:

Fully fixed at point A.


Translation in the Y and Z directions will be constrained at point G.
The rest of the model will be constrained against translation in the Z direction.

Elements:

Truss

Material:

Aluminum 6061-T6

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

SE.23

Exercise B Truss Frame Model

SE.24

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise B Truss Frame Model

Solution
Building the Model
Start Autodesk Algor Simulation from the Windows Start menu.
"New"

Select the "New" icon at the left side of the dialog.

Mouse
"Linear: Static Stress with
Linear Material Models "

If the desired analysis type is not already set, click on the


arrow button next to the "Choose analysis type:" field,
select the "Linear" pull-out menu, and choose "Static
Stress with Linear Material Models."

"New"

Press the "New" button.

Exercise B

Type "Exercise B" in the "File name:" field in the "Save


As" dialog. Note the default folder location where the
analysis files will be created. This location can be changed
by navigating to an alternate working folder if desired.

"Save"

Press the "Save" button.

"View: Orientation: Top


View"
"Geometry: Add: Line"
Mouse
<Enter>
432<Enter>
<Esc>
72<Tab>96<Enter>

360<Tab>96<Enter>

Access the VIEW pull-down menu and select the


"Orientation" pull-out menu. Select the "Top View"
command.
Access the GEOMETRY pull-down menu and select the
"Add" pull-out menu. Select the "Line" command to
bring up the "Define Geometry" dialog.
Deactivate the "Use as Construction" checkbox.
Press <Enter> to accept (0, 0, 0) as the coordinate for the
initial vertex at joint A.
Type "432" in the "X" field and press <Enter> to accept
(432, 0, 0) as the coordinate for joint G.
Press <Esc> to terminate the current line segment and start
a new one.
Type "72" in the "X" field, press <Tab>, type "96" in the
"Y" field and then press <Enter> to accept (72, 96, 0) as
the coordinate for the initial vertex at joint B.
Type "360" in the "X" field, press <Tab>, type "96" in the
"Y" field and then press <Enter> to accept (360, 96, 0) as
the coordinate for the vertex at joint F.

<Esc>

Press <Esc> to terminate the current line segment.

<Esc>

Press <Esc> to exit the line command.

"View: Enclose"

Access the VIEW pull-down menu and select the


"Enclose" command. Your screen should now look like
Figure B1.

NOTE: For images of this model, the "Draw thicker lines" option has been enabled for better visibility
of the trusses. This setting is found under "Tools: Options: Graphics: Miscellaneous."

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

SE.25

Exercise B Truss Frame Model

Figure B1: Adding Line Segments


"Selection: Select: Lines"

Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the


"Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Lines" command.

Mouse

Click on the upper horizontal line.

"Geometry: Tools: Divide"

Access the GEOMETRY pull-down menu and select the


"Tools" pull-out menu. Select the "Divide" command.

OK

Click the OK button to divide the line into two segments.

Mouse

Click on the lower horizontal line.

"Geometry: Tools: Divide"

Access the GEOMETRY pull-down menu and select the


"Tools" pull-out menu. Select the "Divide" command.

Type "3" in the "Number of Lines:" field.

OK
"View: Options: Endpoint
Vertices"
"Geometry: Add: Line"

Mouse

SE.26

Click the OK button to divide the line into three


segments.
Access the VIEW pull-down and select the "Options" pullout menu. Select the "Endpoint Vertices" command.
Blue Xs will appear on the vertices.
Access the GEOMETRY pull-down menu and select the
"Add" pull-out menu. Select the "Line" command to
bring up the "Define Geometry" dialog.
Move the mouse cursor to the left end of the bottom line
segment (joint A) as shown in Figure B2. When the cursor
is in the vicinity of the vertex (i.e. endpoint), a "lock" icon
will appear. When the "lock" icon is visible, click to start a
new line segment at the endpoint.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise B Truss Frame Model

Figure B2: Vertex at Joint A

Mouse

Move the mouse cursor to the left end of the upper line
segment (joint B) as shown in Figure B3. When the "lock"
icon is visible, click to create the next vertex at the existing
endpoint.

Figure B3: Vertex at Joint B


FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

SE.27

Exercise B Truss Frame Model

Mouse

Continue this process, working in a "zigzag" fashion to add


the remaining lines to joints C, D, E, F, and G to complete
the mesh for the truss assembly.

<Esc>

Press <Esc> to terminate the current line segment.

<Esc>

Press <Esc> to exit the line command.

Your screen should now look like Figure B4.

Figure B4: Completed Truss Mesh

Defining the Element and Material Data


Mouse

Right-click on the "Element Type" heading for Part 1 in


the tree view.

"Truss"

Select the "Truss" command.

Mouse

Right-click on the "Element Definition" heading for Part 1


in the tree view.

"Modify Element Definition..."

Select the "Modify Element Definition" command.

Type "1" in the "Cross-Sectional Area" field.

OK

Click the OK button to accept the change.

Mouse

Right-click on the "Material" heading for Part 1 in the tree


view.

"Modify Material"

Select the "Modify Material" command.

"Aluminum 6061-T6; 6061T651"

Highlight the material "Aluminum 6061-T6; 6061-T651"


within the "Aluminum" folder of the "Element Material
Selection" dialog. The associated material properties for
this material are shown in the right half of the dialog.

OK

Click the OK button to accept the selected material.

After assigning the material properties, all red Xs and red text should now be removed from the tree view,
indicating that the elements are completely defined.

SE.28

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise B Truss Frame Model

Adding Loads and Constraints

"Selection: Select: Vertices"

Mouse

Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the


"Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Vertices" command.
This will allow you select vertices.
Click on the vertex at point A. When selected, the vertex
will turn to a magenta color to signify that it is part of the
current selection set.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Nodal Boundary


Condition"

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Nodal


Boundary Condition" command.
Press the "Fixed" button. Note that checkmarks appear in
all six boxes in the "Constrained DOFs" section.
Click the OK button to apply these constraints to the
selected vertex. A red triangle will now appear at the
location of the vertex, indicating that it is fully constrained.

"Fixed"
OK
Mouse

Click on the vertex at point G.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Nodal Boundary


Condition"

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Nodal


Boundary Condition" option.
Activate the "Ty" checkbox in the "Constrained DOFs"
section to constrain the translation in the Y direction.
Activate the "Tz" checkbox in the "Constrained DOFs"
section to constrain the translation in the Z direction.
Click the OK button to apply these constraints. A red
circle will now appear at the location of the vertex,
indicating that it is partially constrained.
Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and select the
"Shape" pull-out menu. Select the "Rectangle"
command. This will allow you to select multiple vertices
with a rectangle selection box.
Draw a box around the entire model except for the vertices
at points A and G (see Figure B5).

Mouse
Mouse
OK

"Selection: Shape: Rectangle"

Mouse

Figure B5: Rectangle Select of Vertices

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

SE.29

Exercise B Truss Frame Model


Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Nodal Boundary


Conditions"

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Nodal


Boundary Conditions" command.
Activate the "Tz" checkbox in the "Constrained DOFs"
to activate the constraint in the Z direction.
Click the OK button to apply these constraints to the
selected vertices.
Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and select the
"Shape" pull-out menu. Select the "Point" command.
This will allow you select an object by clicking on it.

Mouse
OK
"Selection: Shape: Point"
Mouse

Click on the vertex at joint C.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Nodal Force"


-2000
"Y"
OK

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Nodal


Force" command.
Type "-2000" in the "Magnitude" field to specify a force
of 2000 pounds acting in a negative direction.
In the "Direction" section, select the "Y" radio button to
specify that the force will be applied in the Y direction.
Click the OK button to apply the force to the selected
vertex.

Mouse

Click on the vertex at joint E.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Nodal Force"


-1000
"Y"
OK

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Nodal


Force" command.
Type "-1000" in the "Magnitude" field to specify a force
of 1000 pounds acting in a negative direction.
In the "Direction" section, select the "Y" radio button to
specify that the force will be applied in the Y direction.
Click the OK button to apply the force to the selected
vertex.

Analysis

"Analysis:
Perform Analysis"

Access the ANALYSIS pull-down menu and select the


"Perform Analysis" command to run the analysis. At
the completion of the analysis, the program will
automatically transfer to the Results environment.

Viewing the Results


"Results: Displacement:
Magnitude"
"Results Options: Displaced
Model Options"

SE.30

Access the RESULTS pull-down menu and select the


"Displacement" pull-out menu. Select the "Magnitude"
command.
Access the RESULTS OPTIONS pull-down menu and
select the "Displaced Model Options" command to
bring up the "Displaced Model Options" dialog.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise B Truss Frame Model


Select the "Mesh" radio button in the "Show Undisplaced
Model As" section of the dialog.
Press the
button in the upper right corner of the
"Displaced Model Options" dialog to close it. Your
screen should now look similar to the one shown in
Figure B6.

"Mesh"

Mouse

Figure B6: Displacement Results


"Results: Element Forces and
Moments: 1) Axial Force"
"Display Options: Show
Element Numbers"
"Inquire: Results"

Mouse
"Close"

Access the RESULTS pull-down menu and select the


"Element Forces and Moments" pull-out menu. Select
the "1) Axial Force" command.
Access the DISPLAY OPTIONS pull-down menu and
select the "Show Element Numbers" command. Note that
the truss element connecting joints C and D is number 8.
Access the INQUIRE pull-down menu and select the
"Results" command to bring up the "Inquire: Results"
dialog.
Click on the node at joint D. The "Inquire: Results"
dialog indicates that the axial force for element number 8 is
416.667 lbf ,as shown in Figure B7.
Press the "Close" button to close the "Inquire: Results"
dialog.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

SE.31

Exercise B Truss Frame Model

Figure B7: Inquire Results Dialog


Validation of Results
The force in truss CD can be verified using the method of sections.
First, the vertical reaction force at joint A is determined by summing the moments about joint G.
Mz = 0
1000(144) + 2000(288) - RA(432) = 0
RA = 1666.667 lbs.
Then, the truss assembly is sectioned though trusses BD, CD, and CE and the vertical forces are balanced.
Fy = 0
1666.667 2000 + FCD(8/10) = 0
FCD = 416.667 lbs.
Comparison of Results
Theoretical

Algor
Simulation

% Difference

416.667

416.667

0.00%

This completes the exercise. To review a completed archive of this exercise, refer to the file Exercise B.ach
in the "Exercise B\Results Archive" directory.

SE.32

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise C
Support Beam under Gravity
Beam Elements
Objective:

Determine the maximum deflection of the beam due to its own weight.

Geometry:

The beam is parallel to the X axis.


Cross-section: W10 x 100.

Loads:

Gravity is applied in the -Y direction.

Constraints:

Far end is constrained against all degrees of freedom except for rotation about the Z axis.
Near end is constrained against all degrees of freedom except for translation in the
X-direction and rotation about the Z axis.

Elements:

Beam

Material:

Steel (AISI 4130)

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

SE.33

Exercise C Support Beam Under Gravity

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FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise C Support Beam Under Gravity

Solution
Building the Model
Start Autodesk Algor Simulation from the Windows Start menu.
"New"

Select the "New" icon at the left side of the dialog.

Mouse
"Linear: Static Stress with
Linear Material Models "

If the desired analysis type is not already set, click on the


arrow button next to the "Choose analysis type:" field,
select the "Linear" pull-out menu, and choose "Static
Stress with Linear Material Models."

"New"

Press the "New" button.

Exercise C

Type "Exercise C" in the "File name:" field in the "Save


As" dialog. Note the default folder location where the
analysis files will be created. This location can be changed
by navigating to an alternate working folder if desired.

"Save"

Press the "Save" button.

"View: Orientation: Top


View"
"Geometry: Add: Line"
Mouse
<Enter>
480<Enter>

Access the VIEW pull-down menu and select the


"Orientation" pull-out menu. Select the "Top View"
command.
Access the GEOMETRY pull-down menu and select the
"Add" pull-out menu. Select the "Line" command to
bring up the "Define Geometry" dialog.
Deselect the Use as Construction checkbox.
Press <Enter> to accept (0, 0, 0) as the coordinate for the
initial vertex.
Type "480" in the "X:" field and press <Enter> to accept
(480, 0, 0) as the coordinate for the next vertex.

<Esc>

Press <Esc> to terminate the current line segment.

<Esc>

Press <Esc> to exit the line command.

"View: Enclose"
"Selection: Select: Lines"
Mouse
"Geometry: Tools: Divide"
10
OK

Access the VIEW pull-down and select the "Enclose"


command.
Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the
"Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Lines" command.
Click on the line that was just created to select it.
Access the GEOMETRY pull-down menu and select the
"Tools" pull-out menu. Select the "Divide" command to
bring up the "Divide Lines" dialog.
Type "10" in the "Number of Lines:" field in the "Divide
Lines" dialog.
Click the OK button to divide the single line segment
into 10 line segments.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

SE.35

Exercise C Support Beam Under Gravity

Defining the Element and Material Data


Mouse

Right-click on the "Element Type" heading for Part 1 in


the tree view.

"Beam"

Select the "Beam" option.

Mouse

Right-click on the "Element Definition" heading for Part 1


in the tree view.

"Modify Element Definition..."

Select the "Modify Element Definition" command.

Mouse

In the "Element Definition" dialog, click anywhere in the


"Layer 1" row to select it.

"Cross-Section Libraries"

Press the "Cross-Section Libraries" button.

"aisc2005"

In the "Cross-Section Libraries" dialog, select the


"aisc2005" option in the "Section database:" drop-down
box.

"W"

Select the "W" option in the "Section type:" drop-down box.

w10

Type "w10" in the "Section name:" field to automatically


scroll down to the start of the W10 cross-sections.

"W10X100"

Select the "W10X100" item in the "Section name:" area.

OK
OK
Mouse

Click the OK button to accept the properties and close


the "Cross-Section Libraries" dialog.
Click the OK button to accept the changes and close the
"Element Definition" dialog.
Right-click on the "Material" heading for Part 1 in the tree
view.

"Modify Material"

Select the "Modify Material" command.

"Steel (AISI 4130)"

Highlight the "Steel (AISI 4130)" item within the Steel


folder of the Autodesk Algor Material Library. The
properties of the selected material will appear in the right
side of the Element Material Selection dialog.

OK

Click the OK button to accept the selected material.

After assigning the material properties, all red Xs and red text should now be removed from the tree view,
indicating that the elements are completely defined.

Adding Loads and Constraints


"Selection: Select: Vertices"

Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the


"Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Vertices" command.

Mouse

Click on the vertex at the left end of the beam.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Nodal Boundary


Condition"

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Nodal


Boundary Condition" command.
Press the "Fixed" button in the "Predefined" section of the
dialog.
Deactivate the "Rz" checkbox in the "Constrained DOFs"
section of the dialog.

"Fixed"
Mouse
SE.36

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise C Support Beam Under Gravity

OK

Click the OK button to apply the constraints to the


selected vertex. A red circle will now appear, indicating that
the vertex is partially constrained.

Mouse

Click on the vertex at the right end of the beam.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Nodal Boundary


Condition"

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Nodal


Boundary Condition" command.

"Fixed"

Press the "Fixed" button.

Mouse

Deactivate the "Tx" and "Rz" checkboxes.

OK

Mouse

"Set for standard gravity"


-1
0

Click the OK button to apply the constraints to the


selected vertex.
Expand the "Analysis Type" branch in the tree view by
clicking on the plus sign to the left of the icon (if it is not
already expanded). Double-click on the "Gravity/
Acceleration" heading.
Press the "Set for standard gravity" button to automatically
apply the standard acceleration due to gravity constant.
Type "-1" in the "Y multiplier" field to indicate that
gravity will act in the negative Y direction.
Type "0" in the "Z multiplier" field to disable gravity
from acting in the Z direction.

OK

Click the OK button to accept the changes.

"Yes"

Press the "Yes" button to set the gravity multiplier.

Analysis

"Analysis: Perform
Analysis"

Access the ANALYSIS pull-down menu and select the


"Perform Analysis" command to run the analysis. At
the completion of the analysis, the program will
automatically transfer to the Results environment.

Viewing the Results


"View: Orientation: Top
View"

Mouse

"View: Display: Shaded with


Mesh"

"Results: Displacement:
Magnitude"

Access the VIEW pull-down menu and select the


"Orientation" pull-out menu. Select the "Top View"
command.
Use the ViewCube to reposition the model for a Y-up
isometric view of the beam. Specifically, click just inside the
upper-right corner of the "Top" face of the cube. A light blue
square at the corner will mark the proper clicking zone.
Access the VIEW pull-down menu and select the
"Display" pull-out menu. Choose the "Shaded with
Mesh" command to enhance the 3-D visualization of the
beam shape.
Access the RESULTS pull-down menu and select the
"Displacement" pull-out menu. Select the "Magnitude"
command. The maximum displacement is indicated as 0.305
in, as shown in Figure C1.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

SE.37

Exercise C Support Beam Under Gravity

Figure C1: Displacement Results


"Selection: Shape: Rectangle"
"Selection: Select: Elements"
Mouse
"Inquire: Add Shear Diagrams
(Axis 2)"
"Results: Element Forces and
Moments: Local 2 Force"

Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and select the


"Shape" pull-out menu. Select the "Rectangle" command.
Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the
"Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Elements" command.
Draw a box enclosing the entire model.
Access the INQUIRE pull-down menu and select the "Add
Shear Diagrams (Axis 2)" command to display the shear
diagram.
Access the RESULTS pull-down menu and select the
"Element Forces and Moments" pull-out menu. Choose
the "Local 2 Force" command.

The element force results in the local 2 direction and the shear diagram for the same direction should now
appear as shown in Figure C2.

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FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise C Support Beam Under Gravity

Figure C2: Shear Diagram

"Inquire: Clear Beam


Diagrams"
"Inquire: Add Moment
Diagrams (Axis 3)"
"Results: Element Forces and
Moments: Local 3 Moment"

With the beam elements still selected, access the INQUIRE


pull-down menu and select the "Clear Beam Diagrams"
command to remove the display of the shear diagram.
Access the INQUIRE pull-down menu and select the "Add
Moment Diagrams (Axis 3)" to display the moment
diagram as shown in Figure C3.
Access the RESULTS pull-down menu and select the
"Element Forces and Moments" pull-out menu. Choose
the "Local 3 Moment" command.

The element moment results about axis 3 and the corresponding moment diagram should now appear as
shown in Figure C3.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

SE.39

Exercise C Support Beam Under Gravity

Figure C3: Moment Diagram

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FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise C Support Beam Under Gravity

Validation of Results
Reference
Marks Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, Tenth Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1996, page 5-23,
Table 5.2.2.
Theoretical Solution

f is the maximum displacement for a simply supported beam with a uniform load.

5Wl 3
384 EI

f =

The actual total load from gravity can be calculated as follows:


W = (cross-sectional area)(mass density)(gravitational constant)(beam
length)
W = (29.4)(0.000732)(386.4)(480)
W = 3991.5 lb *
* Note that this differs slightly from the nominal specific weight of
the beam times its length (100 lb/ft. * 40 ft. = 4,000 lb.)

Variable

Value

Units

Comments

W
l
E
I

3991.5
480
30E6
623

lb
in
lb/in2
in4

Calculated total load


Length of beam
Modulus of elasticity
Moment of inertia

Comparison of Results
Theoretical

Algor
Simulation

% Difference

0.30753

0.30507

0.8%

This completes the exercise. To review a completed archive of this exercise, refer to the file Exercise C.ach in
the "Exercise C\Results Archive" directory.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

SE.41

Exercise C Support Beam Under Gravity

SE.42

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise D
Axisymmetric Thick-Walled Cylinder
2-D Elements
Objective:

Determine the hoop stress at the inner radius of the cylinder from the applied pressure
load.

Geometry:

Model is built in the YZ plane (Right View).


The axis of the cylinder is parallel to the Z axis.
Cross-sectional area = 24 in2.

Loads:

Uniform internal pressure of 10,000 psi.

Constraints:

The bottom surface will be constrained against translation in the Z direction.

Elements:

2-D Axisymmetric

Material:

Steel (AISI 4130)

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

SE.43

Exercise D Axisymmetric Thick-walled Cylinder

SE.44

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise D Axisymmetric Thick-walled Cylinder

Solution
Building the Model
Start Autodesk Algor Simulation from the Windows Start menu. The mesh for the 2-D elements will
be generated from a sketch in the FEA Editor environment.
"New"

Select the "New" icon at the left side of the dialog.

Mouse
"Linear: Static Stress with
Linear Material Models "

If the desired analysis type is not already set, click on the


arrow button next to the "Choose analysis type:" field,
select the "Linear" pull-out menu, and choose "Static
Stress with Linear Material Models."

"New"

Press the "New" button.

Exercise D

Type "Exercise D" in the "File name:" field in the "Save


As" dialog. Note the default folder location where the
analysis files will be created. This location can be changed
by navigating to an alternate working folder if desired.

"Save"

Press the "Save" button.

Mouse

Right-click on the "Plane 2 < YZ(+X) >" heading in the


tree view.

"Sketch"

Select the "Sketch" command.

"Geometry: Add:
Rectangle"

Access the GEOMETRY pull-down menu and select the


"Add" pull-out menu. Select the "Rectangle" command.
Type "7" in the "Y:" field and press <Enter> to define the
point (0, 7, 0) as the first corner of the rectangle.
Type "10" in the "Y:" field, press <Tab>, type "8, and
press <Enter> to define the point (0, 10, 8) as the opposite
corner.

7 <Enter>
10 <Tab> 8 <Enter>
"Apply"

Press the "Apply" button.

<Esc>

Press <Esc> to exit the rectangle command.

"View: Enclose"
Mouse

Access the VIEW pull-down menu and select the


"Enclose" command.
Right-click on the "Plane 2 < YZ(+X) >" heading in the
tree view.

"Sketch"

Deselect the "Sketch" command.

Mouse

Right-click on the "1 < YZ(+X) >" heading in the tree view
under Part 1.

"Create 2D Mesh"

Select the "Create 2D Mesh" command.

"Apply"

Press the "Apply" button.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

SE.45

Exercise D Axisymmetric Thick-walled Cylinder

Defining the Element and Material Data


Mouse

Right-click on the "Element Type" heading for Part 1 in


the tree view.

"2-D'

Select the "2-D"' command.

Mouse

Right-click on the "Element Definition" heading for Part 1


in the tree view.

"Modify Element Definition..."

Select the "Modify Element Definition..." command.

"Axisymmetric"

In the "Element Definition" dialog, select the


"Axisymmetric" option in the "Geometry Type" dropdown box.

OK

Click the OK button to accept the change.

Mouse

Right-click on the "Material" heading for Part 1 in the tree


view.

"Modify Material"

Select the "Modify Material" command.

"Steel (AISI 4130)"

Highlight the material, "Steel (AISI 4130)", from the list of


available materials within the Steel folder. The properties
of this material can be seen in the right side of the dialog.

OK

Click the OK button to accept the selected material.

After assigning the material properties, all red Xs and red text should now be removed from the tree view.

Adding Loads and Constraints


"Selection: Select: Surfaces"
Mouse
Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Surface Boundary


Conditions"

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Surface


Boundary Conditions" command.
Activate the "Tz" checkbox in the "Constrained DOFs"
section to add the constraint in the Z direction.
Click the OK button to apply these constraints to the
selected vertices. A red circle will appear on each vertex
along the bottom to indicate that it is partially constrained.

Mouse
OK

SE.46

Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the


"Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Surfaces" command.
Select the bottom surface of the model. The chain of lines
along the bottom edge of the mesh should turn magenta.

Mouse

Click on the left vertical edge of the rectangle.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Surface
Pressure/Traction"
10000

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Surface


Pressure/Traction" command.

OK

Click the OK button to apply the pressure.

Type "10000" in the "Magnitude" field.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise D Axisymmetric Thick-walled Cylinder

Running the Analysis

"Analysis: Perform
Analysis"

Mouse

Access the ANALYSIS pull-down menu and select the


"Perform Analysis" command to run the analysis. At
the completion of the analysis, the program will
automatically transfer to the Results environment.
Click the "Toggle Load and Constraint Display" toolbar
button to turn off the display of these items, if they are not
already hidden.

Results Evaluation and Presentation


The hoop stress is in the tangential (X) direction, which is normal to the plane formed by the radial (Y) and
axial (Z) directions.

"Results: Stress: Stress


Tensor: 1) XX"

Access the RESULTS pull-down menu and select the


"Stress" pull-out menu. Select the "Stress Tensor" pullout menu and select the "1) XX" command. Your screen
should now look like Figure D1.

Figure D1: Hoop Stress Results


To compare the results with the theoretical value, the hoop stress should be obtained from a node at a
distance removed from free ends or constraints. This will avoid local effects, which the theoretical solution
does not take into account. When comparing FEA results with closed form solutions, it is important to be
aware of any assumptions or limitations of the theoretical solution. We will inquire on the nodal stresses at
the mid-height of the ring (that is, at Z = 4).
FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

SE.47

Exercise D Axisymmetric Thick-walled Cylinder

Access the INQUIRE pull-down menu and select the


"Results" command to bring up the "Inquire: Results"
dialog.
Click on the node at the middle of the inner radius. The
"Inquire: Results" dialog indicates that node number 71,
at coordinates (0, 7, 4), has a stress value of approximately
29,188 psi.
Click on the node at the middle of the outer radius. The
"Inquire: Results" dialog indicates that node number 30,
at coordinates (0, 10, 4), has a stress value of approximately
19,208 psi.
Press the "Close" button to close the "Inquire: Results"
dialog.

"Inquire: Results"

Mouse

Mouse

"Close"

Validation of Results
Reference
Roark, R. J. and Young, W. C., Roark's Formulas for Stress and Strain, Fifth Edition, New York, McGrawHill, 1975, page 504, Table 32, Case 1A.
Theoretical Solution
2 is the normal stress in the hoop or tangential direction at radius r.

qb 2 a 2 + r 2
2 = 2 2 2
r a b

Variable

Value

Units

Comments

a
b
q
r

10
7
10,000
-

in.
in.
psi
in.

Outer radius
Inner radius
Internal pressure
Radial location at which
results are calculated.

For r = 7": 2 = 29,216 psi. For r = 10: 2 = 19,216 psi.


Comparison of Results
r

Theoretical

Algor
Simulation

% Difference

29,216

29,188

-0.10%

10

19,216

19,208

-0.04%

This completes the exercise. To review a completed archive of this exercise, refer to the file Exercise D.ach in
the "Exercise D\Results Archive" directory.

SE.48

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise E
Plate under Uniform Pressure
Plate Elements
Objective:

Determine the maximum stress in the plate from the applied pressure load. Use the
4 Point structured meshing tool to make the plate.

Geometry:

Model is built in the XY plane (Top View) with the long side parallel to the X axis.
Plate is 10" x 5" x 0.25".

Loads:

Uniform pressure of 50 psi

Constraints:

The two long edges will be constrained against translation in the Y and Z directions and
rotation in the Z direction.
One of the short edges will be constrained against translation in the X and Z directions.

Elements:

Plate

Material:

Steel (AISI 4130)

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

SE.49

Exercise E Plate Under Uniform Pressure

SE.50

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise E Plate Under Uniform Pressure

Solution
Building the Model
Start Autodesk Algor Simulation from the Windows Start menu.
"New"

Select the "New" icon at the left side of the dialog.

Mouse
"Linear: Static Stress with
Linear Material Models "

If the desired analysis type is not already set, click on the


arrow button next to the "Choose analysis type:" field,
select the "Linear" pull-out menu, and choose "Static
Stress with Linear Material Models."

"New"

Press the "New" button.

Exercise E

Type "Exercise E" in the "File name:" field in the "Save


As" dialog. Note the default folder location where the
analysis files will be created. This location can be changed
by navigating to an alternate working folder if desired.

"Save"

Press the "Save" button.

"Mesh: Structured Mesh: 4


Point Rectangular"

Access the MESH pull-down menu and select the


"Structured Mesh" pull-out menu. Select the "4 Point
Rectangular" command.

20

Type "20" in the "AB:" field.

10

Type "10" in the "BC:" field.

<Enter>

Press <Enter> to define the origin as the first point.

10 <Enter>
10 <Tab> 5 <Enter>
5 <Enter>

Type "10" in the "X:" field and press <Enter> to define


the point (10 ,0, 0) as the second point.
Type "10" in the "X:" field, press <Tab>, type "5, and
press <Enter> to define the point (10, 5, 0) as the third point.
Type "5" in the "Y:" field and press <Enter> to define the
point (0, 5, 0) as the fourth point.

"Apply"

Press the "Apply" button to create the mesh.

<Esc>

Press <Esc> to exit the mesh command.

"View: Orientation: Top


View"

Access the VIEW pull-down menu and select the


"Orientation" pull-out menu. Select the "Top View"
command. The mesh will appear as shown in Figure E1.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

SE.51

Exercise E Plate Under Uniform Pressure

Figure E1: Plate Element Mesh

Defining the Element and Material Data


Mouse

Right-click on the "Element Type" heading for Part 1 in


the tree view.

"Plate"

Select the "Plate" command.

Mouse

Right-click on the "Element Definition" heading for Part 1


in the tree view.

"Modify Element
Definition"

Select the "Modify Element Definition..." command.

0.25
100
OK
Mouse

In the "Element Definition" dialog, type "0.25" in the


"Thickness" field.
Type "100" in the "Normal Point (Z)" field. This will be
used to control the direction of the uniform pressure load.
Click the OK button to accept the change and close the
dialog.
Right-click on the "Material" heading for Part 1 in the tree
view.

"Modify Material"

Select the "Modify Material" command.

"Steel (AISI 4130)"

Highlight the material, "Steel (AISI 4130)", from the list of


available materials within the Steel folder.

OK

Click the OK button to accept the selected material.

After assigning the material properties, all red Xs should now be removed from the tree view.

SE.52

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise E Plate Under Uniform Pressure

Adding Loads and Constraints


"Selection: Select: Vertices"

Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the


"Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Vertices" command.

Mouse

Click on the vertex at the bottom left corner of the plate.

<Ctrl> Mouse

Holding down the <Ctrl> key, click on the vertex at the


upper left corner of the plate to add it to the selection set.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Nodal Boundary


Conditions"

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Nodal


Boundary Conditions" command.
Press the "Pinned" button to activate the translation
constraints in the X, Y, and Z directions.
Click the OK button to apply these constraints to the
selected vertices. A red circle will appear on each vertex to
indicate that it is partially constrained.
Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and select the
"Shape" pull-out menu. Select the "Rectangle" command.
Draw a box enclosing all of the vertices along the top edge
except for the one at the upper left corner (see Figure E2).

"Pinned"
OK
"Selection: Shape: Rectangle"
Mouse

Figure E2: Rectangle Select of Upper Vertices

<Ctrl>Mouse

Holding down the <Ctrl> key, draw a box enclosing all of


the vertices along the bottom edge except for the one at the
lower left corner.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Nodal Boundary


Conditions"

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Nodal


Boundary Conditions" command.
Activate the "Ty" checkbox in the "Constrained DOFs"
section to constrain the translation in the Y direction.

Mouse

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

SE.53

Exercise E Plate Under Uniform Pressure


Mouse
Mouse
OK
Mouse

Activate the "Tz" checkbox in the "Constrained DOFs"


section to constrain the translation in the Z direction.
Activate the "Rz" checkbox in the "Constrained DOFs"
section to constrain the rotation in the Z direction.
Click the OK button to apply these constraints to the
selected vertices.
Draw a box enclosing the left edge except for the lower left
and upper left corners.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Nodal Boundary


Conditions"

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Nodal


Boundary Conditions" command.
Activate the "Tx" checkbox in the "Constrained DOFs"
section to constrain the translation in the X direction.
Activate the "Tz" checkbox in the "Constrained DOFs"
section to constrain the translation in the Z direction.
Click the OK button to apply these constraints to the
selected vertices.
Click on the + next to the "Surfaces" heading for Part 1 in
the tree view to expand this branch.
Right-click on the "Surface 1" heading for Part 1 in the
tree view.
Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Surface
Pressure/Traction" command.

Mouse
Mouse
OK
Mouse
Mouse
"Add: Surface
Pressure/Traction"
50
OK

Type "50" in the "Magnitude" field.


Click the OK button to apply the pressure.

Analysis

"Analysis:
Perform Analysis"

Access the ANALYSIS pull-down menu and select the


"Perform Analysis" command to run the analysis. At
the completion of the analysis, the program will
automatically transfer to the Results environment.

Viewing the Results


The maximum stress is in a direction parallel to the free edge, which for this example is the Y direction.
"View: Orientation: Isometric
View"
"Results: Stress: Stress
Tensor: 2) YY"

Mouse

SE.54

Access the VIEW pull-down menu and select the


"Orientation" pull-out menu. Select the "Isometric
View" command.
Access the RESULTS pull-down menu and select the
"Stress" pull-out menu. Select the "Stress Tensor" pullout menu and select the "2) YY" command. The maximum
stress is indicated as 15,772 psi.
To verify the location of boundary conditions and the
orientation of the pressure, press the "Toggle Load and
Constraint Display" toolbar button near the bottom of the
screen. Your screen should now look similar to the one
shown in Figure E3.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise E Plate Under Uniform Pressure

Figure E3: Stress Tensor Results

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

SE.55

Exercise E Plate Under Uniform Pressure

Validation of Results
Reference
Roark, R. J. and Young, W. C., Roark's Formulas for Stress and Strain, Fifth Edition, New York, McGrawHill, 1975, page 389, Table 26, Case 2A.
Theoretical Solution
max is parallel to the free edge.

max =

Bqb 2
= 15,800 psi
t2

Variable

Value

Units

Comments

a
b
q
t
B

10
5
50
0.25
0.79

in.
in.
psi
in.
-

Length of long side


Length of short side
Uniform pressure
Thickness
Parameter from
reference based on
a/b ratio of 2.

Comparison of Results
Theoretical

Algor
Simulation

% Difference

15,800

15,772

0.18%

This completes the exercise. To review a completed archive of this exercise, refer to the file Exercise E.ach
in the "Exercise E\Results Archive" directory.

SE.56

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise F
Cantilever Beam Model
Brick Elements
Objective:

Determine the maximum bending stress in the beam from the applied load.

Geometry:

Loads:

10,000 pounds will be applied downward at the free end of the beam. This should be
distributed between the nodes in the center horizontal row. The two end nodes will have
half the force that is applied to the other nodes.

Constraints:

The center row of nodes (running in the Y-direction) at the fixed end will be fully
constrained. The remaining nodes at the fixed end will be constrained only against
translation in the X-direction.

Elements:

Brick

Material:

Steel (AISI 4130)

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

SE.57

Exercise F Cantilever Beam Model

SE.58

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise F Cantilever Beam Model

Solution
Building the Model
Start Autodesk Algor Simulation from the Windows Start menu.
"New"

Select the "New" icon at the left side of the dialog.

Mouse
"Linear: Static Stress with
Linear Material Models "

If the desired analysis type is not already set, click on the


arrow button next to the "Choose analysis type:" field,
select the "Linear" pull-out menu, and choose "Static
Stress with Linear Material Models."

"New"

Press the "New" button.

Exercise F

Type "Exercise F" in the "File name:" field in the "Save


As" dialog. Note the default folder location where the
analysis files will be created. This location can be changed
by navigating to an alternate working folder if desired.

"Save"

Press the "Save" button.

We will create a mesh with four elements across the width of the cantilever cross-section and six elements
across the height of the cross-section. Since the bending stresses vary, and in fact reverse, across the crosssection height, the higher element count in this direction will help to ensure that these bending stresses are
accurately captured. We will then extrude the cross-sectional mesh into a solid mesh, using twenty-four
elements along the length of the cantilever.
"Mesh: Structured Mesh: 4
Point Rectangular"

Access the MESH pull-down menu and select the


"Structured Mesh" pull-out menu. Select the "4 Point
Rectangular" command.

Type "4" in the "AB:" field.

Type "6" in the "BC:" field.

<Enter>

Press <Enter> to define the origin as the first point.

4 <Enter>
4 <Tab> 4 <Enter>
4 <Enter>

Type "4" in the "Y:" field and press <Enter> to define the
point (0, 4, 0) as the second point.
Type "4" in the "Y:" field, press <Tab>, type "4, and
press <Enter> to define the point (0, 4, 4) as the third point.
Type "4" in the "Z:" field and press <Enter> to define the
point (0, 0, 4) as the fourth point.

"Apply"

Press the "Apply" button to create the mesh.

<Esc>

Press <Esc> to exit the mesh command.

"View: Orientation: Right


View"

Access the VIEW pull-down menu and select the


"Orientation" pull-out menu. Select the "Right View"
command. The mesh will appear as shown in Figure F1.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

SE.59

Exercise F Cantilever Beam Model

Figure F1: Four-Point Rectangular Mesh


Mouse

Right-click on the "4-Point Mesh 1" heading in the tree view.

"Move or Copy"

Select the "Move or Copy" command.

Mouse

Activate the "Copy" checkbox.

24

Type "24" in the "Copy" field.

Mouse

Activate the "Join" checkbox.

24

Type "24" in the "Total distance" field.

OK

Click the OK button to perform the operation.

"View: Orientation: Isometric


View"

Access the VIEW pull-down menu and select the


"Orientation" pull-out menu. Select the "Isometric View"
command. The model should appear as shown in Figure F2.

Figure F2: Brick Mesh


SE.60

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise F Cantilever Beam Model


Note that the solid mesh could also have been constructed using the 8 Point 3-D structured meshing tool.

Defining the Element and Material Data


Mouse

Right-click on the "Element Type" heading for Part 1 in


the tree view.

"Brick"

Select the "Brick" command.

Mouse

Right-click on the "Material" heading for Part 1 in the tree


view.

"Modify Material"

Select the "Modify Material" command.

"Steel (AISI 4130)"

Highlight the material, "Steel (AISI 4130)", from the list of


available materials within the "Steel" folder.

OK

Click the OK button to accept the selected material.

After assigning the material properties, all red Xs and red text should now be gone from the tree view.

Adding Loads and Constraints


"View: Orientation: Front
View"
"Selection: Shape: Rectangle"
"Selection: Select: Vertices"
Mouse

To get a profile of the ends of the beam, access the VIEW


pull-down menu and select the "Orientation" pull-out
menu. Select the "Front View" command.
Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the
"Shape" pull-out menu. Select the "Rectangle"
command.
Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the
"Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Vertices" command.
Draw a box around the top three rows of vertices at the left
end of the model to select them (see Figure F3).

Figure F3: Rectangle Select of Vertices

<Ctrl>Mouse

Holding down the <Ctrl> key, draw a box around the bottom
three rows of vertices at the left end of the model to also
select these. Only the middle row should remain unselected.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Nodal Boundary


Conditions"

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Nodal


Boundary Conditions" command.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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SE.61

Exercise F Cantilever Beam Model


Mouse
OK
Mouse

Activate the "Tx" checkbox in the "Constrained DOFs"


section.
Click the OK button to apply this constraint to the
selected vertices.
Draw a box around the center row of vertices at the left end
of the model.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Nodal Boundary


Conditions"

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Nodal


Boundary Conditions" command.

"Fixed"

Press the "Fixed" button to activate all constraints.

OK
"View: Orientation: Isometric
View"
"Selection: Shape: Point"
Mouse
<Ctrl> Mouse
Mouse
"Add: Nodal Forces"
-1250
"Z"
OK
Mouse
<Ctrl> Mouse
Mouse
"Add: Nodal Forces"
-2500
"Z"
OK

Click the OK button to apply these constraints to the


selected vertices. A red triangle will appear on each vertex
to indicate that it is fully constrained.
Access the VIEW pull-down menu and select the
"Orientation" pull-out menu. Select the "Isometric
View" command.
Access the "Selection" pull-down menu and select the
"Shape" pull-out menu. Select the "Point" command.
Click on the vertex at the left side of the center row of
vertices at the free end (the face opposite of the end with the
boundary conditions).
Holding down the <Ctrl> key, click on the vertex at the
right side of the center row of vertices at the free end.
Right-click in the display area.
Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Nodal
Forces" command.
Type "-1250" in the "Magnitude" field to specify a force
of 1250 pounds acting in a negative direction.
In the "Direction" section, select the "Z" radio button to
specify that the force will be applied in the Z direction.
Click the OK button to apply the forces to the selected
vertices.
Click on one of the 3 vertices between the two vertices with
the nodal forces.
Holding down the <Ctrl> key, click on the other two
vertices in between the two vertices with the nodal forces.
Right-click in the display area.
Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Nodal
Forces" command.
Type "-2500" in the "Magnitude" field to specify a force
of 2500 pounds acting in a negative direction.
In the "Direction" section, select the "Z" radio button to
specify that the force will be applied in the Z direction.
Click the OK button to apply the forces to the selected
vertices. The model should now appear as shown in
Figure F4.

Note that the total force is 10,000 lbf and that the edge node forces are half the magnitude of the interior
node forces (-1,250 = -2,500/2) and (2 * -1,250 + 3 * -2,500 = -10,000).

SE.62

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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Exercise F Cantilever Beam Model

Figure F4: Completed Brick Element Model

Analysis

"Analysis:
Perform Analysis"

Access the ANALYSIS pull-down menu and select the


"Perform Analysis" command to run the analysis. At
the completion of the analysis, the program will
automatically transfer to the Results environment.

Viewing the Results


We will look at the stress tensor in the X-direction, since this is the direction of the bending stress for
this cantilever. The stress inquiry will be performed at a node far removed from the beam corners to
avoid local effects.

"Results: Stress: Stress


Tensor: 1) XX"

Access the RESULTS pull-down menu and select the


"Stress" pull-out menu. Select the "Stress Tensor" pullout menu and select the "1) XX" command. The maximum
stress is indicated as 22,321 psi as shown in Figure F5.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

SE.63

Exercise F Cantilever Beam Model

Figure F5: Stress Tensor Results

"Inquire: Results"

Mouse

SE.64

Access the INQUIRE pull-down menu and select the


"Results" command to bring up the "Inquire: Results"
dialog.
Click on the node at the top middle of the constrained end
which is highlighted in Figure F6. The "Inquire: Results"
dialog indicates that the stress for node number 15 at (0, 2, 4)
is 22,099 psi.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise F Cantilever Beam Model

Figure F6: Inquire Results Dialog

Mouse

"Close"

Click on the nodes at (1, 2, 4), (2, 2, 4), (3, 2, 4), (4, 2, 4),
(5, 2, 4) and (6, 2, 4) down the middle of the beam to obtain
the stress values at each node. These values will be used in
the validation of the results in the next section.
Press the "Close" button to close the "Inquire: Results"
dialog.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

SE.65

Exercise F Cantilever Beam Model

Validation of Results
Reference
Mischke, C. R. and Shigley, J. E., Mechanical Engineering Design, Fifth Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1989,
page 44.
Theoretical Solution
M = FL = 10,000 * 24 = 240,000 in.lb.

bending =

Mc
= 22,500 psi
I

Variable

Value

Units

Comments

240,000

in.lb.

Bending moment

in.

21.333

in.4

Distance to neutral
axis
Moment of inertia
(I = bh3/12)

Comparison of Results
Theoretical
(psi)

Algor
Simulation
(psi)

%
Difference

22,500

22,424

-0.34%

This completes the exercise. To review a completed archive of this exercise, refer to the file Exercise F.ach
in the Exercise F\Results Archive directory.

SE.66

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise G
Comparing Element Types
Beam, 2-D, Plate and Brick Elements
Objective:

Analyze a beam model using different element types and compare the results.

Geometry:

Loads: 100 psi downward along the top.


Constraints:

Fixed at left end and simply supported at right end.

Elements:

2-D:

The pressure is applied as a 100 psi surface load along the top edge.

Beam: Convert the 100 psi load over the 0.25 in width to a 25 lb/in distributed load.
Plate:

Model the 10" x 0.5" dimensions and enter a thickness of 0.25". The pressure
must be converted to forces on the top edge as follows:
(Length/# elements along edge) * Width * Pressure = Force
Force/2 located at the end (i.e., corner) nodes

Material:

Plate:

Model the 10" x 0.25" dimensions and enter a thickness of 0.5". The pressure is
applied as a -100 psi traction load in the Z direction.

Brick:

The pressure is applied as a 100 psi surface load.

Steel (AISI 4130)

Note: This exercise must be performed using two design scenarios or two different analysis models. The
2-D element model must be analyzed separately from the rest of the models because 2-D elements cannot
be included in any model that has nodes outside of the YZ plane (X=0).

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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SE.67

Exercise G Comparing Element Types

SE.68

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise G Comparing Element Types

Solution
Building the 2-D Model
Start Autodesk Algor Simulation from the Windows Start menu.
"New"

Select the "New" icon at the left side of the dialog.

Mouse
"Linear: Static Stress with
Linear Material Models "

If the desired analysis type is not already set, click on the


arrow button next to the "Choose analysis type:" field,
select the "Linear" pull-out menu, and choose "Static
Stress with Linear Material Models."

"New"

Press the "New" button.

Exercise G

Type "Exercise G" in the "File name:" field in the "Save


As" dialog. Note the default folder location where the
analysis files will be created. This location can be changed
by navigating to an alternate working folder if desired.

"Save"

Press the "Save" button.

Mouse
"Rename"
2-D Model

Right-click on the "Design Scenario 1" heading in the tree


view and select the "Rename" command.

OK

Click the OK button.

"Mesh: Structured Mesh:


4 Point Rectangular"

Access the MESH pull-down menu and select the


"Structured Mesh" pull-out menu. Select the "4 Point
Rectangular" command.

34

Type "34" in the "AB:" field.

Type "4" in the "BC:" field.

1<Enter>
<Tab>10<Tab>1<Enter>

<Tab>10<Tab>1.5<Enter>
<Tab><Tab>1.5<Enter>

Type "2-D Model" in the "Description" field.

Type "1" in the "Z:" field and press enter to define the
point (0, 0, 1) as the first corner of the rectangle.
Press <Tab>, type "10", press <Tab>, type "1", and press
enter to define the point (0, 10, 1) as the second corner of
the rectangle.
Press <Tab>, type "10", press <Tab>, type "1.5", and
press enter to define the point (0, 10, 1.5) as the third corner
of the rectangle.
Press <Tab> twice, type "1.5", and press enter to define the
point (0, 0, 1.5) as the fourth corner of the rectangle.

"Apply"

Press the "Apply" button to create the mesh.

<Esc>

Press <Esc> to exit the mesh command.

"View: Orientation: Right


View"
"Selection: Shape: Rectangle"

Access the VIEW pull-down menu and select the


"Orientation" pull-out menu. Select the "Right View"
command.
Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and select the
"Shape" pull-out menu. Select the "Rectangle"
command.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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SE.69

Exercise G Comparing Element Types


"Selection: Select: Lines"

Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the


"Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Lines" command.

Mouse

Draw a box around the top edge of the model.

"Geometry: Tools: Modify


Attributes"

Access the GEOEMTRY pull-down menu and select the


"Tools" pull-out menu. Select the "Modify Attributes"
command.

Type "2" in the "Surface:" field.

OK

Click the OK button.

Applying Loads and Constraints


"Selection: Select: Vertices"

Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the


"Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Vertices" command.

Mouse

Draw a box around the left end of the model.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Nodal Boundary


Conditions"

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Nodal


Boundary Conditions" command.

"Fixed"

Press the "Fixed" button.

OK

Click the OK button.

Mouse

Draw a box around the center node of the right end of the
model.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Nodal Boundary


Condition"

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Nodal


Boundary Condition" command.

Mouse

Activate the "Tx" checkbox.

Mouse

Activate the "Tz" checkbox.

Mouse

Activate the "Ry" checkbox.

Mouse

Activate the "Rz" checkbox.

OK

Click the OK button.

Defining the Element and Material Data


Mouse

Right-click on the "Element Type" heading for Part 1 in


the tree view.

"2-D"

Select the "2-D" command.

Mouse

Right-click on the "Element Definition" heading for Part 1


in the tree view.

"Modify Element
Definition"
0.25
OK

SE.70

Select the "Modify Element Definition" command.


Type "0.25" in the "Thickness" field.
Click the OK button.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise G Comparing Element Types


Mouse

Right-click on the "Material" heading for Part 1 in the tree


view.

"Modify Material"

Select the "Modify Material" command.

"Steel (AISI 4130)"

Highlight the material, "Steel (AISI 4130)", from the list of


available materials within the Steel folder.

OK

Click the OK button.

Mouse

Click on the + next to the "Surfaces" heading for Part 1.

Mouse

Right-click on the "Surface 2" heading.

"Add: Surface
Pressure/Traction"
100

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Surface


Pressure/Traction" command.

OK

Click the OK button.

Type "100" in the "Magnitude" field.

Running the Analysis


"Analysis: Perform
Analysis"

Access the ANALYSIS pull-down menu and select the


"Perform Analysis" command. The model will be
analyzed and then displayed in the Results environment.

Viewing the Results


Inquire on the result types listed in the Results table at the end of the exercise solution (page SE.77) See
how the listed 2-D part values compare with your results.

Building the 3-D Model


We will create a second design scenario in which to build the 3-D model, since we cannot mix 2-D and 3-D
elements within a single analysis. However, the remaining three variants may all be constructed within the
second design scenario.
"Tools: FEA Editor"

Access the TOOLS pull-down menu and select the "FEA


Editor" command.

Mouse

Right-click on the "1 <2-D Model>" heading in the tree view.

"Copy"
Mouse
"Rename"
3-D Model
OK

Select the "Copy" command. A new design scenario


heading will appear in the tree view and it will become the
current design scenario.
Right-click on the "2 <2-D Model>" heading in the tree
view and select the "Rename" command.
Type "3-D Model" in the "Description" field.
Click the OK button.

The mesh copied from the 2-D analysis can be used to model the 0.25 thick plate elements. We will have
to delete the pressure load from the top of this part. We will apply equivalent nodal forces later.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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SE.71

Exercise G Comparing Element Types


Mouse
Plate

Right-click on the Element Type heading for Part 1 in


the tree view and choose Plate.

Mouse

Double-click on the Element Definition heading for Part 1.

0.25

Type 0.25 in the Thickness field.

OK

Click the OK button.

Mouse
Mouse
Delete

Click on the + sign to the left of the FEA Object


Groups heading in the tree view to expand this branch.
Right-click on the 3 < Surface Pressure/Tractions >
heading and choose Delete.

Next, we will build the geometry for the beam part, the 0.5 thick plate part, and the brick element part.

"Geometry: Add: Line"

Access the GEOMETRY pull-down menu and select the


"Add" pull-out menu. Select the "Line" command to
bring up the "Define Geometry" dialog.

Mouse

Deactivate the "Use as Construction" checkbox.

Type "2" in the "Part:" field.

Type "2" in the "Surface:" field.

<Enter>

Press <Enter> to define the origin as the first end point.

<Tab>10<Enter>

Press <Tab>, type "10" in the Y: field, and press


<Enter> to define the second end point as (0, 10, 0).

<Esc>

Press <Esc> to end the current line.

<Esc>

Press <Esc> to exit the line command.

"Selection: Shape: Point"


"Selection: Select: Lines"
Mouse

Click on the line you just drew.

"Geometry: Tools: Divide"

Access the GEOMETRY pull-down menu and select the


"Tools" pull-out menu. Select the "Divide" command.

34

Type "34" in the "Number of Lines:" field.

OK

Click the OK button to create the divisions.

Mouse

"Mesh: Structured Mesh: 4


Point Rectangular"

SE.72

Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and select the


"Shape" pull-out menu. Select the "Point" command.
Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the
"Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Lines" command.

Click just inside the top edge of the Right face of the
ViewCube, near the middle of the edge. A light-blue
rectangle will indicate when you are within the proper
clicking zone. This will provide an oblique view that will
allow us to see the mesh for the next part.
Access the MESH pull-down menu and select the
"Structured Mesh" pull-out menu. Select the "4 Point
Rectangular" command.

Type "3" in the "Part:" field.

Type "1" in the "Surface:" field.

34

Type "34" in the "AB:" field.

Type "2" in the "BC:" field.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise G Comparing Element Types


3 <Enter>
<Tab> 10 <Tab> 3 <Enter>

0.25 <Tab> 10 <Tab> 3


<Enter>
0.25 <Tab> <Tab> 3
<Enter>

Type "3" in the "Z:" field and press <Enter> to define the
point (0, 0, 3) as the first point.
Press <Tab>, type "10" in the Y: field, press <Tab>,
type "3" in the Z: field, and press <Enter> to define the
point (0, 10, 3) as the second corner of the rectangle.
Type "0.25" in the X: field, press <Tab>, type "10" in
the Y: field, press <Tab>, type "3" in the Z: field, and
press <Enter> to define the point (0.25, 10, 3) as the third
corner of the rectangle.
Type "0.25" in the X: field, press <Tab> twice, type "3"
in the Z: field, and press <Enter> to define the point
(0.25, 0, 3) as the fourth corner of the rectangle.

"Apply"

Press the "Apply" button to create the mesh.

Type "4" in the "Part:" field.

Type "4" in the "BC:" field.

4 <Enter>
<Tab> 10 <Tab> 4 <Enter>
<Tab> 10 <Tab> 4.5
<Enter>
<Tab> <Tab> 4.5 <Enter>

Type "4" in the "Z:" field and press <Enter> to define the
point (0, 0, 4) as the first point.
Press <Tab>, type "10" in the Y: field, press <Tab>,
type "4" in the Z: field, and press <Enter> to define the
point (0, 10, 4) as the second corner of the rectangle.
Press <Tab>, type "10", in the Y: field, press <Tab>,
type "4.5" in the Z: field, and press <Enter> to define
the point (0, 10, 4.5) as the third corner of the rectangle.
Press <Tab> twice, type "4.5" in the Z: field, and press
<Enter> to define the point (0, 0, 4.5) as the fourth corner of
the rectangle.

"Apply"

Press the "Apply" button to create the mesh.

<Esc>

Press <Esc> to exit the mesh command.

Mouse

Right-click on the "4-Point Mesh 3" heading in the tree view.

"Move or Copy"

Select the "Move or Copy" command.

Mouse

Activate the "Copy" checkbox.

Type "2" in the "Copy" field.

Mouse

Activate the "Join" checkbox.

0.25

Type "0.25" in the "Total distance" field.

"DX"

Select the "DX" radio button.

OK

Click the OK button to perform the operation.

"View: Orientation: Right


View"
"Selection: Shape: Rectangle"

Access the VIEW pull-down menu and select the


"Orientation" pull-out menu. Select the "Right View"
command.
Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and select the
"Shape" pull-out menu. Select the "Rectangle" command.

Mouse

Draw a box enclosing the top edge of Part 4 (light-blue).

"Geometry: Tools: Modify


Attributes"

Access the GEOMETRY pull-down menu and select the


"Tools" pull-out menu. Select the "Modify Attributes"
command.

Type "2" in the "Surface:" field.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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SE.73

Exercise G Comparing Element Types


OK

Click the OK button.

"View: Orientation: Isometric


View"

Access the VIEW pull-down menu and select the


"Orientation" pull-out menu. Select the "Isometric
View" command to verify that the model appears correctly.

Applying Loads and Constraints


"View: Orientation: Right
View"
"Selection: Select: Vertices"

Mouse
Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Nodal Boundary


Conditions"

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Nodal


Boundary Conditions" command.

"Fixed"

Press the "Fixed" button.

OK

Click the OK button.

Mouse
<Ctrl> Mouse
<Ctrl> Mouse

Draw a box around the right end of the bottom (beam) part
(Part 2).
Holding down the <Ctrl> key, draw a box around the right
end of Part 3.
Holding down the <Ctrl> key, draw a box around only the
center node of the right end of Part 4.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Nodal Boundary


Conditions"

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Nodal


Boundary Conditions" command.

Mouse

Activate the "Tx" checkbox.

Mouse

Activate the "Tz" checkbox.

Mouse

Activate the "Ry" checkbox.

Mouse

Activate the "Rz" checkbox.

OK

Click the OK button.

Mouse

Draw a box around the top edge of Part 1 (second part from
the bottom), excluding the two corner nodes.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Nodal Forces"


-250/34=

SE.74

Access the VIEW pull-down menu and select the


"Orientation" pull-out menu. Select the "Right View"
command.
Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the
"Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Vertices" command.
Draw a box enclosing the left endpoint of the bottom
(beam) part (Part 2).
Holding down the <Ctrl> key, draw a box around the left
end of the two top parts (Parts 3 and 4).

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Nodal


Forces" command.
Type "-250/34=" in the "Magnitude" field. The resultant
force per node of -7.35294 lbf will be shown.

"Z"

Select the "Z" radio button.

OK

Click the OK button.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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Exercise G Comparing Element Types


The leftmost and rightmost nodes will see a force half the magnitude of the remaining nodes along the top
edge. However, since the node at the top left corner is fully constrained, a force there will have no effect. We
will therefore omit this particular nodal force and apply the reduced force only to the top right corner node.
Mouse

Draw a box around the node at the top right corner of Part 1
(second part from the bottom).

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Nodal Force"


-250/68=

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Nodal


Force" command.
Type "-250/68=" in the "Magnitude" field. The resultant
force per node of -3.67647 lbf will be shown.

"Z"

Select the "Z" radio button.

OK

Click the OK button.

Defining the Remaining Element and Material Data


Mouse

Right-click on the "Element Type" heading for Part 2 in


the tree view.

"Beam"

Select the "Beam" command.

Mouse

Right-click on the "Element Definition" heading for Part 2


in the tree view.

"Modify Element
Definition"

Select the "Modify Element Definition" command.

Mouse

Click in one of the fields for Layer 1 in the "Sectional


Properties" table.

"Cross-Section Libraries"

Press the "Cross-Section Libraries" button.

"Rectangular"

Select the "Rectangular" option in the User-Defined


drop-down box in the upper right corner.

0.25

Type "0.25" in the "b" field.

0.5

Type "0.5" in the "h" field.

OK

Click the OK button to exit the Cross-Section Libraries


dialog.

OK

Click the OK button to exit the Element Definition dialog.

Mouse

Right-click on the "Material" heading for Part 2 in the tree


view.

"Modify Material"

Select the "Modify Material" command.

"Steel (AISI 4130)"

Highlight the material, "Steel (AISI 4130)", from the list of


available materials within the "Steel" folder.

OK

Click the OK button.

"Selection: Select: Lines"

Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the


"Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Lines" command.

Mouse

Draw a rectangle around all of the beam elements.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Beam Distributed


Loads"

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Beam


Distributed Loads" command.

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Exercise G Comparing Element Types


-25

Type "-25" in the "Magnitude" field.

"Z"

Select the "Z" radio button.

OK

Click the OK button.

Mouse

Right-click on the "Element Type" heading for Part 3 in


the tree view.

"Plate"

Select the "Plate" command.

Mouse

Right-click on the "Element Definition" heading for Part 3


in the tree view.

"Modify Element
Definition"
0.5

SE.76

Select the "Modify Element Definition" command.


Type "0.5" in the "Thickness" field.

OK

Click the OK button.

Mouse

Right-click on the "Material" heading for Part 3 in the tree


view.

"Modify Material"

Select the "Modify Material" command.

"Steel (AISI 4130)"

Highlight the material, "Steel (AISI 4130)", from the list of


available materials within the "Steel" folder.

OK

Click the OK button.

Mouse

Click on the + next to the "Surfaces" heading for Part 3.

Mouse

Right-click on the "Surface 1" heading.

"Add: Surface
Pressure/Traction"

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Surface


Pressure/Traction" command.

"Traction"

Select the "Traction" radio button.

-100

Type "-100" in the "Z Magnitude" field.

OK

Click the OK button.

Mouse

Right-click on the "Element Type" heading for Part 4 in


the tree view.

"Brick"

Select the "Brick" command.

Mouse

Right-click on the "Material" heading for Part 4 in the tree


view.

"Modify Material"

Select the "Modify Material" command.

"Steel (AISI 4130)"

Highlight the material, "Steel (AISI 4130)", from the list of


available materials within the "Steel" folder.

OK

Click the OK button.

Mouse

Click on the + next to the "Surfaces" heading for Part 4.

Mouse

Right-click on the "Surface 2" heading.

"Add: Surface
Pressure/Traction"
100

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Surface


Pressure/Traction" command.

OK

Click the OK button.

Type "100" in the "Magnitude" field.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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Exercise G Comparing Element Types

Running the Analysis


Access the ANALYSIS pull-down menu and select the
"Perform Analysis" command. The model will be
analyzed and then displayed in the Results environment.

"Analysis: Perform
Analysis"

Viewing the Results


Click on the heading for Part 2 in the tree view.

Mouse

Holding down the <Shift> key, right-click on the heading


for Part 4 in the tree view.
Select the "Hide" command. The legend will be updated to
only show the range for the stress in Part 1. You can use this
command to view the results for each part individually.
Access the RESULTS pull-down menu and select the
"Displacement" pull-out menu. Choose the "Magnitude"
command.
Right-click on the various parts in the tree view and
alternately Show and/or Hide them until you have
reviewed the individual stress results for each part. Also,
review the various applicable results for each part (bending
and shear stresses and reactions. Compare your results for
the various parts to each other and to those listed in the
table below.

<Shift>Mouse
"Hide"
Results: Displacement:
Magnitude

Mouse
Show and/or Hide

Results
Element Type
2-D
First Plate Model
(0.25" Thick)
Beam
Second Plate Model
(0.5" Thick)
Brick

Displacement
Magnitude
(inch)

X-Reaction
Moment *
(in-lb)

Shear
Force *
(lb)

y*
Max.
(psi)

y*
at mid-span
(psi)

Max.
(psi)

0.01751

**

**

28,349

14, 976

1,625

0.01751

**

**

28,349

14,976

1,625

0.01761

311.9

156.2

29,933

15,024

**

0.01722

313.5 ***

**

30,413

14,929 ****

**

0.01741

**

**

29,331

14,912 ****

1,814

yz

Values above are magnitudes. Actual results may be positive or negative.


Notes:

* For the beam element part, the Local 3 Moment corresponds to the X-Reaction Moment; the
"Local 2 Force" corresponds to the Shear Force; and the "Bending Stress in Local 3 Direction"
corresponds to the bending stress ( y).
** This result type is not calculated for this element type.
*** The X-Reaction moment for the 0.5 thick plate is the sum the reactions for all fixed nodes.

**** This stress was determined at the node in the middle of the 0.25 thickness.

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Exercise G Comparing Element Types

To review a completed archive of this exercise, refer to the file Exercise G.ach in the "Exercise G\Results
Archive" directory.

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Exercise H
Mesh Convergence
2-D Elements
Objective:

To perform a static stress analysis with linear material models on a classical problem,
utilizing different meshes densities to determine where convergence occurs. Use mesh
density settings of 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200, and 6400. Increase the 2-D mesh
generation "Angle" from the default value of 15 to 30 degrees. This will ensure that the
mesh density controls the element size for all cases, otherwise the angle would control
the element size for coarser meshes.

Geometry:

The part shown below is 1" thick.

Loads:

1,000 psi on the right edge.

Constraints:

Fully fixed at the left end.

Elements:

2-D Plane Stress

Material:

Stainless Steel (AISI 302) Cold-rolled

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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Exercise H Mesh Convergence

Solution
Building the Model
The mesh for the 2-D elements will be generated from a sketch in the FEA Editor environment. Start
Autodesk Algor Simulation from the Windows Start menu.
"New"

Select the "New" icon at the left side of the dialog.

Mouse
"Linear: Static Stress with
Linear Material Models "

If the desired analysis type is not already set, click on the


arrow button next to the "Choose analysis type:" field,
select the "Linear" pull-out menu, and choose "Static
Stress with Linear Material Models."

"New"

Press the "New" button.

Exercise H

Type "Exercise H" in the "File name:" field in the "Save


As" dialog. Note the default folder location where the
analysis files will be created. This location can be changed
by navigating to an alternate working folder if desired.

"Save"

Press the "Save" button.

Mouse

Right-click on the "Plane 2 < YZ(+X) >" heading in the


tree view.

"Sketch"

Select the "Sketch" command.

"Geometry: Add:
Rectangle"

Access the GEOMETRY pull-down menu and select the


"Add" pull-out menu. Select the "Rectangle" command.
Press <Enter> to define the origin as the first corner of the
rectangle.
Type "4" in the "Y:" field, press <Tab>, type "1.5, and
press <Enter> to define the point (0, 4, 1.5) as the opposite
corner.

<Enter>
4 <Tab> 1.5 <Enter>
"Apply"

Press the "Apply" button.

<Esc>

Press <Esc> to exit the rectangle command.

"Geometry: Add: Circle:


Center and Radius"
2 <Enter>
2.45 <Enter>
"Apply"

Press the "Apply" button.

<Esc>

Press <Esc> to exit the circle command.

"View: Enclose"
"Selection: Select:
Construction Objects"
"Geometry: Tools: Trim"

SE.80

Access the GEOMETRY pull-down menu and select the


"Add" pull-out menu. Select the "Circle" pull-out menu
and select the "Center and Radius" command.
Type "2" in the "Y:" field and press <Enter> to define the
point (0, 2, 0) as the center of the circle.
Type "2.45 in the "Y:" field and press <Enter> to define
the point (0, 2.45, 0) as a point on the circle.

Access the VIEW pull-down and select the "Enclose"


command.
Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the
"Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Construction
Objects" command.
Access the GEOMETRY pull-down menu and select the
"Tools" pull-out menu. Select the "Trim" command.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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Exercise H Mesh Convergence


Mouse

Click on the lower horizontal line.

Mouse

Click on the circle.

Mouse

Click on the lower half of the circle. It will be removed


from the sketch.

Mouse

Click on the semicircle.

Mouse

Click on the lower horizontal line.

Mouse

Click on the part of the horizontal line inside the circle. It


will be removed from the sketch.

<Esc>

Press <Esc> to exit the trim command.

"Geometry: Add: Line"


0.75 <Enter>
4 <Tab> 0.75 <Enter>

Access the GEOMETRY pull-down menu and select the


"Add" pull-out menu. Select the "Line" command.
Type "0.75" in the "Z:" field and press <Enter> to define
the point (0, 0, 0.75) as the beginning of the line.
Type "4" in the "Y:" field, press <Tab>, type "0.75" and
press <Enter> to define the point (0, 4, 0.75) as the end of
the center line.

<Esc> <Esc>

Press <Esc> twice to exit the line command.

Mouse

Click on the semicircle.

"Geometry: Tools: Mirror"

Access the GEOMETRY pull-down menu and select the


"Tools" pull-out menu. Select the "Mirror" command.

"Pick"

Press the "Pick" button.

Mouse

Click on the middle horizontal line.

OK

Click the OK button.

"Geometry: Tools: Trim"

Access the GEOMETRY pull-down menu and select the


"Tools" pull-out menu. Select the "Trim" command.

Mouse

Click on the upper semicircle.

Mouse

Click on the upper horizontal line.

Mouse

Click on the part of the horizontal line inside the circle. It


will be removed from the sketch.

<Esc>

Press <Esc> to exit the trim command.

Mouse

Click on the middle horizontal line.

"Edit: Delete"
Mouse

Access the EDIT pull-down menu and select the "Delete"


command.
Right-click on the "Plane 2 < YZ(+X) >" heading in the
tree view.

"Sketch"

Select the "Sketch" command.

Mouse

Right-click on the "1 < YZ(+X) >" heading for Part 1 in


the tree view.

"Create 2D Mesh"

Select the "Create 2D Mesh" command.

200

Type "200" in the "Mesh Density" field.

"Apply"

Press the "Apply" button to generate the mesh.

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Exercise H Mesh Convergence

Defining the Element Parameters


Mouse

Right-click on the "Element Type" heading for Part 1 in


the tree view.

"2-D"

Select the "2-D" command.

Mouse

Right-click on the "Element Definition" heading for Part 1


in the tree view.

"Modify Element
Definition"
1

Select the "Modify Element Definition" command.


Type "1" in the "Thickness" field.

OK

Click the OK button.

Mouse

Right-click on the "Material" heading in the tree view


under Part 1.

"Modify Material"

Select the "Modify Material" command in the menu.

"Stainless Steel (AISI 302)


Cold-rolled"

Select the material, "Stainless Steel (AISI 302) Cold-rolled",


from the list of available materials in the Steel folder.

OK

Click the OK button.

Adding the Loads and Constraints


"Selection: Select: Surfaces"

Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the


"Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Surfaces" command.

Mouse

Click on the surface at the right end.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Surface
Pressure/Traction"
-1000

In the menu, select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the
"Surface Pressure/Traction" command.

OK

Click the OK button.

Mouse

Click on the surface at the left end.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Surface Boundary


Condition"

In the menu, select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the
"Surface Boundary Condition" command.

"Fixed"

Press the "Fixed" button.

OK

Click the OK button.

Type "-1000" in the "Magnitude" field.

Running the Analysis


"Analysis: Perform
Analysis"

SE.82

Access the ANALYSIS pull-down menu and select the


"Perform Analysis" command. The model will be
analyzed and will be loaded in the Results environment.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise H Mesh Convergence

Viewing the Results

"Results: Stress: Stress


Tensor: 2) YY"

Access the RESULTS pull-down menu and select the


"Stress" pull-out menu. Select the "Stress Tensor" pullout menu. Select the "2) YY" command. The accepted
value for the stress in this direction is 3,560 psi based upon
known stress concentration behavior.

Record the stress value in the following table so that the results for each trial mesh density setting may be
easily compared:
Mesh Density

Maximum YY Stress (psi)

200
400
800
1,600
3,200
6,400

Analyzing the Model with Different Mesh Sizes


"Tools: FEA Editor"

Access the TOOLS pull-down menu and select the "FEA


Editor" command.

Mouse

Right-click on the "2-D Mesh 1" heading in the tree view.

"Modify"
value
"Apply"

Select the "Modify" command.


Type the next mesh density value in the "Mesh Density"
field and press the "Apply" button.
Repeat the steps from "Running the Analysis" through the
end of the exercise until the stress results for all specified
mesh densities have been obtained and recorded.

To review a completed archive of this exercise, refer to the file Exercise H.ach in the "Exercise H\Results
Archive" directory. All six trials have been combined into a single model and design scenario for easy
comparison.

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Exercise H Mesh Convergence

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FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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Exercise I
Bracket Model
Brick Elements
Objective:

Determine the maximum stress in the bracket from a load applied at the hole. Use default
mesh settings.

Geometry:

Use the Exercise I.igs file located in the "Exercise I\Input File" directory. Use the default
mesh settings.

Fully constrain
the back surface.

Apply 40 pound load


downward (-Y) at hole.

Loads:

40 pounds will be applied downward at the hole (that is, in the Y direction).

Constraints:

The back surface (-X end of bracket) is fully constrained.

Elements:

Brick

Material:

Steel (ASTM - A514)

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Exercise I Bracket Model

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FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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Exercise I Bracket Model

Solution
Meshing the Model
Start Autodesk Algor Simulation from the Windows Start menu.
"Open"

Select the "Open" icon at the left side of the dialog

Mouse

If the desired analysis type is not already set, click on the


arrow button next to the "Choose analysis type:" field,
select the "Linear" pull-out menu, and choose "Static
Stress with Linear Material Models."
Select the "IGES (*.igs, *.iges)" option in the CAD Files
section of the "Files of type" drop-down box. Navigate to
the directory where the model is located.
Select the Exercise I.igs file in the "Exercise I \Input File"
directory.

"Linear: Static Stress with


Linear Material Models "
"IGES (*.igs, *.iges)"
Exercise I.igs
"Open"

Press the "Open" button.

Mouse
"Linear: Static Stress with
Linear Material Models"

If the desired analysis type is not already selected, click on


the arrow button to the right of the analysis type field.
Select the Linear pull-out menu and choose the Static
Stress with Linear Material Models" option.

OK

Click the OK button.

"Mesh: Generate Mesh"

Access the MESH pull-down menu and select the


"Generate Mesh" command.

"No"

Press the "No" button when asked to view the mesh results.

Defining the Material Data


Mouse

Right-click on the "Material" heading for Part 1 in the tree


view.

"Modify: Material"

Select the "Modify Material" command.

"Steel (ASTM - A514)"

Highlight the material, "Steel (ASTM - A514)" near the


bottom of the list of available materials in the "Steel folder.

OK

Click the OK button to accept the selected material.

Adding Loads and Constraints


"View: Orientation: Right
View"
"Selection: Select: Surfaces"

Access the VIEW pull-down menu, select the


"Orientation" pull-out menu, and choose the Right
View command.
Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the
"Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Surfaces" command.
This will allow you to select the surfaces.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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Exercise I Bracket Model


Mouse

Click on the large square surface, which is the base of the


bracket.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Surface Boundary


Condition"

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Surface


Boundary Condition" command.

"Fixed"

Press the "Fixed" button in the "Predefined" section.

OK

Click the OK button to apply these constraints.

Mouse

Click just inside the right edge of the ViewCube face, about
midway between the top and bottom corners. A light-blue
rectangle will indicate the correct clicking zone. This will
reposition the model to an oblique view in which the two
half-cylindrical surfaces of the hole through the bracket will
both be visible.

Mouse

Click on one of the two surfaces on the inside of the hole.

<Ctrl>Mouse

Holding down the <Ctrl> key, click on the second surface.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Surface Forces"

-20

Mouse

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Surface


Forces" command.
Type "-20" in the "Magnitude" field to specify a force of
20 pounds in the negative Y direction on each of the surfaces.
This force will be evenly distributed across each of the
surfaces so that the total magnitude will be 40 pounds.
Select the "Y" radio button, in the "Direction" section, to
specify that the force will be applied in the Y direction.

OK

Click the OK button to apply these surface forces.

"View: Orientation: Top


View"

Access the VIEW pull-down menu and select the


"Orientation" pull-out menu. Select the "Top View"
command. Your model should now look like Figure I1.

Figure I1: Bracket with Constraints and Loads Applied


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FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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Exercise I Bracket Model

Analysis

"Analysis:
Perform Analysis"

Access the ANALYSIS pull-down menu and select the


"Perform Analysis" command to run the analysis. At
the completion of the analysis, the program will
automatically transfer to the Results environment.

Viewing the Results


"View: Orientation:
Axonometric View"

Access the VIEW pull-down menu and select the


"Orientation" pull-out menu. Select the "Axonometric
View" command. The model should look like Figure I2.

Figure I2: Displaced Model Showing von Mises Stresses


To review a completed archive of this exercise, refer to the file Exercise I.ach in the "Exercise I\Results
Archive" directory.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

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Exercise I Bracket Model

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FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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Exercise J
Hanger Assembly Model
Brick Elements
Objective:

Determine the maximum stress in the hanger assembly from a load applied at the center
of the shaft.

Geometry:

Use the Exercise J.ach file located in the "Exercise J\Input File" directory. Mesh the
model at 90% of the default mesh size.

Loads:

100 pounds will be applied in the downward (-Y) direction. Apply the load to a full ring
of nodes at the center of the shaft span.

Constraints:

The bottom surfaces of the brackets will be fully constrained.

Elements:

Brick

Material:

Brackets: Iron, Fe
Shaft:
Steel (AISI 4130)

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Exercise J Hanger Assembly Model

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FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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Exercise J Hanger Assembly Model

Solution
Meshing the Model
Start Autodesk Algor Simulation from the Windows Start menu.
"Open"
"Algor Simulation Archive
(*.ach)"
Exercise J.ach
"Open"

Select the "Open" icon at the left side of the dialog


Select the "Algor Simulation Archive (*.ach)" option in
the Algor Simulation Files section of the "Files of type"
drop-down box. Navigate to the directory where the model
is located.
Select the Exercise J.ach file in the "Exercise J \Input File"
directory.
Press the "Open" button.

Mouse
"90%"

Select the location where you want the model to be


extracted and Click the OK button.
Access the MESH pull-down menu and select the "Model
Mesh Settings" command to mesh the model using
default settings.
Move the "Mesh size" slider towards the right until the
indicator shows "90%."

"Mesh model"

Press the "Mesh model" button.

"No"

Press the "No" button when asked to view the mesh results.
A mesh will be displayed at this time.

OK
"Mesh: Model Mesh
Settings"

Defining the Material Data


Mouse

Click on the "Material" heading for Part 1 in the tree view.

<Ctrl>Mouse

Holding down the <Ctrl> key, click on the "Material"


heading for Part 2 in the tree view.

Mouse

Right-click on one of the selected headings.

"Modify Material"

Select the "Modify Material" command.

"Iron, Fe"

Highlight the material, "Iron, Fe", from the list of


available materials within the Iron folder.

OK

Click the OK button to accept the selected material.

Mouse

Right-click on the "Material" heading for Part 3 in the tree


view.

"Modify Material"

Select the "Modify Material" command.

"Steel (AISI 4130)"

Highlight the material, "Steel (AISI 4130)", from the list


of available materials within the "Steel folder.

OK

Click the OK button to accept the selected material.

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Exercise J Hanger Assembly Model

Adding Loads and Constraints

"Selection: Select: Surfaces"

Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the


"Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Surfaces" command.
This will allow you to select the surfaces.

Mouse

Click on the bottom of one of the brackets.

<Ctrl>Mouse

Holding down the <Ctrl> key, click on the bottom of the


other bracket.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Surface Boundary


Conditions"

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Surface


Boundary Conditions" command.

"Fixed"

Press the "Fixed" button in the "Predefined" section.

OK

Click the OK button to apply these constraints.

"View: Orientation: Right


View"
"Selection: Shape: Rectangle"
"Selection: Select: Vertices"

Mouse

Mouse
"Add: Nodal Forces"

-100/16=

"Y"
OK

SE.94

Access the VIEW pull-down menu and select the


"Orientation" pull-out menu. Select the "Right View"
command.
Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the
"Shape" pull-out menu. Select the "Rectangle" command.
Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the
"Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Vertices" command.
This will allow you to select the vertices.
Click and drag the mouse to enclose the ring of vertices
nearest to the middle of the shafts span. Distributing the
total load over these nodes will prevent a local stress
exaggeration at the point of load attachment. Hint: The
Z-coordinate at the mid-span of the shaft is 7.465".
Right-click in the display.
Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Nodal
Forces" command.
Note the number of nodes listed in the "Creating Nodal
Force Object" dialog box (16). Type "-100/16=" in the
"Magnitude" field. This will calculate and enter the
resultant force of -6.25 lbs. per node.
Select the "Y" radio button in the "Direction" section to
specify that the force will be applied in the Y direction.
Click the OK button to apply this force. The model
should now look like Figure J1.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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Exercise J Hanger Assembly Model

Figure J1: Bracket with Constraints and Loads Applied

Analysis
"Analysis:
Perform Analysis"
OK

Access the ANALYSIS pull-down menu and select the


"Perform Analysis" command to run the analysis.
Click the OK button to dismiss the pop-up message at the
completion of the analysis. The model will be displayed
within the Results environment.

Viewing the Results


"View: Orientation: Isometric
View"

Access the VIEW pull-down menu and select the


"Orientation" pull-out menu. Select the "Isometric
View" command. The model should look like Figure J2.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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SE.95

Exercise J Hanger Assembly Model

Figure J2: von Mises Stress, Displaced Model


To review a completed archive of this exercise, refer to the file Exercise J.ach in the
"Exercise J\Results Archive" directory.

SE.96

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise K
Linear Contact Model
Brick Elements
Objective:

Determine the stress in the assembly for a maximum upward load of 1000 pounds applied
at the bottom of the exposed end of the latch.

Geometry:

Use the Exercise K.stp file located in the "Exercise K\Input File" directory.

Loads:

1,000 pounds upward force will be applied at the extended underside of the sliding latch.

Constraints:

The four bolt holes will be fully constrained.


"Rigid" boundary elements with a stiffness of 100 lbf/in will be applied in the X, Y, and
Z directions to the back end surface of the sliding latch.

Elements:

Brick An absolute mesh size of 0.15 in. will be used.

Material:

Sliding Latch:
Iron, Fe
Handle:
Brass, Red
Housing & Base Plate: Steel (ASTM - A36)

Contact:

The default contact is bonded. Two surface contact pairs should be created:
1.
2.

Between the sliding latch and the housing


Between the sliding latch and the base plate

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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Exercise K Linear Contact Model

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FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise K Linear Contact Model

Solution
Meshing the Model
Start Autodesk Algor Simulation from the Windows Start menu.
"Open"
"STEP (*.stp, *.ste, *.step)"
Exercise K.stp
"Open"
"Use STEP file units"
OK
Mouse
"Linear: Static Stress with
Linear Material Models"
OK

Select the "Open" icon at the left side of the dialog


Select the "STEP (*.stp, *.ste, *.step)" option in the CAD
Files section of the "Files of type" drop-down box. Navigate
to the directory where the model input file is located.
Select the Exercise K.stp file in the "Exercise K \Input File"
directory.
Press the "Open" button.
Choose the option to "Use STEP file units" if it is not
already selected and click the OK button. The original
STEP file length unit is inches.
If the desired analysis type is not already selected, click on
the arrow button to the right of the analysis type field.
Select the Linear pull-out menu and choose the Static
Stress with Linear Material Models" option.
Click the OK button.

For the latch assembly, the contact areas include the interface between the sliding latch and the housing and
between the sliding latch and the base plate. For the purpose of this example, the remaining part interfaces
will be bonded. The default contact option of "Bonded" will be kept and two contact pairs will be defined
as "Surface Contact," overriding the default. This type of contact will prevent the surfaces from
penetrating each other, but will allow them to pull away from each other or slide relative to each other with
no resistance.
Mouse

Click on the heading for Part 2 in the tree view (the housing).

<Ctrl> Mouse

Holding down the <Ctrl> key, click on the heading for Part
4 in the tree view (the sliding latch).

Mouse

Right-click on one of the selected headings.

"Contact: Surface Contact"


<Enter>

Select the "Contact" pull-out menu and select the "Surface


Contact" command. Press the <Enter> key to accept the
default contact pair name and to complete the command.

Mouse

Click on the heading for Part 3 in the tree view (the base plate).

<Ctrl> Mouse

Holding down the <Ctrl> key, click on the heading for


Part 4 in the tree view (the sliding latch).

Mouse

Right-click on one of the selected headings.

"Mesh: Model Mesh


Settings"

Select the "Contact" pull-out menu and select the "Surface


Contact" command. Press the <Enter> key to accept the
default contact pair name and to complete the command.
Access the MESH pull-down menu and select the "Model
Mesh Settings" command.

"Options"

Click on the "Options" button.

"Contact: Surface Contact"


<Enter>

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Exercise K Linear Contact Model


"Absolute mesh size"

Select "Absolute mesh size" from the "Type" pull-down


menu.

0.15

Enter "0.15" in the "Size" field.

OK

Click on the OK button to exit the options dialog.

"Mesh model"

Press the "Mesh model" button to create the mesh.

"No"

Press the "No" button when asked to view the mesh results.

Defining Element and Material Data


Mouse
"Brass, Red"

Double-click on the "Material" heading for Part 1 in the


tree view. This will open the material selection screen.
Highlight the material, "Brass, Red", within the Brass
folder of the Autodesk Algor Material Library..

OK

Click the OK button to accept this material for the handle.

Mouse

Select the "Material" heading for Part 2 in the tree view.

<Ctrl>Mouse

Holding down the <Ctrl> key, click on the "Material"


heading for Part 3 in the tree view.

Mouse

Right-click on one of the selected headings.

"Modify: Material"
"Steel (ASTM-A36)"
OK
Mouse
"Iron, Fe"
OK

Select the "Modify" pull-out menu and select the


"Material." command.
Highlight the material, "Steel (ASTM-A36)", near the bottom
of the list of available materials within the Steel folder.
Click the OK button to accept this material for the
housing and base plate.
Double-click on the "Material" heading for Part 4 in the
tree view.
Highlight the material, "Iron, Fe", from the list of
available materials within the Iron folder.
Click the OK button to accept this material for the sliding
latch.

After assigning the material properties, all red Xs should now be removed from the tree view.

Adding Loads and Constraints


"View: Orientation: Top
View"
"Selection: Shape: Circle"

"Selection: Select: Surfaces"

Mouse

SE.100

Access the VIEW pull-down menu, select the "Orientation"


pull-out menu, and choose the "Top View" command.
Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and select the
"Shape" pull-out menu. Select the "Circle" command. This
will allow you select objects within a circular selection zone.
Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the
"Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Surfaces" command.
This will set a filter to allow you to select surfaces.
Click near the center of one of the bolt holes and drag the
mouse to make a circular selection area large enough to
encompass the ID surfaces of one bolt hole.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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Exercise K Linear Contact Model

<Ctrl>Mouse

While holding down the <Ctrl> key, repeat this selection


procedure for the remaining three holes. Since you are
looking at the edge of the surface, the magenta coloring
indicating that the surface has been selected may not be
readily apparent unless you rotate the view.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Surface Boundary


Conditions"

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Surface


Boundary Conditions" command.

"Fixed"

Press the "Fixed" button.

OK

Click the OK button to apply these constraints.

Mouse

"Selection: Shape: Point"

Click just inside the top edge of the ViewCube face, about
midway between the top corners. A light blue rectangle
will indicate the correct clicking zone. This will provide an
oblique view of the assembly with the back of the sliding
latch visible.
Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and select the
"Shape" pull-out menu. Select the "Point" command. This
will allow you select objects by clicking on them.

Mouse

Click on the surface at the back end of the sliding latch.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Surface Rigid


Boundaries"
Mouse
"X," "Y," and "Z"

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Surface


Rigid Boundaries" command.
Activate the checkboxes to apply the boundary elements in
the "X," "Y," and "Z" directions.
Enter "100" in the "Stiffness" field. This soft boundary
provides stability during the contact solution by preventing
rigid-body motion but is small enough to produce an
insignificant reaction at the surface for the converged solution.

100

OK

Click the OK button.

"View: Orientation: Bottom


View"

Access the VIEW pull-down menu, select the "Orientation"


pull-out menu, and choose the "Bottom View" command.
Click on the surface at the extended underside of the sliding
latch.

Mouse
Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Surface Force"

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Surface


Force" command.

1000

Enter "1000" in the "Magnitude" field.

Mouse

Activate the "Z" direction radio button.

OK

Click the OK button to apply this force.

"View: Orientation: Isometric


View"

Access the VIEW pull-down menu, select the "Orientation"


pull-out menu, and choose the "Isometric View" command.

Analysis
"Analysis:
Perform Analysis"

Access the ANALYSIS pull-down menu and select the


"Perform Analysis" command to run the analysis.

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Exercise K Linear Contact Model

OK

Click OK to dismiss the pop-up message when the


analysis has finished. The model will be displayed in the
Results environment.

Viewing the Results


There are many options available in the Results environment to customize the presentation of results. For
this exercise, the stress range and the legend box precision and font will be modified.
"Display Options:
Plot Settings"

Access the DISPLAY OPTIONS pull-down menu and


select the "Plot Settings" command.

Mouse

Select the "Legend Properties" tab.

Mouse

Using the down-arrow next to the "Precision" field,


decrease the precision from 7 to "5".

"Font"

Press the "Font " button.

"16"
OK
Mouse

Select the "Range Settings" tab.

Mouse

Deactivate the "Automatically calculate value range"


checkbox.

Type "0" in the "Low" field.

20000

OK

SE.102

Select the "16" option in the "Size:" field. Note that you
can also change the font to any of the TrueType fonts listed.
Click the OK button to accept the changes to the legend
box font.

Type "20000" in the "High" field. Any areas with stresses


larger than this value will now be rendered using the highest
color in the legend box (typically red). One common use of
this feature is to set the value to the yield stress of the
material in order to quickly see what areas of the model may
have yielded. Another is to bring out the full range of colors
when focusing on more lowly stressed regions of the model.
Click the OK button and your presentation should now
look similar to the one shown in Figure K1.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise K Linear Contact Model

Figure K1: Stress Results


This completes the exercise. To review a completed archive of this exercise, refer to the file Exercise
K.ach in the "Exercise K\Results Archive" directory.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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Exercise K Linear Contact Model

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FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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Exercise L
Thermal Model
Brick Elements
Objective:

To analyze the thermal effects of a block that has hot and cold water passages running
through it.

Geometry:

Use the Exercise L.ach file located in the "Exercise L\Input File" directory. Use 80% of
the default mesh size.

Loads:

Largest Hole:
Water temperature (ambient): T = 65 F
Convection coefficient: H = 1.4

in lbs
in 2 sec F

Second Largest Hole:


Water temperature (ambient): T = 180 F
Convection coefficient: H = 28
Elements:

Brick

Material:

Steel (ASTM - A514)

in lbs
in 2 sec F

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Exercise L Thermal Model

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FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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Exercise L Thermal Model

Solution
Meshing the Model
Start Autodesk Algor Simulation from the Windows Start menu.
"Open"
"Algor Simulation Archive
(*.ach)"
Exercise L.ach
"Open"

Select the "Open" icon at the left side of the dialog


Select the "Algor Simulation Archive (*.ach)" option in
the Algor Simulation Files section of the "Files of type"
drop-down box. Navigate to the directory where the model
is located.
Select the Exercise L.ach file in the "Exercise L\Input File"
directory.
Press the "Open" button.

"Mesh: Model Mesh


Settings"
Mouse
"80%"

Select the location where you want the model to be


extracted and click the OK button. Note that the analysis
type has already been set to Steady-State Heat Transfer for
the input archive.
Access the MESH pull-down menu and select the "Model
Mesh Settings" command.
Move the "Mesh size" slider towards the right until the
indicator shows "80%."

"Mesh model"

Press the "Mesh model" button.

"No"

Press the "No" button when asked to view the mesh results.

OK

Defining the Element Data


Mouse

Right-click on the "Material" heading for Part 1 in the tree


view.

"Modify Material"

Select the "Modify Material" command.

"Steel (ASTM - A514)"

Highlight the material, "Steel (ASTM - A514)", from the


list of available materials within the Steel folder.

OK

Click the OK button.

"Selection: Select: Surfaces"

Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the


"Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Surfaces" command.

Mouse

Click on one of the surfaces of the largest hole.

<Ctrl>Mouse

Holding down the <Ctrl> key, click on the second surface


of the largest hole. Rotate the model slightly, if desired, to
clearly see both surfaces of the hole.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Surface Convection


Loads"

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Surface


Convection Loads" command.
Type "1.4" in the "Temperature Independent
Convection Coefficient" field.

1.4

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Exercise L Thermal Model


65

Type "65" in the "Temperature" field.

OK

Click the OK button.

Mouse

Click on one of the surfaces of the second largest hole.

<Ctrl>Mouse

Holding down the <Ctrl> key, click on the other surface of


the second largest hole. Rotate the model slightly, if
desired, to clearly see both surfaces of the hole.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Surface Convection


Loads"

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Surface


Convection Loads" command.
Type "28" in the "Temperature Independent Convection
Coefficient" field.

28
180

Type "180" in the "Temperature" field.

OK

Click the OK button.

Running the Analysis


"Analysis: Perform
Analysis"

Access the ANALYSIS pull-down menu and select the


"Perform Analysis" command. The model will be
displayed in the Results environment and solved.

Viewing the Results


"View: Orientation: Isometric
View"

Mouse

SE.108

Access the VIEW pull-down menu, select the "Orientation"


pull-out menu, and choose the "Isometric View" command.
The small circles on the surfaces of the two largest holes
indicate the applied surface convection loads. Click the
"Toggle Load and Constraint Display" toolbar button to
turn off the display of the load and constraint symbols. Your
screen should now look similar to Figure L1.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise L Thermal Model

Figure L1: Temperature Results


We will now check the temperature of the top surface of the block.
"Inquire: Results"

Mouse

Access the INQUIRE pull-down menu and select the


"Results" command.
Click on a node on the top face (hot end) of the model. The
"Inquire: Results" dialog will report that the temperature
is somewhere between 174.3 and 176.6 degrees, depending
upon which node was selected.

To review a completed archive of this exercise, refer to the file "Exercise L.ach" in the "Exercise L\Results
Archive" directory.

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Exercise L Thermal Model

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FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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Exercise M
Mechanical Event Simulation (MES), Geneva Mechanism
Brick and Pipe Elements
Objective:

Create universal joints for the rotation, loading, and constraining of two CADbased parts. Define surface to surface contact to produce the proper component
interaction. The drive wheel will be rotated one-half of a revolution to produce
a single, 90 indexing movement of the driven wheel. Produce a von Mises
stress animation as well as a graph showing the displacement magnitude versus
time at the drive wheel's indexing pin and at the OD of the driven wheel.

Geometry:

Use the Exercise M.stp file located in the "Exercise M\Input File" directory. See
next page for meshing, geometry modification, and contact setup instructions.

Loads:

Joint 1 center vertex location; (0, 0, -0.125)


Joint 2 center vertex location; (1.414214, 0, -0.125)
Joint 3 center vertex location; (0, 0, 0.875)
Joint 4 center vertex location; (1.414214, 0, 0.875)

Initial velocity of 30 rpm about axis through Joints 1 and 3 (parallel to Z-axis)
applied to the Drive Wheel (Part 1)
Prescribed displacement of a half-revolution in one second (30 rpm) at Joint 3.
Constant 2 lbf.in. nodal Z-moment at Joint 4 (Assign to Load Curve 2 and set a
"Death Time" of 1 second for Active Range 1 to ensure that the displacement
remains active for the entire simulation event.)
Nodal lumped mass at Joint 4 Uniform mass of 0.00088 lbf s2/in and a mass
moment of inertia in the Z-direction of 0.00135 lbf s2 in. These values simulate
a steel disk 1/8 thick with a diameter of 3.5
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Exercise M Mechanical Event Simulation (MES), Geneva Mechanism

Constraints:

Center vertices of Joints 1 and 2 Fixed except for Rz


Center vertices of Joints 3 and 4 Tx, Ty, Rx and Ry

Elements:

Drive and Driven Wheels Brick, Analysis Type = "Large Displacement"


Joints Pipe, O.D. = 0.1", Wall Thickness = 0.03"

Materials:

Drive Wheel (Part 1) Brass, Red


Driven Wheel (Part 2) Plastic- Nylon Type 6/6
All Joints Custom
Density=0.0, Modulus of Elasticity =100E6,
Poisson's = 0.0, Shear Modulus of Elasticity = 0.0

Analysis Parameters:

Duration = 1 second
Capture rate = 90 (This will produce a resultant time step for every 2 of drive
wheel rotation.)
Displacement Tolerance = 0.02 (found under the "Equilibrium" tab of the
advanced analysis parameters dialog. Disable "Automatic" tolerance control.)

Load Curve Information:


Load Curve 1 (Prescribed Rotation)

Load Curve 2 (Nodal Moment)

Time
(s)
0
1

Multiplier

Time
(s)
0
1

Multiplier

0
1

1
1

Meshing, Geometry Modification, and Surface Contact Setup Instructions:


1.

Set the default contact = Free/No Contact and define a surface contact
pair between Part 1 and Part 2, which will prevent mesh matching between
the parts (this is desirable for MES contact surfaces).

2.

Mesh the model at an absolute mesh size of 0.0625.

3.

Modify line attributes to consolidate the contact surfaces. Use surface 100
for the 1st contact pair, 101 for the 2nd, and 102 for the 3rd. For the drive
wheel, surfaces 100 and 101 will each encompass approximately one-third
of the perimeter of the wheels C-shaped cylindrical contact surface.

4.

From the General Surface-to-Surface Contact settings, redefine the first


pair to be Part 1/Surface 100 to Part 2/Surface 100. Create two more pair;
Part 1/Surface 101 to Part 2/Surface 101 and Part 1/Surface 102 to
Part 2/Surface 102. Set the contact element Updating to Automatic.
Set the contact parameters for all three pair as follows

SE.112

Contact problem type = High Speed Contact (Impact)


Contact type = Surface to Surface
User specified contact stiffness = 1000 lbf/in
User specified contact tolerance = 0.0011 (eliminates clearance and
chatter).

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise M Mechanical Event Simulation (MES), Geneva Mechanism

Solution
Meshing the Model
Start Autodesk Algor Simulation from the Windows Start menu.
"Open"

"STEP (*.stp, *.ste, *.step)"

Exercise N.stp
"Open"

Select the "Open" icon at the left side of the dialog.


Select the "STEP (*.stp, *.ste, *.step)" option in the CAD
Files section of the "Files of type" drop-down box.
Navigate to the directory where the model input file is
located.
Select the Exercise M.stp file in the "Exercise M\Input File"
directory.
Press the "Open" button.

"Nonlinear: MES with


Nonlinear Material Models"

Choose the option to "Use STEP file units" if it is not


already selected and click the OK button. The original
STEP file length unit is inches.
From the analysis type pull-out menu, choose "Nonlinear:
MES with Nonlinear Material Models."

OK

Click the OK button.

Mouse
"Free/No Contact"

Right-click on the "Contact (Default: Bonded)" heading


at the bottom of the tree view and select "Free/No
Contact" as the default contact type.

Mouse

Click on the Part 1 heading in the tree view.

"Use STEP file units"


OK

<Ctrl>Mouse
Mouse
"Contact: Surface Contact"
<Enter>

Hold the <Ctrl> key and click on the Part 2 heading in the
tree view.
Right-click on one of the selected two headings, access the
"Contact" pull-out menu, and select the "Surface Contact"
command. Hit <Enter> to complete the command without
entering a description for the contact pair.

Nonlinear contact occurs between a node and an element face rather than between pairs of nodes, as is the
case for linear contact. For this reason, it is best if the meshes between adjacent contact parts are not
matched. By default, meshes are not matched for MES contact pairs. That's why it's important to define
surface contact between parts 1 and 2 prior to meshing. Later, we will modify the geometry and the contact
definitions, localizing the contact calculations to include only those surface pairs where contact will
actually occur. This will be done to minimize the number of contact calculations the solver must perform
and to speed up the analysis.
We will also specify an absolute mesh size of 0.0625". The program's default geometry-based mesh sizing
function will automatically provide finer elements around the circumference of the small pin, resulting in an
acceptable mesh without further refinement.
"Mesh: Model Mesh Settings"

Access the MESH pull-down menu and select the "Model


Mesh Settings" command.

"Options"

Click on the "Options" button.

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Exercise M Mechanical Event Simulation (MES), Geneva Mechanism


Mouse
"Absolute mesh size"

Under the "Mesh size" heading, click on the pull-down


menu button at the right end of the "Type" field. Select
"Absolute mesh size."

0.0625

Enter "0.0625" in the "Size" field.

OK

Click the OK button.

"Mesh model"

Click the "Mesh model" button.

No

Click No when prompted to view the meshing results.

Modifying the Model


We will now select lines on the surface of the wheels and modify their surface number attribute so that they
are conveniently grouped into the desired contact surfaces.
"Selection: Select: Surfaces"
Mouse
Mouse
"Hide"
"View: Orientation: Top
View"
"Selection: Shape: Polyline"
"Selection: Select: Lines"

Mouse
<Enter>

SE.114

Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the


"Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Surfaces" command.
Click and drag the middle mouse button to temporarily
enter the rotate view mode. Rotate the model so that the
underside of the wheels can be seen.
Click on the bottom surface of the drive wheel (the disk and
not the shaft Part 1, Surface 29). Then right-click and choose
the "Hide" command.
Access the VIEW pull-down menu and choose the
"Orientation" pull-out menu. Select the "Top View"
command.
Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the
"Shape" pull-out menu. Select the "Polyline" command.
Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the
"Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Lines" command.
Refer to Figure M1. Clicking multiple times with the
mouse, draw a selection polyline enclosing all of the lines
of the first contact pair surfaces (including both the drive
and the driven wheel). Hit <Enter> to draw the final
segment and to close the polyline loop. Be sure to include
the chamfers on both wheels. The lines should be
highlighted in magenta as shown in Figure M1. The yellow
outline represents the selection polyline.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise M Mechanical Event Simulation (MES), Geneva Mechanism

Figure M1: Selection Polyline (Yellow) and Lines Selected for Modification of Attributes (Magenta)
Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Modify Attributes"

Select the "Modify Attributes" command.

<Tab> 100

Press <Tab> once to jump to the "Surface" field and type


"100" in this field.

OK

Click the OK button.

"Yes"

Click the "Yes" button when asked if you want to proceed.

Mouse
<Enter>

Mouse
<Ctrl> <Enter>

Refer to Figure M2. Clicking multiple times with the


mouse, draw a selection polyline enclosing all of the lines
of the second contact pair surface that belong to the drive
wheel). Hit <Enter> to draw the final segment and to close
the polyline loop. Be sure to include the chamfer.
Clicking multiple times with the mouse, draw another
selection polyline enclosing all of the lines of the second
contact pair surface that belong to the driven wheel). While
holding the <Ctrl> key, hit <Enter> to draw the final
segment and to close the polyline loop. Be sure to include
the two chamfers. The lines should be highlighted in
magenta as shown in Figure M2. The yellow outlines
represent the selection polylines.

Note: If you close the polyline by clicking again on the starting point, rather than by hitting the <Enter> key
before reaching it; you must hold the <Ctrl> key when clicking so that the second group of lines is added to
the selection set. Otherwise, the prior selection will be discarded.

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Exercise M Mechanical Event Simulation (MES), Geneva Mechanism

Figure M2: Selection Polylines (Yellow) and Lines Selected for Modification of Attributes (Magenta)
Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Modify Attributes"

Select the "Modify Attributes" command.

<Tab> 101

Press <Tab> once to jump to the "Surface" field and type


"101" in this field.

OK

Click the OK button.

Mouse
"Select Subentities: Lines"

Access the VIEW pull-down menu and choose the


"Orientation" pull-out menu. Select the "Right View"
command.
Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the
"Shape" pull-out menu. Select the "Point" command.
Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the
"Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Surfaces" command.
Click on the upper left half of the indexing pin's cylindrical
surface.
Holding down the <Ctrl> key, click on the upper right half
of the indexing pin's cylindrical surface.
Right-click in the display area and choose the "Select
Subentities" pull-out menu. Select the "Lines" command.

"Modify Attributes"

Select the "Modify Attributes" command.

<Tab> 102

Press <Tab> once to jump to the "Surface" field and type


"102" in this field.

OK

Click the OK button.

Mouse
"Hide"

In the tree view, right-click of the heading for Part 1 and


select the "Hide" command.
Access the VIEW pull-down menu and choose the
"Orientation" pull-out menu. Select the "Top View"
command.

"View: Orientation: Right


View"
"Selection: Shape: Point"
"Selection: Select: Surfaces"
Mouse
<Ctrl> Mouse

"View: Orientation: Top


View"

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Exercise M Mechanical Event Simulation (MES), Geneva Mechanism

Mouse
Holding <Z>
<Cursor Left> <Cursor Left>
<Cursor Left>
"Selection: Shape: Rectangle"

Mouse

Click once anywhere within the model display area, making


this the active window, rather than the previously accessed
tree view area.
While holding the <Z> key, press the <Cursor Left> key
three times. This action will rotate the view about the Zaxis, 45 degrees clockwise (15 degrees per keystroke).
Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the
"Shape" pull-out menu. Select the "Rectangle"
command.
Click and drag the mouse to create a selection box
enclosing the driven wheel's lines that belong to the third
contact surface. This will be the slot at the left side of the
display. Include the chamfers at the outside end of the slot
but not at the inside end. The lines should be highlighted in
magenta as shown in Figure M3. The yellow outline
represents the selection box.

Figure M3: Selection Box (Yellow) and Lines Selected for Modification of Attributes (Magenta)
Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Modify Attributes"

Select the "Modify Attributes" command.

<Tab> 102

Press <Tab> once to jump to the "Surface" field and type


"102" in this field.

OK

Click the OK button.

Mouse
"Show"
Mouse
"Show All Surfaces"

Right-click on the Part 1 heading and select the "Show"


command, restoring the visibility of this previously hidden
part.
Right-click on the "Surfaces" heading under Part 1 in the
tree view. Select the "Show All Surfaces" command. The
bottom surface of the drive wheel will reappear.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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Exercise M Mechanical Event Simulation (MES), Geneva Mechanism


"View: Orientation: Isometric
View"
"Selection: None"

"File: Save"

Access the VIEW pull-down menu and choose the


"Orientation" pull-out menu. Select the "Isometric
View" command.
Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and select the
"None" command to deselect all items, whether in the
display area or tree view.
Before proceeding further, save the work performed thus far
by accessing the FILE pull-down menu and selecting the
"Save" command.

Defining Surface Contact Pairs and Parameters


Now that the proper surface line assignments have been applied to the model, we will go into the "MES:
Surface-to-Surface Contact" dialog and set up the three contact pairs and their specified parameters.
Mouse
"General Surface-to-Surface
Contact"
Mouse
"100"
Mouse
"100"

Using the pull-down menu in the "First Surface" field at


the top of the dialog, select surface "100."
Using the pull-down menu in the "Second Surface" field,
select surface "100."

"Add Row"

Click on the "Add Row" button.

Mouse
"1"
Mouse
"101"
Mouse
"2"
Mouse
"101"

Using the pull-down menu in the "First Part" field, select


part "1."
Using the pull-down menu in the "First Surface" field,
select surface "101."
Using the pull-down menu in the "Second Part" field,
select part "2."
Using the pull-down menu in the "Second Surface" field,
select surface "101."

"Add Row"

Click on the "Add Row" button.

Mouse
"1"
Mouse
"102"
Mouse
"2"
Mouse
"102"

Using the pull-down menu in the "First Part" field, select


part "1."
Using the pull-down menu in the "First Surface" field,
select surface "102."
Using the pull-down menu in the "Second Part" field,
select part "2."
Using the pull-down menu in the "Second Surface" field,
select surface "102."
Access the pull-down menu at the "Updating" field and
choose "Automatic." The active contact elements will be
reevaluated as the wheels move to different positions.
In the first row (Pair 1) of the Contact Pairs table, click on
the "Parameters" column (currently showing "Default").

Mouse
"Automatic"
Mouse

SE.118

Right-click in the display area and select the "General


Surface-to-Surface Contact" command.

Mouse
"High Speed Contact
(Impact)"
Mouse
"Surface to Surface"

Change the "Contact type" to "Surface to Surface" using


the provided pull-down menu.

"Advanced"

Click on the "Advanced" button.

Change the "Contact problem type" to "High Speed


Contact (Impact)" using the provided pull-down menu.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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Exercise M Mechanical Event Simulation (MES), Geneva Mechanism


Mouse
Mouse
1000

Activate the checkboxes for both "User-specified contact


stiffness" and "User-specified contact tolerance."

0.0011

Enter "0.0011" into the "Contact tolerance" field.

OK
OK
Mouse
"All"
"Copy"
"Yes"

OK

Enter "1000" into the "Contact stiffness" field.

Click the OK button to exit the "Advanced Controls and


Parameters for Contact Pair" screen.
Click the OK button to exit the "Controls and Parameters
for Contact Pair" screen.
To conveniently duplicate these contact settings for the
remaining two pairs, access the pull-down menu at the "To
Pair" field and select "All."
Click on the "Copy" button.
Click the "Yes" button to verify that you want the
parameters copied from the source pair (#1) to all other pairs.
Note that the Parameters column in the Contact Pairs table
will now show "Custom" for all pairs.
Click the OK button to exit the "MES: Surface to Surface
Contact" screen.

Creating the Joints


We will next create the four joints used to rotationally mount the two Geneva wheels.
"Selection: Shape: Point"
"Selection: Select: Surfaces"
Mouse
Mouse
"CAD Mesh Options: Create
Joint"
"Universal Joint (lines to axis
midpoint)"
Mouse
<Tab> <Tab> <Tab> -0.125
OK
Mouse
"CAD Mesh Options: Create
Joint"
"Universal Joint (lines to axis
midpoint)"

Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the


"Shape" pull-out menu. Select the "Point" command.
Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the
"Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Surfaces" command.
Click and drag the middle mouse button to temporarily
enter the rotate view mode. Rotate the model so that the
underside of the wheels can be seen.
Click on the bottom, end surface of the drive wheel's center
shaft (Part 1, Surface 21).
Right-click in the display area, select the "CAD Mesh
Options" pull-out menu, and choose the "Create Joint"
command.
Access the pull-down menu at the "Joint" field and choose
"Universal Joint (lines to axis midpoint)."
Activate the "Manual axis/center-point specification" radio
button.
Press <Tab> three times and type in "-0.125" for the Zcoordinate of the center-point.
Click the OK button to create the first joint.
Click on the bottom, end surface of the driven wheel's
center shaft (Part 2, Surface 4).
Right-click in the display area, select the "CAD Mesh
Options" pull-out menu, and choose the "Create Joint"
command.
Access the pull-down menu at the "Joint" field and choose
"Universal Joint (lines to axis midpoint)."

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Exercise M Mechanical Event Simulation (MES), Geneva Mechanism


Mouse
<Tab> 1.414214
<Tab> <Tab> -0.125
OK
"View: Orientation: Isometric
View"
Mouse
"CAD Mesh Options: Create
Joint"
"Universal Joint (lines to axis
midpoint)"
Mouse
<Tab> <Tab> <Tab> 0.875
OK
Mouse
"CAD Mesh Options: Create
Joint"
Mouse
"Universal Joint (lines to axis
midpoint)"
Mouse
<Tab> 1.414214
<Tab> <Tab> 0.875
OK

Activate the "Manual axis/center-point specification" radio


button.
<Tab> once and type in "1.414214" for the X-coordinate of
the center-point.
<Tab> twice and type in "-0.125" for the Z-coordinate of
the center-point.
Click the OK button to create the second joint.
Access the VIEW pull-down menu and choose the
"Orientation" pull-out menu. Select the "Isometric
View" command.
Click on the top, end surface of the drive wheel's center
shaft (Part 1, Surface 9).
Right-click in the display area, select the "CAD Mesh
Options" pull-out menu, and choose the "Create Joint"
command.
Access the pull-down menu at the "Joint" field and choose
"Universal Joint (lines to axis midpoint)."
Activate the "Manual axis/center-point specification" radio
button.
<Tab> three times and type in "0.875" for the Z-coordinate
of the center-point.
Click the OK button to create the third joint.
Click on the top, end surface of the driven wheel's center
shaft (Part 2, Surface 18).
Right-click in the display area, select the "CAD Mesh
Options" pull-out menu, and choose the "Create Joint"
command.
Access the pull-down menu at the "Joint" field and choose
"Universal Joint (lines to axis midpoint)."
Activate the "Manual axis/center-point specification" radio
button.
<Tab> once and type in "1.414214" for the X-coordinate of
the center-point.
<Tab> twice and type in "0.875" for the Z-coordinate of
the center-point.
Click the OK button to create the fourth and final joint.

Defining Element and Material Data


Next, we'll define the element type for the joints and the element definitions and materials for each part of
the assembly. The element type for the Geneva wheels will have already been set to brick.
Mouse
<Ctrl> Mouse
Mouse
"Modify Element Definition"
Mouse
"Large Displacement"
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Click on the "Element Definition" heading under Part 1 in


the tree view.
Holding the <Ctrl> key, click on the "Element Definition"
heading under Part 2 in the tree view.
Right-click on one of the selected headings and choose the
"Modify Element Definition" command.
Use the pull-down menu in the "Analysis Type" field and
select "Large Displacement."

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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Exercise M Mechanical Event Simulation (MES), Geneva Mechanism

OK
OK
Mouse
Mouse
"Brass, Red"
OK
Mouse
"Plastic- Nylon Type 6/6"
OK

Click the OK button to clear the resulting pop-up


message (if the setting had been changed from small to
large displacement).
Click the OK button to exit the Element Definition
screen.
Double-click on the "Material" heading under Part 1 in the
tree view.
Click on the plus sign to the left of the "Brass" folder to
expand this branch.
Select the material, "Brass, Red", within the Brass
folder of the Autodesk Algor Material Library.
Click on the OK button to close the Element Material
Selection screen.
Double-click on the "Material" heading under Part 2 in the
tree view.
Select the material, "Plastic- Nylon Type 6/6", from the
list of available materials within the Plastic folder.
Click the OK button to close the Element Material
Selection screen.

We will set the element type, element definition, and material properties for all four joints simultaneously.
Mouse
<Ctrl> <Shift> "M"
<Shift> Mouse
Mouse
"Modify: Element Type: Pipe"
Mouse
"Modify: Element Data"
Mouse
0.1
<Tab> 0.03

Click on the "Part 3" heading in the tree view.


Holding down the <Ctrl> and the <Shift> keys, press the
"M" key to collapse the tree view's parts list.
Holding the <Shift> key, click on the "Part 6" heading in
the tree view. Parts 3 through 6 should now be highlighted.
Right-click on one of the selected headings.
Access the "Modify" pull-out menu, choose the "Element
Type" pull-out menu, and select "Pipe" from the list.
Once again, right-click on a selected heading, access the
"Modify" pull-out menu, and select the "Element Data"
command.
Double-click in the "Outside diameter" field and type the
value "0.1".
<Tab> once and enter the value "0.03" into the "Wall
thickness" field.

OK

Click on the OK button.

Mouse
"Modify: Material"

One more time, right-click on a selected heading, access the


"Modify" pull-out menu, and select the "Material"
command.

"Edit Properties"

Press the "Edit Properties" button.

Mouse
100e6

Double-click in the "Modulus of Elasticity" field and enter


the value "100e6". All other values remain at zero.
Click the OK button to exit the Element Material
Definition screen.
Click the OK button to exit the Element Material
Selection screen.
Before proceeding further, save the work performed thus far
by accessing the FILE pull-down menu and selecting the
"Save" command.

OK
OK
"File: Save"

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Exercise M Mechanical Event Simulation (MES), Geneva Mechanism

Adding Loads and Constraints


Next, we will define the specified loads and constraints. These consist of the nodal loads and constraints at
the joint center-points and the part-based load (initial velocity) to be applied to the drive wheel.

Mouse
"Add: Nodal Boundary
Conditions"

Access the VIEW pull-down menu and choose the


"Orientation" pull-out menu. Select the "Front View"
command.
Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the
"Shape" pull-out menu. Select the "Rectangle"
command.
Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the
"Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Vertices" command.
Click and drag the mouse to draw a selection window
enclosing the two center-nodes of the bottom two joints (#1
and #2).
Right-click in the display area, access the "Add" pull-out
menu and select the "Nodal Boundary Conditions"
command.

"Fixed"

Click on the "Fixed" button.

"Rz" {deselect}

Deselect the "Rz" checkbox to release this DOF.

OK

Click the OK button.

"View: Orientation: Front


View"
"Selection: Shape: Rectangle"
"Selection: Select: Vertices"
Mouse

Mouse
"Add: Nodal Boundary
Conditions"

Click and drag the mouse to draw a selection window


enclosing the two center-nodes of the top two joints (#3 and
#4).
Right-click in the display area, access the "Add" pull-out
menu and select the "Nodal Boundary Conditions"
command.

"Tx", "Ty", "Rx", "Ry"

Activate the "Tx", "Ty", "Rx" and "Ry" checkboxes.

OK

Click the OK button.

Mouse

Mouse
"Add: Nodal Prescribed
Displacement"

Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the


"Shape" pull-out menu. Select the "Point" command.
Click on the center-point of Joint #3 (upper-left). Be sure
to select the vertex and not the previously applied boundary
condition.
Right-click in the display area, access the "Add" pull-out
menu, and select the "Nodal Prescribed Displacement"
command.

"Rotation"

Activate the "Rotation" radio button.

<Tab> 0.5

<Tab> once and enter "0.5" in the "Magnitude" field.

"Scalar Z"

Activate the "Scalar Z" radio button.

"Curve"

Press the "Curve" button.

OK

Click the OK button to accept the default load curve


(ramp from 0 to 1 in 1 second).

"Data"

Press the "Data" button.

"Selection: Shape: Point"


Mouse

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Exercise M Mechanical Event Simulation (MES), Geneva Mechanism


Mouse
1

Type "1" in the "Death Time" column for Index 1 (the only
displayed row). This value ensures that the prescribed
displacement remains active throughout the simulation event.

OK

Click the OK button to accept the active range.

OK
Mouse
Mouse
"Add: Nodal Moment"
2

Click the OK button to close the Nodal Prescribed


Displacement dialog.
Click on the center-point of Joint #4 (upper-right). Be sure
to select the vertex and not the previously applied boundary
condition.
Right-click in the display area, access the "Add" pull-out
menu, and select the "Nodal Moment" command.
Enter "2" in the "Magnitude" field.

"Z"

Activate the "Z" direction radio button.

Mouse
"2"

Using the up-arrow to the right of the "Load Case / Load


Curve" field, increment the load curve number to "2."

"Curve"

Press the "Curve" button.

"Add Row"

Press the "Add Row" button.

Mouse

Click in the "Multiplier" column for Time = 0.0 (first


row).

Type "1" in the Row 1 Multiplier column.

<Tab> <Tab> 1

<Tab> twice and type "1" in the Row 2 Time column.

<Enter>

Press the <Enter> key to update the load curve graph.

OK

Click the OK button to accept Load Curve 2.

OK
Mouse
"Add: Nodal Lumped
Mass"
<Tab> 0.00088
<Tab> <Tab> <Tab>
0.00135
<Tab>
3.5 inch diameter, 1/8
inch thick steel disk.
OK

Click the OK button to close the Nodal Moment


Object dialog.
While the joint 4 center-point is still selected, right-click
again, access the "Add" pull-out menu, and select the
"Nodal Lumped Mass" command.
<Tab> once and type "0.00088" in the "X Direction" field
under the "Mass/Weight" heading.
<Tab> three times and type "0.00135" in the "Z Direction"
field under the "Mass Moment of Inertia" heading.
<Tab> once and type "3.5 inch diameter, 1/8 inch thick
steel disk." in the "Description" field.
Click the OK button.

Mouse
30

Right-click on the heading for Part 1 in the tree view.


Access the "Add" pull-out menu and select the "Initial
Velocity" command.
Double-click in the "Z" field under the "Rotational
Magnitude" heading and type "30" in this field.

OK

Click the OK button.

Mouse
"Add: Initial Velocity"

"View: Orientation: Isometric


View"
"File: Save"

Access the VIEW pull-down menu and choose the


"Orientation" pull-out menu. Select the "Isometric
View" command.
Before proceeding further, save the work performed thus far
by accessing the FILE pull-down menu and selecting the
"Save" command.

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SE.123

Exercise M Mechanical Event Simulation (MES), Geneva Mechanism

This completes the application of constraints, loads, element properties, and materials to the assembly. We
will now define the analysis parameters.

Defining the Analysis Parameters


"Analysis: Parameters"

Access the ANALYSIS pull-down menu and select the


"Parameters" command.

Mouse
90

Double-click in the "Capture Rate" field and enter "90".

"Advanced"

Click on the "Advanced" button.

Mouse
Mouse
0.02
OK
OK

Deselect the "Automatic" checkbox to the right of the


"Displacement Tolerance" field.
Double-click in the "Displacement Tolerance" field and
enter "0.02".
Click the OK button to close the Advanced analysis
parameters screen.
Click the OK button to close the Analysis Parameters
screen.

Running the Analysis


"Analysis: Perform
Analysis"

Access the ANALYSIS pull-down menu and select the


"Perform Analysis" command.

NOTE: Depending upon the computer hardware, this analysis may take an hour or several hours to run. If time is
limited, you may wish to allow several steps to converge, stop the analysis, and then load the already
completed model from the provided archive file, Exercise M\Results Archive\Exercise M.ach.

Viewing the Results


We will review the stress results for time step 44 (when the peak stress occurs), create and export a graph
showing the displacement magnitude as a function of time, and create an animation showing the stress
results for the whole simulation.
We will also turn off the display of contact diagnostic probes so that they will not appear within the
animation. These probes mark areas of node/surface penetration and/or chatter and are useful for
troubleshooting a model that is having difficulty converging. They do not necessarily indicate a problem,
since slight, localized penetration is not uncommon and may be insignificant. Contact behavior is
influenced by the mesh density, mesh smoothness, and contact stiffness. Chatter is generally the result of
excessive contact stiffness and makes convergence more difficult.

Mouse
Mouse

SE.124

Click the "Toggle Load and Constraint Display" toolbar


button to turn off the display of the load and constraint
symbols. Your screen should now look similar to Figure L1.
Disable the displaying of Contact Diagnostic Probes by
clicking the associated toolbar icon.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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Exercise M Mechanical Event Simulation (MES), Geneva Mechanism


"Results Options: Load Case:
Set"

Access the RESULTS OPTIONS pull-down menu, select


the "Load Case" pull-out menu, and choose the "Set"
command.

44
OK

Type "44" and Click the OK button.

Mouse

Click on the Maximum Result Probe toolbar icon. This


will place a flag at the peak von Mises stress location.

Mouse

Click on the heading for Part 2 in the tree view.

<Shift> Mouse
Mouse
"Hide"

Mouse

While holding the <Shift> key, click on the Part 6 heading


in the tree view.
Right-click on a selected heading and choose the "Hide"
command. This will improve the visibility of the peak stress,
which is on the drive wheel's indexing pin.
Click and drag the middle mouse button to temporarily
enter the rotate view mode. Rotate the model for a better
view of the peak stress area. If desired, roll the wheel to
zoom in somewhat.

The annotation and legend will indicate the maximum stress value. This stress should be approximately
5,000 to 5,200 psi and will be in the contact area of the indexing pin. Contact stresses are rather sensitive
to surface mesh and contact settings changes, so expect different peak values for modeling variants. The
screen image should resemble Figure M4.

Figure M4: Peak von Mises Stress Plot Time Step 44


Mouse
"Show"
Mouse

Right-click on the Part 2 heading in the tree view and


choose the "Show" command.
Click the Maximum Result Probe toolbar icon to
toggle off this flag.

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Exercise M Mechanical Event Simulation (MES), Geneva Mechanism


"View: Enclose"
"Results: Displacement:
Magnitude"
Mouse

<Ctrl> Mouse
Mouse
"Graph Values"
Mouse
"Font Size: Large"

Access the VIEW pull-down menu and select the


"Enclose" command.
Access the RESULTS pull-down menu, select the
"Displacement" pull-out menu, and choose the
"Magnitude" command.
Click on a node on the top, end face of the drive
wheel's indexing pin. Choose the node that is furthest
from the centerline of the wheel.
Holding the <Ctrl> key, select a node at the OD of the
driven wheel, for example, one at the outer edge of one
of the slot chamfers.
Right-click in the display area and select the "Graph
Values" command.
Right-click in the graph display area, access the "Font
Size" pull-out menu and select the "Large" option. The
resulting plot should look like Figure M5.

Figure M5: Displacement versus Time Graph


Mouse
"Export Dialog"
"PNG"
"File"
"Browse"
Exercise M Displacement
Graph.png

SE.126

Right-click in the graph display area and select the


"Export Dialog" command.
Select the "PNG" radio button under the "Export"
heading.
Select the "File" radio button under the "Export
Destination" heading.
Click on the "Browse" button, accept the default file
location and type "Exercise M Displacement
Graph.png" into the "File name" field.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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Exercise M Mechanical Event Simulation (MES), Geneva Mechanism

Mouse
1024

Click on the "Save" button to return to the Exporting


dialog.
Double-click on the "Width" field under the "Export
Size" heading and enter "1024".

<Tab> 768

<Tab> once and enter "768" in the "Height" field.

Mouse
"100"

Using the pull-down menu in the "DPI" field, choose


"100," which is the closet value to the typical computer
screen's resolution.

"Export"

Click on the "Export" button to create the PNG file.

"Save"

Mouse
Selection: None
"Results: Stress: von Mises"

Click on the first heading, "1 < Stress >," listed under
the Presentations heading in the tree view to return to
the color contour plot.
Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose
"None" to deselect the two nodes.
Access the RESULTS pull-down menu, select the
"Stress" pull-out menu, and choose the "von Mises"
command.

Before making the stress animation, let's override the default legend range for the plot. This will be done
for the following two reasons:
1.

To make the correlation between stress level and plot color consistent for all video
framesotherwise, the stress range in the legend will be recalculated for each frame
based on the minimum and maximum stress result at that time step only.

2.

Because the high contact stresses are localized and the typical stresses in the two
wheels are much lowerchanging the display range to a lesser maximum value will
bring out a broader range of color throughout the assembly and reveal the more
typical and lower stress values.

"Display Options: Plot Settings"

Access the DISPLAY OPTIONS pull-down menu and


select the "Enclose" command.

"Range Settings"

Click on the "Range Settings" tab.

Mouse
<Tab> 0

Deactivate the "Automatically calculate value range"


checkbox.
<Tab> once and enter "0" in the "Low" field under the
Current Range heading.

<Tab> 2000

<Tab> once and enter "2000" in the "High" field.

OK

Click on the OK button.

Mouse

<Ctrl> Mouse

"Animation: Save as AVI"

Click and drag the middle mouse button to temporarily


enter the rotate view mode. Rotate the model to a good
viewpoint for creating the animation (AVI file). Also,
roll the mouse wheel to zoom in or out as desired.
If necessary, reposition the view by holding the <Ctrl>
key and clicking and dragging the middle mouse
button to temporarily enter the pan view mode.
Access the ANIMATION pull-down menu and select
the "Save as AVI" command. Or, click on the
Export Animation toolbar icon.

We will keep the default settings for frames per second, start and end steps, step increment, and video
compression. We will however change the resolution to a standard 4/3 format of 1024 x 768 (assuming it
is not already set to that resolution) and we'll change the filename.
FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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Exercise M Mechanical Event Simulation (MES), Geneva Mechanism

Mouse

Deactivate the "Lock" checkbox under the Target


Resolution heading.

Mouse
1024

Double-click in the "Width" field and type "1024".

<Tab> 768

<Tab> once and type "768" in the "Height" field.

Mouse
- von Mises Stress

Click twice (slowly) in the "File name" field at the end


of the default name, the first click selects the name, the
second one positions the cursor just before the point.
Append the text, " von Mises Stress" to the end of
the "Exercise M" default filename.

"Save"

Click on the "Save" button to generate the AVI file.

"Yes"

Mouse

Click the "Yes" button when asked if you want to view


the animation now.
Use the Analysis Replay controls to play, pause, or
rewind the animation. Click on the
button in the
upper right corner of the Analysis Replay control
screen to close both it and the animation window.

To review a completed archive of this exercise, refer to the file "Exercise M\Results Archive\Exercise M.ach.

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Exercise N
Nonlinear Material Model
Beam Elements
Objective:

First, analyze a cantilever beam using an elastic material model. If the stress
exceeds the yield stress of 36,000 psi, run another analysis using a plastic
material model.

Geometry:

The beam shown below is 10 feet long. The cross section is a 5" x 4, with the
beam oriented for maximum strength and stiffness for the applied load direction.

Loads:

56,000 pound force downward (-Y direction) at the free end.

Constraints:

Fully constrained at one end.

Elements:

Beam (use the Large Displacement analysis type option in the Element
Definition dialog)

Material:

Steel (ASTM-A36)

Analysis Parameters:

Duration = 10 seconds
Capture rate = 2

Load Curve Information:


Time
(s)
0
10

Multiplier
0
1

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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Exercise N Nonlinear Material Model

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FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

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Exercise N Nonlinear Material Model

Solution
Building the Model
Start Autodesk Algor Simulation from the Windows Start menu.
"New"

Select the "New" icon at the left side of the dialog.

"Nonlinear: MES with Nonlinear


Material Models "

Click on the arrow button to the right of the analysis


type field.
Select the "Nonlinear" pull-out menu and select the
"MES with Nonlinear Material Models" option.

"New"

Press the "New" button.

Exercise N

Type "Exercise N" in the "File name:" field in the


"Save As" dialog. Note the default folder location
where the analysis files will be created. This
location can be changed by navigating to an alternate
working folder if desired.

"Save"

Press the "Save" button.

Mouse

"View: Orientation: Top View"

"Geometry: Add: Line"


Mouse
<Enter>
120<Enter>

Access the VIEW pull-down menu and select the


"Orientation" pull-out menu. Select the "Top
View" command.
Access the GEOMETRY pull-down menu and select
the "Add" pull-out menu. Select the "Line"
command to access the "Define Geometry" dialog.
Deactivate the "Use as Construction" checkbox.
Press <Enter> to accept (0, 0, 0) as the coordinate
for the initial vertex.
Type "120" in the "X:" field and press <Enter> to
accept (120, 0, 0) as the coordinate for the next vertex.

<Esc>

Press <Esc> to terminate the current line segment.

<Esc>

Press <Esc> to exit the line command.

"View: Enclose"
"Selection: Select: Lines"
Mouse
"Geometry: Tools: Divide"
20
OK

Access the VIEW pull-down and select the


"Enclose" command.
Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and
choose the "Select" pull-out menu. Select the
"Lines" command.
Click on the line that was just created to select it.
Access the GEOMETRY pull-down menu and select
the "Tools" pull-out menu. Select the "Divide"
command to bring up the "Divide Lines" dialog.
Type "20" in the "Number of Lines:" field in the
"Divide Lines" dialog.
Click the OK button to divide the single line
segment into 20 line segments.

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Exercise N Nonlinear Material Model

Defining Element and Material Data


Mouse

Right-click on the "Element Type" heading for


Part 1 in the tree view.

"Beam"

Select the "Beam" command.

Mouse

Right-click on the "Element Definition" heading


for Part 1 in the tree view.

"Modify Element Definition..."

Select the "Modify Element Definition" command.

Large Displacement

Select the Large Displacement option from the dropdown list in the Analysis Type field.

OK

Click OK to dismiss the pop-up message.

Mouse

Click any cell within the Layer 1 row of the Sectional


Properties table to select this row.

"Cross-Section Libraries"

Press the "Cross-Section Libraries" button.

"Rectangular"

Select the "Rectangular" option in the drop-down


box in the upper right corner.

Type "4" in the "b" field.

Type "5" in the "h" field.

OK
OK
"Selection: Shape: Rectangle"
Mouse

Draw a box enclosing the entire model.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Beam Orientations: New"

0 <Tab> 10 <Enter>

Mouse
"Modify Material"
"Steel (ASTM-A36)"
OK

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Click the OK button to exit the Cross-Section


Libraries dialog.
Click the OK button to exit the Element
Definition dialog.
Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and select
the "Shape" pull-out menu. Select the "Rectangle"
command.

Select the "Beam Orientations" pull-out menu and


select the "New" command.
Type0 in the X: field, press <Tab>, type "10"
in the "Y:" field, and press <Enter>. This defines an
auxiliary vertex (0, 10, 0) that orients the local 2 axis
of the beam elements, corresponding to the direction
for the 5 inch dimension.
Right-click on the "Material" heading for Part 1 in
the tree view.
Select the "Modify Material" command.
Highlight the material, "Steel (ASTM-A36)", near
the bottom of the list of available materials within
the Steel folder.
Click the OK button to accept the selected
material.

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise N Nonlinear Material Model

Adding Loads and Constraints

"Selection: Select: Vertices"


Mouse

Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose


the "Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Vertices"
command.
Draw a box around the vertex at the left end of the
beam.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Nodal Boundary


Condition"

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the


"Nodal Boundary Condition" command.
Press the "Fixed" button in the "Predefined"
section.

"Fixed"
OK

Click the OK button to apply the constraint.

Mouse

Draw a box around the vertex at the right end of the


beam.

Mouse

Right-click in the display area.

"Add: Nodal Force"

Select the "Add" pull-out menu and select the


"Nodal Force" command.

-56000

Type "-56000" in the "Magnitude" field.

"Y"

Select the "Y" radio button.

OK

Click the OK button to apply the force.

Mouse
"Modify Analysis Parameters"

Right-click on the "Analysis Parameters" heading


in the tree view.
Select the "Modify Analysis Parameters"
command.

10

Type "10" in the "Duration" field.

100

Type "100" in the "Capture rate" field.

10

Type "10" in the second row of the Time column


within the Load Curve table.

OK

Click the OK button to accept the changes.

Running the Analysis

"Analysis: Perform Analysis"

Access the ANALYSIS pull-down menu and select


the "Perform Analysis" command. The model
will be displayed in the Results environment while
the solution is progressing.

Viewing the Results


"Results: Beam and Truss: Worst
Stress"

Access the RESULTS pull-down menu and select


the "Beam and Truss" pull-out menu. Choose the
"Worst Stress" command.

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Exercise N Nonlinear Material Model


The maximum stress is about 40,300 psi, which is well over the yield stress of 36,000 psi. Therefore, a
nonlinear material model is necessary. We will create a second design scenario within the model for the nonlinear run. Before doing so, we will check the displacement magnitude to compare with the later results,
which will consider plastic deformation.
"Results: Displacement:
Magnitude"

Access the RESULTS pull-down menu and select the


"Displacement" pull-out menu. Choose the "Magnitude"
command.

The maximum displacement magnitude should be about 2.67 inches. We expect this number to be less than
the actual displacement with plastic deformation considered.

Creating a New Design Scenario


"Tools: FEA Editor"
Mouse
Mouse

Access the TOOLS pull-down menu and select the "FEA


Editor" command.
Right-click on the "Design Scenario 1" heading in the tree
view and select the "Copy" command.
Right-click on the "Design Scenario 1" heading in the tree
view and select the "Rename" command.

"Elastic Material"

Type "Elastic Material" into the "Description" field.

OK

Click the OK button.

Mouse

Right-click on the "Design Scenario 2" heading in the tree


view and select the "Rename" command.

"Nonlinear Material"

Type "Nonlinear Material" into the "Description" field.

OK

Click the OK button.

You now have two design scenarios defined within the model, one for the elastic (isotropic) material model
and one for the non-linear (von Mises with isotropic hardening) material model. Double-clicking on an
inactive scenario heading will make it the active scenario. We will now modify the element data for the
second design scenario to specify the non-linear material model.

Modifying the Element Data


Mouse

Right-click on the "Element Definition" heading for Part 1


in the tree view.

"Modify Element Definition..."

Select the "Modify Element Definition" command.

"von Mises with Isotropic


Hardening"

Select the "von Mises with Isotropic Hardening" option


in the "Material Model" drop-down box.

OK

Click the OK button.

Since the material model has been changed, we will revisit the material selection dialog to refresh the
properties for the selected material.
Mouse
"OK"
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Double-click on the "Material" heading for Part 1 in the


tree view.
Verify that a non-zero Strain Hardening Modulus is shown in
the material properties list and click "OK."

FEA in Practice Steps for Exercises Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2011

4/30/2010

Exercise N Nonlinear Material Model

Running the Analysis


"Analysis: Perform Analysis"

Access the ANALYSIS pull-down menu and select


the "Perform Analysis" command.

Viewing the Results

"Results: Stress: Beam and Truss:


Worst Stress"

"Results: Displacement: Magnitude"

Access the RESULTS pull-down menu and select the


"Stress" pull-out menu. Select the "Beam and
Truss" pull-out menu and select the "Worst Stress"
command. The maximum stress (~37,287 psi) is now
below the previous value. Therefore the effect of the
lower modulus that was used after yield is obvious.
Access the RESULTS pull-down menu and select the
"Displacement" pull-out menu. Choose the
"Magnitude" command. The displacement with
plasticity of the material taken into account (~4.65
inches) is approximately 2 inches greater than the
prior displacement.

To review a completed archive of this exercise, refer to the file "Exercise N.ach" in the "Exercise N\Results
Archive" directory. The results archive contains both the elastic and the nonlinear variants of the exercise.

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Exercise N Nonlinear Material Model

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