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Basic Programmable Controller

Description
This training introduces the basic hardware and software components of a
Programmable Controller (PLC). It details the architecture and basic
instruction set common to all PLCs. Basic programming techniques and
logic designs are covered. This training describes the operating features of
the PLC, the advantages of the PLC over hard-wired control systems,
practical applications, troubleshooting and maintenance of PLCs.

Objectives
At the end of the training the participants should be able to:

Describe the major components of a common PLC.

Interpret PLC specifications.

Apply troubleshooting techniques.

Convert conventional relay logic to a PLC language.

Operate and program a PLC for a given application.

Course Contents

History of Programmable Controllers

Relay Ladder Logic

Central Processing Unit

Input/Output System

Programming and Peripheral Devices

Programming Concepts

Applications

Troubleshooting and Maintenance

INTRODUCTION TO PLCS
A Programmable Logic Controller, PLC or Programmable Controller is a digital computer
used for automation of electromechanical processes, such as control of machinery on factory
assembly lines, amusement rides, or light fixtures. The abbreviation "PLC" and the term
"Programmable Logic Controller" are registered trademarks of the Allen-Bradley Company
(Rockwell Automation).[1] PLCs are used in many industries and machines. Unlike generalpurpose computers, the PLC is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements,
extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and
impact. Programs to control machine operation are typically stored in battery-backed-up or
non-volatile memory. A PLC is an example of a hard real time system since output results
must be produced in response to input conditions within a limited time, otherwise unintended
operation will result.
Early PLCs were designed to replace relay logic systems. These PLCs were programmed in
"ladder logic", which strongly resembles a schematic diagram of relay logic. This program
notation was chosen to reduce training demands for the existing technicians. Other early
PLCs used a form of instruction list programming, based on a stack-based logic solver.

Modern PLCs can be programmed in a variety of ways, from the relay-derived ladder logic to
programming languages such as specially adapted dialects of BASIC and C. Another method
is State Logic, a very high-level programming language designed to program PLCs based on
state transition diagrams.
The functionality of the PLC has evolved over the years to include sequential relay control,
motion control, process control, distributed control systems and networking. The data
handling, storage, processing power and communication capabilities of some modern PLCs
are approximately equivalent to desktop computers. PLC-like programming combined with
remote I/O hardware, allow a general-purpose desktop computer to overlap some PLCs in
certain applications. Regarding the practicality of these desktop computer based logic
controllers, it is important to note that they have not been generally accepted in heavy
industry because the desktop computers run on less stable operating systems than do PLCs,
and because the desktop computer hardware is typically not designed to the same levels of
tolerance to temperature, humidity, vibration, and longevity as the processors used in PLCs.
In addition to the hardware limitations of desktop based logic, operating systems such as
Windows do not lend themselves to deterministic logic execution, with the result that the
logic may not always respond to changes in logic state or input status with the extreme
consistency in timing as is expected from PLCs. Still, such desktop logic applications find
use in less critical situations, such as laboratory automation and use in small facilities where
the application is less demanding and critical, because they are generally much less expensive
than PLCs.
Industry requires that we operate plants in ways that can continuously batch process given
things. The SCADA permits us to do that with greater ease and without the difficulties that
we may have experienced just ten years ago. Some of the processes that the supervisory
control and data acquisition may accomplish for us include just monitoring various parts of
any given system.
A SCADA system might help you to monitor processes, buildings or facilities or the
infrastructure of something. Those processes that it might help you to monitor or run would
include generating power, refinery processes such as an oil refinery, production of goods,
fabrication of any given item, or even the full manufacturing process and the facility in which
it is mad
The PLC SCADA can operate and control how a given item is made or processed. It may do
a continuous processing, a repetitious processing, or it may even do just single items, discrete
processes. The facility that you would use a SCADA to help you to automate might be
anything at all from a public restroom, to a ships hold, to an airport security setup, down to
even the space station.
Some other processes that may fall under the auspices of the supervisory control and data
acquisition are the processes of an infrastructure. These could include things such as
processing that takes place in a treatment plant such as waste water treatment or even

freshwater, or reservoir treatment of your drinking water. The kinds of places where you
might use the SCADA include not just public works or utilities, but also private industry
infrastructures such as oil pipe systems and oil refineries.
In addition to these things, some public services that are operated by a SCADA would
probably surprise you. In fact, your weather alert system, tornado and bad weather warnings
and even the siren systems for them, as well as the sirens for things such as civil defense may
be operated by a SCADA. Your local volunteer volunteer fire system sirens may also be
tripped by a supervisory control and data acquisition system. In some fire services, the
information comes in by means of a relay and a given system is aroused or a given action
takes place such as the siren going off or doors closing and so on. These are good examples
of both facilities and systems being operated using PLC's and SCADA..
Typically, a PLC SCADA system will have more than one PLC under its watch and control,
with PLCs located at the various individual processing and manufacturing machines.
In every SCADA system, there are several other kinds of smaller or subset of systems that are
also used to assist in the processing that the SCADA has to do. The users of the SCADA are
offered all of the information that they need to carry out the kind of work they must do by the
user of an HMI, or an interface between humans and machines. This is known as the HMI
portion of the SCADA.
Essentially, a SCADA doesn't control the system directly. What it does is to oversee and relay
information from one place to another, coordinating all of the various things that are taking
place with it.
The SCADA acts as a supervisory and very often as a controlling mechanism that tells the
humans what is incoming, what is necessary and then relays the information out for them.
The PLC SCADA in many cases doesn't even use the master or the main computer. It can
offer solutions to the various processes that may not require the main computer using what
are called SMART PLC's or another technical component, ladder logic.

Advantages of PLC

Less wiring.

Wiring between devices and relay contacts are done in the PLC program.

Easier and faster to make changes.

Trouble shooting aids make programming easier and reduce downtime.

Reliable components make these likely to operate for years before failure.

Plc origin

- Developed to replace relays in the late 1960s

- Costs dropped and became popular by 1980s

- Now used in many industrial designs

Historical background
The Hydramatic Division of the General Motors Corporation specified the design criteria
for the first programmable controller in 1968
Their primary goal
To eliminate the high costs associated with inflexible, relay-controlled systems.

The controller had to be designed in modular form, so that sub-assemblies could be


removed easily for replacement or repair.

The control system needed the capability to pass data collection to a central system.

The system had to be reusable.

The method used to program the controller had to be simple, so that it could be easily
understood by plant personnel.

Programmable Controller Development

1968

Programmable concept developed

1969

Hardware CPU controller, with logic

instructions, 1 K of memory and 128 I/O

points

1974

Use of several (multi) processors within a

PLC - timers and counters; arithmetic

operations; 12 K of memory

and 1024 I/O points

1976

Remote input/output systems introduced

1980

1977

Microprocessors - based PLC introduced

Intelligent I/O modules developed


Enhanced communications facilities
Enhanced software features
(e.g. documentation)
Use of personal microcomputers as
programming aids

1983

Low - cost small PLCs introduced

1985 on
Networking of all levels of PLC, computer
SCADA software.

and machine using

Programmable Logic Controllers


( Definition according to NEMA standard ICS3-1978)
A digitally operating electronic apparatus which uses a programming memory for the internal
storage of instructions for implementing specific functions such as logic, sequencing, timing,
counting and arithmetic to control through digital or analog modules, various types of
machines or process.

Leading Brands Of PLC


AMERICAN 1. Allen Bradley
2. Gould Modicon
3. Texas Instruments
4. General Electric
5. Westinghouse
6. Cutter Hammer
7. Square D
EUROPEAN 1. Siemens
2. Klockner & Mouller

3. Festo
4. Telemechanique
JAPANESE

1. Toshiba
2. Omron
3. Fanuc
4. Mitsubishi

Areas of Application

Manufacturing / Machining

Food / Beverage

Metals

Power

Mining

Petrochemical / Chemical

Plc size
1. SMALL
- it covers units with up to 128 I/Os and memories up to 2 Kbytes.
- these PLCs are capable of providing simple to advance levels or machine controls.
2. MEDIUM
- have up to 2048 I/Os and memories up to 32 Kbytes.
3. LARGE
- the most sophisticated units of the PLC family. They have up to 8192 I/Os and memories
up to 750 Kbytes.
- can control individual production processes or entire plant.

Tank Used to Mix Two Liquids

MO
TOR

FS

TIMER

A tank is used to mix two liquids. The control circuit operates as follows:
1. When the start button is pressed, solenoids A and B energize. This permits the two liquids
to begin filling the tank.
2. When the tank is filled, the float switch trips. This de-energizes solenoids A and B and
starts the motor used to mix the liquids together.
3. The motor is permitted to run for one minute. After one minute has elapsed, the motor
turns off and solenoid C energizes to drain the tank.
4. When the tank is empty, the float switch de-energizes solenoid C.
5. A stop button can be used to stop the process at any point.
6. If the motor becomes overloaded, the action of the entire circuit will stop.
7. Once the circuit has been energized it will continue to operate until it is manually stopped.

Major Components of a Common PLC

Power
supply

Input
module

processor

From
sensors

Outp
ut
mod
ule

Programming
device

Major Components of a Common PLC


POWER SUPPLY
Provides the voltage needed to run the primary PLC components
I/O MODULES
Provides signal conversion and isolation between the internal logicPLC and the fields high level signal.

level signals inside the

PROCESSOR
Provides intelligence to command and govern the activities of the entire PLC systems.
PROGRAMMING DEVICE
used to enter the desired program that will determine the sequence of operation and control of process
equipment or driven machine.

Also known as:

Industrial Terminal ( Allen Bradley )

Program Development Terminal ( General Electric )

Programming Panel ( Gould Modicon )

Programmer ( Square D )

Program Loader ( Idec-Izumi )

Programming Console ( Keyence / Omron )


Types:
Hand held unit with LED / LCD display
Desktop type with a CRT display
Compatible computer terminal
I/O Module

The I/O interface section of a PLC connects it to


devices.

external field

The main purpose of the I/O interface is to condition the various signals received from or
sent to the external input and output devices.
Input modules converts signals from discrete or analog input devices to logic levels
acceptable to PLCs processor.

Output modules converts signal from the processor to levels capable of driving the connected
discrete or analog output devices.

i/o module
DC INPUT MODULE

USE TO
DROP
THE
VOLTA
GE TO
Curr
LOGIC
FROM
ent
LEVEL
INPUT
Limiti
DEVIC
ng
E
Resi
stor

Is needed to:
prevent voltage
transients from
damaging the
processor .
Help to reduce
the effects of
electrical noise

Opto
isolator

AC INPUT moduleE
CONVERTS
THE AC INPUT
TO DC AND
DROPS THE
VOLTAGE TO
LOGIC LEVEL
Rectifi
FROM
er,
INPUT
Resist
DEVICE
or
Networ
k

Ac input module

Buffer
filter
hysteres
is
circuit

IS
NEEDED
TO:
Prevent
voltage

to processor

OPTO

ISOL
ATOR

transient
s from
Buffer filter
damagin
g the hysteresis
processo
circuit
r.
Helps
reduce
the
effects of
electrical
noise

processor

I/O Circuits
DIFFERENT TYPES OF I/O CIRCUITS
1. Pilot Duty Outputs

Outputs of this type typically are used to drive high-current electromagnetic loads such as
solenoids, relays, valves, and motor starters.
These loads are highly inductive and exhibit a large inrush current.
Pilot duty outputs should be capable of withstanding an inrush current of 10 times the rated
load for a short period of time without failure.

2. General - Purpose Outputs


These are usually low- voltage and low-current and are used to drive indicating lights and
other non-inductive loads. Noise suppression may or may not be included on this types of
modules.

3. Discrete Inputs
Circuits of this type are used to sense the status of limit switches, push buttons, and other
discrete sensors. Noise suppression is of great importance in preventing false indication of
inputs turning on or off because of noise.

4. Analog I/O
Circuits of this type sense or drive analog signals.
Analog inputs come from devices, such as thermocouples, strain gages, or pressure sensors,
that provide a signal voltage or current that is derived from the process variable.
Standard Analog Input signals: 4-20mA; 0-10V
Analog outputs can be used to drive devices such as voltmeters, X-Y recorders, servomotor
drives, and valves through the use of transducers.
Standard Analog Output signals: 4-20mA; 0-5V; 0-10V

5. Special - Purpose I/O


Circuits of this type are used to interface PLCs to very specific types of circuits such as
servomotors, stepping motors PID (proportional plus integral plus derivative) loops, highspeed pulse counting, resolver and decoder inputs, multiplexed displays, and keyboards.
This module allows for limited access to timer and counter presets and other PLC variables
without requiring a program loader.

Inputs
Outputs
contractor
motor
contractor

motor

Push buttons

plc

lamp

Allen-Bradley 1746-1A16
I= input

L
1

L
2

Module
I:2
rack

slot # in

module terminal #

Address I:2.0/0

input MODULE
WIRING DIAGRAM
LADDER PROGRAM

Ladder program

Discrete Input
A discrete input also referred as digital input is an input that is either ON or OFF are
connected to the PLC digital input. In the ON condition it is referred to as logic 1 or a logic
high and in the OFF condition maybe referred to as logic o or logic low

Normally
Open
Normally
Pushbutton
Closed
Normally
Open switch
Pushbutton
Normally Closed switch
Normally Open contact
Normally closed contact

Off mode

Plc
input
module
24 v dc

On mode

Plc input
module
input
24v dc

Plc
module
24 v dc

Analog Input
An analog input is an input signal that has a continuoussignal. Typical inputs may vary from
0 to 20mA, 4 to 20mAor 0 to10V. Below, a level transmitter monitors the level of liquid in

the tank. Depending on the level Tx, the signal to thePLC can either increase or decrease as
the level increases or decreases.

Level transmitter

Plc
analog
input
module

tank

Digital Output
A discrete output is either in an ON or OFF condition. Solenoids, contactors coils, lamps are
example of devices connected to the Discrete or digital outputs. Below, the lamp can be
turned ON or OFF by the PLC output it is connected to.

Plc
digital
output
module

Analog Output

out

lamp

An analog output is an output signal that has a continuoussignal. Typical outputs may vary
from 0 to 20mA, 4 to 20mAor 0 to10V.

Processor
The processor module contains the PLCs microprocessor, its supporting circuitry,
and its memory system.
The main function of the microprocessor is to analyze data coming from field sensors
through input modules, make decisions based on the users defined control program and
return signal back through output modules to the field devices. Field sensors: switches, flow,
level, pressure, temp. transmitters, etc. Field output devices: motors, valves, solenoids, lamps,
or audible devices.
The memory system in the processor module has two parts: a system memory and an
application memory.

Memory map organisation

System
Application
Data table
User program

System memory includes an


area called the EXECUTIVE,
composed of permanently-stored
programs that direct all system
activities, such as execution of
the users control program,
communication with peripheral
devices, and other system
activities.
The system memory also
contains the routines that
implement the PLCs instruction
set, which is composed of
specific control functions such as
logic, sequencing, timing,
counting, and arithmetic.
System memory is generally
built from read-only memory
devices.

The application memory is divided into the data


table area and user program area.
The data table stores any data associated with
the users control program, such as system
input and output status data, and any stored
constants, variables, or preset values. The data
table is where data is monitored, manipulated,
and changed for control purposes.
The user program area is where the
programmed instructions entered by the user
are stored as an application control program.

Memory Designs
VOLATILE.
A volatile memory is one that loses its stored information when power is removed.
Even momentary losses of power will erase any information stored or programmed on a
volatile memory chip.
Common Type of Volatile Memory

RAM. Random Access Memory(Read/Write)


Read/write indicates that the information stored in the memory can be retrieved or read, while
write indicates that the user can program or write information into the memory
Other Types of Non-Volatile Memory

PROM, Programmable Read Only Memory


Allows initial and/or additional information to be written into the chip.
PROM may be written into only once after being received from the PLC manufacturer;
programming is accomplish by pulses of current.
The current melts the fusible links in the device, preventing it from being reprogrammed.
This type of memory is used to prevent unauthorized program changes.

PLC Operation
Basic Function of a Typical PLC

Read all field input devices via the input interfaces, execute the user program stored in
application memory, then, based on whatever control scheme has been programmed by the
user, turn the field output devices on or off, or perform whatever control is necessary for the
process application.
This process of sequentially reading the inputs, executing the program in memory, and
updating the outputs is known as scanning.
While the PLC is running, the scanning process includes the following four phases, which are
repeated continuously as individual cycles of operation

Phase 1
Read input scans

Phase 2
Phase 2p
Programme
execution

Phase 3
Diagnostics
/comm.
Phase 4
Out put scans

PHASE 1 Input Status scan


A PLC scan cycle begins with the CPU reading the status

of its inputs.

PHASE 2 Logic Solve/Program Execution


The application program is executed using the status of the inputs

PHASE 3 Logic Solve/Program Execution


Once the program is executed, the CPU performs diagnostics and communication tasks

PHASE 4 - Output Status Scan


An output status scan is then performed, whereby the stored output values are sent to
actuators and other field output devices. The cycle ends by updating the outputs.

As soon as Phase 4 are completed, the entire cycle begins again with Phase 1 input scan.
The time it takes to implement a scan cycle is called SCAN TIME. The scan time composed
of the program scan time, which is the time required for solving the control program, and the
I/O update time, or time required to read inputs and update outputs. The program scan time
generally depends on the amount of memory taken by the control program and type of
instructions used in the program. The time to make a single scan can vary from 1 ms to 100
ms.

PLC Communications
Common Uses of PLC Communications Ports

Changing resident PLC programs - uploading/downloading from a supervisory


controller (Laptop or desktop computer).

Forcing I/O points and memory elements from a remote terminal.

Linking a PLC into a control hierarchy containing several sizes of PLC and
computer.

Monitoring data and alarms, etc. via printers or Operator Interface Units (OIUs).

Serial Communications
PLC communications facilities normally provides serial transmission of information.

Common Standards

RS 232
Used in short-distance computer communications, with the majority of computer hardware
and peripherals.
Has a maximum effective distance of approx. 30 m at 9600 baud
An RS-232 serial port was once a standard feature of a personal computer, used for
connections to modems, printers, mice, data storage, uninterruptible power supplies, and
other peripheral devices.

However, the low transmission speed, large voltage swing, and large standard connectors
motivated development of the Universal Serial Bus, which has displaced RS-232 from most
of its peripheral interface roles. Many modern personal computers have no RS-232 ports and
must use an external USB-to-RS-232 converter to connect to RS-232 peripherals. RS-232
devices are still found, especially in industrial machines, networking equipment, and
scientific instruments.

operation

- The program is being performed at RS Logix Linx drive system. Before


programming into RS logix we need to configure the system. Firstly it is link is established
between PLC and computer through PM02 cable or RS 232C. After configuration
,programming is being continued. There is a counter which is used to count pulses give to the
system. This is password protection system. When user presses NO switch then counter
counts number of pulses. When first pulse is counted by timer then at same time timer is
being ON for 10 seconds. In that 10 seconds the counter count must reach the value of four.
After 10 seconds of timer are over the user must give 5 pulses quickly so that supply can be
send to output. The moment ,counter value is 5 then the contractor coils are being energized
and the supply reaches the output i.e motor starts. This is first application of it. A second
timer is also being introduced so that motor can run for only 60 seconds i.e timer preset value
is being given 60 seconds.
It is known that overload condition can lead to premature failure of motor and can increases
number of losses in it. Next application is that overload protection. When there is excess load
on motor system then motor is being cut off from the supply. The contractor get de-energized
and removes motor from the supply and sends signal to buzzer and alarm system. Buzzer
sounds for 10 seconds and then gets OFF but LED blinks momentarily for duration of 1
second. This is overload protection.
User can also run the system through scada software. Through computer user can operate the
system through SCADA. The process is similar to that which is being done in hardware.
Through this user can know what process is being going ON or OFF. Below is diagrammatic

representation of SCADA :-

local Area Network (LAN)


Local Area Network provides a physical link between all devices plus providing overall data
exchange management or protocol, ensuring that each device can talk to other machines
and understand data received from them.
LANs provide the common, high-speed data communications bus which interconnects any or
all devices within the local area.
LANs are commonly used in business applications to allow several users to share costly
software packages and peripheral equipment such as printers and hard disk storage

RS 422 / RS 485

Used for longer-distance links, often between several PCs in a distributed system. RS
485 can have a maximum distance of about 1000 meters.

Programmable Controllers and Networks

Dedicated Network System of Different Manufacturers

Specifications
Several factors are used for evaluating the quality and performance of programmable
controllers when selecting a unit for a particular application. These are listed below.
NUMBER OF I /O PORTS

This specifies the number of I/O devices that can be connected to the controller. There should
be sufficient I/O ports to meet present requirements with enough spares to provide for
moderate future expansion.
OUTPUT-PORT POWER RATINGS
Each output port should be capable of supplying sufficient voltage and current to drive the
output peripheral connected to it.
SCAN TIME
This is the speed at which the controller executes the relay-ladder logic program. This
variable is usually specified as the scan time per 1000 logic nodes and typically ranges from 1
to 200 milliseconds.
MEMORY CAPACITY
The amount of memory required for a particular application is related to the length of the
program and the complexity of the control system. Simple applications having just a few
relays do not require significant amount of memory. Program length tend to expand after the
system have been used for a while. It is advantageous to a acquire a controller that has more
memory than is presently needed.

PLC Status Indicators

Power On

Run Mode

Programming Mode

Fault

Troubleshooting

1. Look at the process

2. PLC status lights

HALT - something has stopped the CPU

RUN - the PLC thinks it is OK (and probably is)

ERROR - a physical problem has occurred with the PLC

3. Indicator lights on I/O cards and sensors

4. Consult the manuals, or use software if available.

5. Use programming terminal / laptop.

List of items required when working with PLCs:


1. Programming Terminal - laptop or desktop PC.
2. PLC Software. PLC manufacturers have
their own specific software and license key.
3. Communication cable for connection from Laptop
to PLC.
4. Backup copy of the ladder program (on diskette, CDROM,
hard disk, flash memory). If none, upload it from the PLC.
5. Documentation- (PLC manual, Software manual, drawings,
ladder program printout, and Seq. of Operations manual.)

Examples of PLC Programming Software:


1. Allen-Bradley Rockwell Software RSLogix500
2. Modicon - Modsoft
3. Omron - Syswin
4. GE-Fanuc Series 6 LogicMaster6
5. Square D- PowerLogic
6. Texas Instruments Simatic
6. Telemecanique Modicon TSX Micro

PROGRAMMING

Normally open

normally closed

Power flows through these contacts when they are closed. The
normally open (NO) is true when the input or output status bit
controlling the contact is 1. The normally closed (NC) is true
when the input or output status bit controlling the contact is 0.

Coils

Coils represent relays that are energized when power flows tothem. When
a coil is energized it causes a correspondingoutput to turn on by changing
the state of the status bit controlling the output to 1. That same output
status bit maybe used to controlnormally open or normally closed contact
anywhere in the program.

Boxes

Boxes represent various instructions or functions that areExecuted when power flows to the
box. Some of these Functions are timers, counters and math operations.

SCADA

SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) is a type of industrial control system
(ICS). Industrial control systems are computer controlled systems that monitor and control
industrial processes that exist in the physical world. SCADA systems historically distinguish
themselves from other ICS systems by being large scale processes that can include multiple
sites, and large distances.[1] These processes include industrial, infrastructure, and facilitybased processes, as described below:

Industrial processes include those of manufacturing, production, power


generation, fabrication, and refining, and may run in continuous, batch,
repetitive, or discrete modes.

Infrastructure processes may be public or private, and include water


treatment and distribution, wastewater collection and treatment, oil and
gas pipelines, electrical power transmission and distribution, wind farms,
civil defense siren systems, and large communication systems.

Facility processes occur both in public facilities and private ones, including
buildings, airports, ships, and space stations. They monitor and control
heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems (HVAC), access, and
energy consumption.

A humanmachine interface or HMI is the apparatus which presents process data to a human
operator, and through which the human operator controls the process.
HMI is usually linked to the SCADA system's databases and software programs, to provide
trending, diagnostic data, and management information such as scheduledmaintenance
procedures, logistic information, detailed schematics for a particular sensor or machine, and
expert-system troubleshooting guides.
The HMI system usually presents the information to the operating personnel graphically, in
the form of a mimic diagram. This means that the operator can see a schematic representation
of the plant being controlled. For example, a picture of a pump connected to a pipe can show
the operator that the pump is running and how much fluid it is pumping through the pipe at
the moment. The operator can then

switch the pump off. The HMI software will show the flow rate of the fluid in the pipe
decrease in real time. Mimic diagrams may consist of line graphics and schematic symbols to
represent process elements, or may consist of digital photographs of the process equipment
overlain with animated symbols.
The HMI package for the SCADA system typically includes a drawing program that the
operators or system maintenance personnel use to change the way these points are
represented in the interface. These representations can be as simple as an on-screen traffic
light, which represents the state of an actual traffic light in the field, or as complex as a multiprojector display representing the position of all of the elevators in a skyscraper or all of the
trains on a railway.
An important part of most SCADA implementations is alarm handling. The system monitors
whether certain alarm conditions are satisfied, to determine when an alarm event has
occurred. Once an alarm event has been detected, one or more actions are taken (such as the
activation of one or more alarm indicators, and perhaps the generation of email or text
messages so that management or remote SCADA operators are informed). In many cases, a
SCADA operator may have to acknowledge the alarm event; this may deactivate some alarm
indicators, whereas other indicators remain active until the alarm conditions are cleared.
Alarm conditions can be explicitfor example, an alarm point is a digital status point that
has either the value NORMAL or ALARM that is calculated by a formula based on the values
in other analogue and digital pointsor implicit: the SCADA system might automatically
monitor whether the value in an analogue point lies outside high and low limit values

associated with that point. Examples of alarm indicators include a siren, a pop-up box on a
screen, or a coloured or flashing area on a screen (that might act in a similar way to the "fuel
tank empty" light in a car); in each case, the role of the alarm indicator is to draw the
operator's attention to the part of the system 'in alarm' so that appropriate action can be taken.
In designing SCADA systems, care must be taken when a cascade of alarm events occurs in a
short time, otherwise the underlying cause (which might not be the earliest event detected)
may get lost in the noise. Unfortunately, when used as a noun, the word 'alarm' is used rather
loosely in the industry; thus, depending on context it might mean an alarm point, an alarm
indicator, or an alarm event.

Applications of SCADA
The potential applications of SCADA technology are diverse, because many industries
require the comprehensive monitoring and control capabilities that SCADA offers. In most
applications, SCADA is used to manage a physical process

(manufacturing and water processing are common). In other uses of the word "SCADA", a
telecom or IT system of communications is being managed instead.
Here are a few of the most common applications for SCADA systems:

Manufacturing
In manufacturing environments, SCADA is used to make sure that productivity targets are
met and all systems run smoothly. The SCADA system in place on a production line tracks
how many units have been produced and how many are in various stages of completion.
Analog values like temperature at various production stages are also measured. Imagine how
important it is to know the temperature of molten metal that must be formed into usable
products.

Food Production
Very similar to manufacturing, food production is a major SCADA application. If temperature
is important for equipment manufacturing, it is absolutely critical for the mass production of
delicate foods. If temperature varies more than a few degrees, entire batches can fall out of
acceptable specifications. This generates a lot of wasteful expense, which makes deployment
of a SCADA system absolutely critical. The movement of liquid and solid ingredients and
mixtures through the production process is also tracked by SCADA.

Electric and Gas Utilities


Utility companies, particularly gas utilities, suffer the combined headaches of manufacturing
and telecom companies. They have to move a physical product (electricity isn't considered
very physical, but it creates many more concerns than data transmission) through their
systems, and they are spread out across gigantic territories. This makes utility environments a
natural application for SCADA devices. They need to control the movement of electricity and
gas through the distribution chain and also keep the supporting telecom infrastructure online.

Wastewater Treatment
The conversion of wastewater back into potable drinking water can really be thought of as
another type of manufacturing process that delivers the world's most critical commodity.
Flow rate sensors are extremely common in wastewater processing centers, as are
contaminant sensors.

Telecom and Information Technology (IT)


Although not generally known as "SCADA" in telecommunications environments, a large
number of professional do use this term to describe remote monitoring and control systems in
these industries. Realistically, telecom is simply a near-instantaneous production
environment, with bits of data instead of parts or food products. Monitoring temperature of

servers and other delicate equipment is common when SCADA is used in this particular
application. Monitoring the dedicated alarm contact closures of various equipment is also
popular, as is monitoring against physical intrusions into remote sites using magnetic door
sensors and passive infrared (PIR) motion sensors.

Specific SCADA Equipment Examples:


To fully understand SCADA applications, it will be useful to look at some equipment
examples. First, let's look at the RTUs (Remote Terminal Units) that are the front lines of a
SCADA system.
One popular device I like to reference is the SCADA-Guardian. Like any good SCADA
RTU, this one has lots of sensor inputs and plenty of control outputs to go with them. It
monitors its own ambient temperature, plus it can accept any combination of 24 industrystandard temperature sensors. You can use sensors for temperature, humidity, flow rates,
water leaks, rotation, tank levels, and just about anything else you can imagine.

Electrical Switchgears

selector switch
Push button

Emrgency
stop pb

Toggle switch

Terminal Blocks
Terminal blocks (also called terminal connectors or strips) provide a convenient means of
connecting individual electrical wires. They are usually used to connect wiring among
various items of equipment within an enclosure or to make connections among individually
enclosed items.

CONTACTOR
Contactor is a spring actuated mechanism used for switching a power or control circuit, It is
controlled by a circuit which has a much lower power level than the switched circuit. . It has
a set of power contacts for swiching and auxiliary contacts used for control wiring (generally
2 NO & 2NC)

Distribution Box

1 Phase

1 Phase

3 Phase

3 Phase

4 Lines

8 Lines

12 Lines

24 Lines

Miniature Circuit Breaker


A circuit breaker is an automatically-operated electric switch designed to protect an electric
circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to detect a fault
condition and, by interrupting continuity, to immediately discontinue electrical flow. Standard
ratings- 0.3 to 63A, 10KA, 240/415V

Isolator Switches
An isolator switch is used to make sure that an electrical circuit can be completely deenergized for service or maintenance.

MCCB (Moulded Case Circuit Breaker

It opens or closes power circuit either during normal or during abnormal condition, protects
equipment and surroundings from possible damage. These abnormal currents are usually the
result of short circuits created by lightning, accidents or sustained overloads

Limit Switch
A switch designed to cut off power automatically at or near the limit of travel of a
moving object controlled by electrical means

Relay
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Power applied to its coil generates a magnetic field
that operates the switch. The operating voltage of its coil may be different from the load
voltage.

The plug-in base of the relay is used with standard 8 and 11 pins socket

SOLID STATE RELAY


A solid state relay (SSR) is an electronic switching device in which a small control signal
controls a larger load current or voltage. The relay may be designed to switch either AC or
DC to the load. It is functionally equivalent to an electromechanical relay, but has no moving
parts.

Current Transformer
used to reduce the amount of amperage sent to the ammeter for measurement. They are
available in several ratios such as 50:5, 100:5, 300:5, etc. What this means is that if a
conductor carrying 50 amps passes through a 50:5 ratio CT, a 5-amp current flow is produced

in the lead

Potential Transformer
A Potential Transformer is a special type of transformer that allows meters to take readings in
electrical substations and generating stations with higher voltage than the meter is normally
capable of handling. They have a large number of secondary turns and a fewer number of
primary turns.

Direct On Line Starter


DOL starter is mainly used for controlling motors up to 7.5 HP .It also has an OVER LOAD
RELAY for protecting the motor against overloading.

DOL(Direct On-Line) Starter

Thermal Overload Relay

Star-Delta Starter

Bus bar & Sizing


Busbar in refers to thick strips of copper or aluminium that conduct electricity within a
switchboard, distribution panel etc. The size of the busbar is important in determining the
maximum amount of current that can be safely carried.

Control Panel

Plc control

An RS-232 serial port was once a standard feature of a personal computer, used for
connections to modems, printers, mice, data storage, uninterruptible power supplies, and
other peripheral devices.

However, the low transmission speed, large voltage swing, and large standard connectors
motivated development of the Universal Serial Bus, which has displaced RS-232 from most
of its peripheral interface roles. Many modern personal computers have no RS-232 ports and
must use an external USB-to-RS-232 converter to connect to RS-232 peripherals. RS-232
devices are still found, especially in industrial machines, networking equipment, and
scientific instruments.

operation

- The program is being performed at RS Logix Linx drive system. Before


programming into RS logix we need to configure the system. Firstly it is link is established
between PLC and computer through PM02 cable or RS 232C. After configuration
,programming is being continued. There is a counter which is used to count pulses give to the
system. This is password protection system. When user presses NO switch then counter
counts number of pulses. When first pulse is counted by timer then at same time timer is
being ON for 10 seconds. In that 10 seconds the counter count must reach the value of four.
After 10 seconds of timer are over the user must give 5 pulses quickly so that supply can be
send to output. The moment ,counter value is 5 then the contractor coils are being energized
and the supply reaches the output i.e motor starts. This is first application of it. A second
timer is also being introduced so that motor can run for only 60 seconds i.e timer preset value
is being given 60 seconds.

It is known that overload condition can lead to premature failure of motor and can increases
number of losses in it. Next application is that overload protection. When there is excess load
on motor system then motor is being cut off from the supply. The contractor get de-energized
and removes motor from the supply and sends signal to buzzer and alarm system. Buzzer
sounds for 10 seconds and then gets OFF but LED blinks momentarily for duration of 1
second. This is overload protection.
User can also run the system through scada software. Through computer user can operate the
system through SCADA. The process is similar to that which is being done in hardware.
Through this user can know what process is being going ON or OFF. Below is diagrammatic

representation of SCADA :-