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Structure

and
Function
of the
Muscular,
Neuromuscular,
Cardiovascular,
and Respiratory
Systems

Muscular Strength

PHEC 192
CDR D. D. Peterson, MS, CSCS
Director, Aviation Survival Training Center

Muscular Strength
Ability to voluntarily produce a maximal
force or torque under specific conditions
defined by muscle action, movement
velocity, and posture

Purpose of Strength Testing


Monitor responses to training program
Determine training loads
Evaluate rehabilitation efforts post injury
Rank talent/ability in sport
Other benefits:
Determine risk for falls in older subjects
Estimate bone mineral density

Factors Affecting Muscular Strength


Contraction Type
Isometric
Isokinetic
Isoinertial

Muscle Architecture
Cross-Sectional Area
Pennation Angle

Muscle Fiber Type


Type I
Type IIa
Type IIx

Factors Affecting Muscular Strength


Contractile History
Fatigue
Postactivation Poteniation

Neural Influences
number of motor units recruited
rate at which motor neurons fire

Joint Torque

Strength Testing Considerations


Warm-Up
Stretch durations not to exceed 10-30 sec

Time of Day
Greatest strength potential is early evening

Test Order

Nonfatiguing tests (e.g., anthropometric measurements)


Agility tests
Maximum power and strength tests
Sprint tests
Muscular endurance tests
Fatiguing anaerobic tests
Aerobic capacity tests

Muscular Strength Tests


No one test is regarded as gold standard
Test selection should be based off:

Subject population
Specificity to respective sport
Available equipment
Ease of data analysis and interpretation
Time to administer

Maximal Muscular Strength Tests


1RM Squat
1RM Leg Press
1RM Bench Press
1RM Eccentric Machine Leg Press
Isometric Midthigh Clean Pull
Isokinetic Knee Flexion and Extension

Muscular Strength Field Tests


Hand Grip Dynamometer
Leg/Hip Dynamometer
1RM Bench Press Prediction
from Multiple Reps

Handgrip Dynamometer Norms

Leg/Hip Dynamometer Norms

Population Percentile
Sample Size

10

25

50

75

90

Males

638

42

152

200

251

295

Females

133

11

59

88

117

141

PRT Beta Test LHD Norms (Male)


Males
20-24

25-29

30-34

35-39

40-44

45-49

50-54

55-59

15

19

33

28

11

Mean

498

487.3

497.1

487.3

446

363.2

450

660

SD

62.2

97.7

122.6

121.7

131.6

59.9

51.6

Min

410

315

330

160

3.8

276

405

Max

570

660

655

660

660

500

535

90%

660

655

660

600

480

75%

555

560

615

582.5

522.5

390

497.5

50%

500

475

535

495

452.5

355

430

25%

440

430

380

425

390

335

412.5

10%

410

348

335

314

301

278.8

405

PRT Beta Test LHD Norms (Female)


Females
20-24

25-29

30-34

35-39

40-44

45-49

50-54

55-59

11

Mean

257.9

344.2

264.1

255.8

253.8

165

SD

74.1

93.3

82.4

68.8

46.8

Min

170

240

180

180

210

Max

360

510

450

385

320

90%

426

75%

355

401.3

320

291.3

301.3

50%

240

335

230

240

242.5

25%

195

270

200

217.5

217.5

10%

170

240

181

180

210

1RM Prediction Equations for


Bench Press
Young Adults (College-Aged):
Wathan (1997): 100 x load / [48.8 + 53.8 x 2.7181(-0.075 x reps)]
Older Adults (65+):
Knutzen (1999): 100 x load / [52.2 + 41.9 x 2.7181(-0.55 x reps)]
Other Prediction Equations:
Brzycki (1993): load / [1.0278 - 0.0278 (reps)]
Epley (1985): (0.033) x (reps) x (load) + repetition weight
Landers (1985): 100 x (load) / [101.3 - 2.67123 (reps)]
http://www.shapesense.com/fitness-exercise/calculators/1rm-calculator.aspx

1RM Bench Press Prediction Example


28 y/o 185 lb. Male that performed 10 reps at 225 lbs:
Brzycki Equation:
load / [1.0278 - 0.0278 (reps)]
225 / [1.0278 - 0.0278 (10)]
225 / [1.0278 - 0.278]
225 / [0.7498]
1RM = 300 lbs
300 / 185 = 1.62

1RM Bench Press

Other 1RM Testing Protocols

National Physical Fitness


Assessment (NAPFA)
Males
Sit-Ups (1-min)
Standing Broad Jump
Sit & Reach
Pull-Ups
4x10m Shuttle Run
2.4km Run

Females
Sit-Ups (1-min)
Standing Broad Jump
Sit & Reach
Inclined Pull-Ups
4x10m Shuttle Run
2.4km Run

NAPFA Pull-Ups (Males)


Pull-Ups
Grade

19 years

20-24 years

>11

>11

9-10

9-10

7-8

7-8

5-6

5-6

National Physical Fitness


Assessment (NAPFA)

NAPFA Inclined Pull-Ups (Females)


Female
Inclined Pull-Ups
Grade

19 years

20-24 years

> 18

> 18

15-17

15-17

11-14

11-14

8-10

8-10

Questions?