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Occupancy sensors

Occupancy sensors reduce energy waste by taking over light-switch
chores. Sensors turn the lights on when they sense someone coming into
a room or area, and then turn the lights off some time after sensing the
room is empty. These sensors are best suited in spaces that are used
infrequently or unpredictably, such as conference rooms, private offices,
classrooms, storage areas, and bathrooms. Sensors can be mounted on
the wall just like a light switch or installed in the ceiling.
Occupancy sensors reduce energy waste as changing room temperature
by controlling hvac equipment.
Generally speaking, there are three types of sensors: motion-detecting
(ultrasonic and microwave), heat-sensing (infrared), and sound-sensing.
The area to be lit and the types of surfaces in the space will determine
which sensor is most effective

Sensor PIR terdiri dari beberapa bagian yaitu :
- Lensa Fresnel
- Penyaring Infra Merah
- Sensor Pyroelektrik
- Penguat Amplifier
- Komparator

cesium nitrat (CsNo3) dan litium tantalate (LiTaO3). karena sinar infra merah mengandung energi panas maka sensor pyroelektrik akan menghasilkan arus listrik. 0 saat sensor tidak mendeteksi adanya pancaran infra merah dan 1 saat sensor mendeteksi infra merah.Cara kerja pembacaan sensor PIR Pancaran infra merah masuk melalui lensa Fresnel dan mengenai sensor pyroelektrik. Jadi sensor PIR hanya akan mengeluarkan logika 0 dan 1. Untuk manusia sendiri memiliki suhu badan yang dapat menghasilkan pancaran infra merah dengan panjang gelombang antara 9-10 mikrometer (nilai standar 9. Diluar panjang gelombang tersebut sensor tidak akan mendeteksinya. Sensor pyroelektrik terbuat dari bahan galium nitrida (GaN). Kemudian sinyal ini akan dikuatkan oleh penguat dan dibandingkan oleh komparator dengan tegangan referensi tertentu (keluaran berupa sinyal 1-bit). .4 mikrometer). panjang gelombang tersebut dapat terdeteksi oleh sensor PIR. (Secara umum sensor PIR memang dirancang untuk mendeteksi manusia). Arus listrik inilah yang akan menimbulkan tegangan dan dibaca secara analog oleh sensor. Sensor PIR didesain dan dirancang hanya mendeteksi pancaran infra merah dengan panjang gelombang 8-14 mikrometer.

ketika ada sebuah objek melewati sensor.Jarak pancar sensor PIR Sensor PIR memiliki jangkauan jarak yang bervariasi. Energi panas yang dibawa oleh sinar infra merah pasif ini .2008).1. Berbeda dengan sensor biasa yang menggunakan modul transmitter unutk memancarkan gelombang tersebut. Proses penginderaan sensor PIR dapat digambarkan sebagai berikut: Pada umumnya sensor PIR memiliki jangkauan pembacaan efektif hingga 5 meter. dan sensor ini sangat efektif digunakan sebagai human detector. Sesuai dengan sifatnya yang pasif. sensor Passive Infra red hanya terdiri dari 1 modul penerima saja. Benda tersebut merupakan benda yang memiliki perbedaan temperature suhu dengan suhu lingkungan. Seperti yang ditunjukkan pada Gambar 3. Sensor Passive Infra Red (PIR) pada pintu otomatis Sensor Passive Infra Red merupakan alat elektronik yang mengukur radiasi sinar infra merah dari suatu objek dalam cakupan tertentu. pancaran radiasi infra merah pasif yang dihasilkan akan dihasilkan akan dideteksi oleh sensor. sensor ini hanya merespon energi dari pancaran sinar inframerah pasif yang dimilki setiap benda yang terdeteksi (Rifqy. tergantung karakteristik sensor.

PIR KC7783R merupakan sensor infrared yang menjadi perangkat keras utama dari sistem ini. Berikut Gambar 3. IR Filter. Ketika manusia itu melakukan gerakan. Mengapa bisa menghasilkan arus listrik Karena pancaran sinar inframerah pasif ini membawa energi panas. Sensor PIR yang digunakan disini adalah PIR KC7783R. Panjang gelombang yang konstan ini menyebabkan energi panas yang dihasilkan dapat digambarkan hampir sama pada kondisi lingkungan disekitarnya. Perancangan hardware ini menggunakn modul sensor Passive Infra Red KC7783R Sistem ini telah terealisasi dan dapat menggerakkan pintu secara otomatis Jika ada orang mendekati pintu dan terdeteksi oleh sensor PIR KC7783R maka pintu akan bergerak membuka dan menutup kesamping kanan atau kiri. caesium nitrat dan litium tantalate menghasilkan arus listrik. PIR KC7783R merupakan sensor pendeteksi yang berfungsi normal pada tegangan 4. Seperti tubuh manusia yang memiliki suhu tubuh kira-kira 32 derajat celcius. Pancaran sinar inframerah inilah yang kemudian ditangkap oleh Pyroelectric sensor yang merupakan inti dari sensor PIR ini sehingga menyebabkan Pyroelectic sensor yang terdiri dari galium nitrida.7 – 12 volt DC dan akan mengeluarkan output dengan level high antara 4. dan comparator. Prosesnya hampir sama seperti arus listrik yang terbentuk ketika sinar matahari mengenai solar cell. Di dalam sensor PIR ini terdapat bagian-bagian yang mempunyai perannya masingmasing. Sebagai contoh yang sudah banyak kita jumpai adalah sistem pintu otomatis yang terpasang disupermarket. amplifier.9-6 volt. sensor passive infrared (PIR) telah banyak dimanfaatkan dalam alat-alat yang memerlukan sensor pendeteksi gerakan. Sensor PIR ini bekerja dengan menangkap energi panas yang dihasilkan dari pancaran sinar inframerah pasif yang dimiliki setiap benda dengan suhu benda diatas nol mutlak.3 blok diagram sensor PIR: Ketika manusia berada di depan sensor PIR dengan kondisi diam.menyebabkan aktifnya material pyroelektric di dalam sensor yang kemudian menghasilkan arus listrik. yaitu Fresnel Lens. Gambar 3. maka tubuh manusia itu akan menghasilkam pancaran sinar inframerah pasif dengan panjang gelombang yang bervariasi sehingga menghasilkan panas berbeda yang menyebabkan sensor merespon dengan cara menghasilkan arus pada material Pyroelectricnya dengan besaran yang berbeda beda. yang merupakan suhu panas yang khas yang terdapat pada lingkungan. Pyroelectric sensor. . mall-mall dan perkantoran. Sensor infrared ini merupakan jenis PIR (Passive Infrared) dengan harga yang relatif murah. pintu tersebut akan terbuka jika ada orang yang mendekatinya. Karena besaran yang berbeda inilah comparator menghasilkan output. Sensor PIR akan bekerja dengan mendeteksi radiasi infra merah yang terjadi ketika ada pergerakan manusia yang memiliki temperatur berbeda dengan lingkunga sekitarnya. maka sensor PIR akan menghitung panjang gelombang yang dihasilkan oleh tubuh manusia tersebut.2 berikut menunjukkan bagian-bagian dari sensor inframerah pasif.

It only detects heat in its direct range of view. However. 3. The benefit is that a person walking in the room next to the space would not trigger the lights to turn on. detects only major movement and so are prone to a false-off. Occupancy sensors have been around for decades and.Adapun beberapa fitur yang dimilki sensor KC7783R adalah: 1. but the drawback is that only major motion is detected. Because of inappropriate use of inferior sensor technology in the past. Advantages: Cheap. when used correctly. increasing security and lamp life. reducing light trespass.847). and decreasing fixture maintenance. The widespread use of dual technology sensors have almost completely eliminated the common misperception that the lights will turn off while an occupant is present but sitting still. The illustration below shows where a PIR sensor would detect major motion and trigger lights in an open-office space. Mendeteksi gerakan dari objek seperti manusia hingga gerakan kecil sekalipun. Memiliki amfliefier di dalamnya sehingga dapat dengan mudah dikoneksikan dengan perangkat mikrokontroler. Kemampuan mendeteksi gerakan dengan baik dalam jarak kurang lebih 5 meter dari sensor. .   Passive Infrared Motion Detection Passive Infra-Red (PIR) occupancy sensors are best for detecting major motion like an occupant walking through a space. Menggunakan output digital 2. Limitations: Coverage is directional and limited to line of sight. Karena dia bertipe slight motion detection dan dapat mendeteksi gerakan mulai dari kurang lebih 20 cm (7. small form factor. PIR works by detecting movement of heat sources in the space. Newer technologies are rapidly turning that perception around to where we see virtually no occupant complaints regarding sensor use. the results can be undesirable and uncomfortable for occupants. can be a highly efficient means for saving energy. low power requirements and great for wireless applications. when using some of the older technology sensors or when using sensors in inappropriate conditions. there is a perception among users that occupancy sensors do not work well. Below is a discussion of the basics of occupancy sensor technology.

’ The occupancy sensor will not turn on the lighting until both PIR and Ultrasonic elements are triggered. but the lights aren’t turned on from a person in a different room based on ultrasonic bounces. a change of the control sequence can shift the operation from an occupancy sensor to a much more useful vacancy sensor. once the light is turned on the sensor only needs one of the technologies to keep the lights on. higher power requirements.Ultrasonic Motion Detection Ultrasonic technology in occupancy sensors is excellent for minor motion detection. Key Insight: Occupancy vs. Limitations: Requires location specific commissioning. In addition. Advantages: Detects both major and minor movement. limits false on and false off. When there is movement in the space. Advantages: Can ‘see’ around objects. Ultrasonic works by emitting a pulse into the space and receiving the bounce back. This technology is capable of ‘seeing’ around corners. detects minor movements. The illustration below shows the much broader sensing area of an ultrasonic detector – compare to the PIR illustration above. Vacancy sensors assume that a user will turn the lights on manually. The benefit here is that the minor motions of typing at a computer are picked up with the ultrasonic technology. This helps ensure the lighting is not turned off while the occupant is in the space. Dual-Tech Motion Detection Dual-tech combines both Ultrasonic and PIR sensor technologies to provide optimal detection. with minimal ‘false alarms. Limitations: higher price. Vacancy Sensors Use of occupancy sensors in a daylit space can mean that lights come on when they are not needed. The vacancy sensor will then monitor the space to turn lights off if the space is then vacant for a specified length of time. typically via a wall switch. though the discrepancy is small and diminishing. the bounce back is read differently and the sensor knows there is movement in the space. In these conditions. . prone to false-on triggers. This makes ultrasonic a good option where small movements such as typing at a computer desk take place for extended periods of time.

Figure 4: Occupancy Sensor vs. Further. But for spaces with daylight. . Vacancy Sensor Recommendations The goals of integrating appropriate lighting controls into any design are to improve comfort and usability for occupants. occupancy and vacancy sensors can do both. and to decrease lighting energy use. When properly understood and applied. Using the standard “automatic-on” occupancy sensors within most spaces that have no natural light makes sense because the lights should always be needed when someone enters. sensor operation in a vacancy sensor scenario is much less obtrusive than an occupancy sensor.Occupants in daylit spaces often need no additional electric lighting to perform basic tasks. the “automatic-off” of vacancy sensors is typically preferable. Glumac lighting designers have found that lighting energy use will decrease when users are given control of their lighting and access to daylight because lights will only be turned on when needed. To sum up the basics: • Seek dual technology sensors whenever the budget allows. • Dual-technology occupancy sensors are recommended in most interior spaces with no available daylight. The only time users should notice that there is sensor control is when they come back to a space to find the lights turned off automatically. as there is no other light source in the space.

industrial areas and other high-ceiling applications? Leviton and Graybar have the solution: the versatile OSFHP & OSFHD PIR Fixture Mount High Bay Sensor with Integrated Light Sensor. manufacturing facilities. Use the sensor for highbay. high-bay sensor from Leviton and Graybar offers fast. 480V. Leviton fixture-mounted sensors provide fast. this featurepacked. whether factory or field installed. The result: maximum energy savings through efficient light harvesting. safety/security lighting and cold storage are required. Value-added Features Include: . the unit comes with lenses for each application. but also works in applications where daylighting. – in warehouses. the sensor requires no further adjustment and immediately enters daylight harvesting mode. High-Performance Sensor Works in High Places to Save Energy and Time Ideal for new installations or retrofits. low voltage (HVAC). actively switching the connected fixture load ON and OFF in response to occupancy and available natural light. It's specifically designed for high-ceiling applications. fixture-mounted. easy installation and immediate energy savings by automatically activating lighting only during periods of occupancy. easy installation and immediate energy savings by automatically activating lighting only during periods of occupancy. it also permits the ideal setting based on application requirements. Ask your Graybar representative for more details about the OSFHP & OSFHD PIR Fixture Mount High Bay Sensor with Integrated Light Sensor from Leviton. tools or disassembly. low-bay or aisle mounting. Reliable passive infrared (PIR) technology detects occupancy.• Dual-technology vacancy sensors are recommended in most perimeter spaces with available daylight. production floors. bi-level switching. Looking for a fixture-mounted high bay sensor that can handle high ceilings – up to 40 ft. These innovative sensors feature the unique Autocal function that performs automatic daylight level calibration. Once calibrated. and the variable time delay – up to 30 min. – is user accessible without power. Learn more about Fixture Mount Occupancy Sensors.

.Rotating Sensor LightOptimal for best performance in locating light measurements (up. longlife operation. wire leads reduce time and materials needed for connecting the ballast. install the appropriate adjustable lens assembly included. Manual Calibration Manually configure the daylighting set point to optimize energy savings and operation. light sensor measures lowest light level of facility with all lights ON for 24 hours to determine the daylighting set point. Super bright green LED. Installation Zero Circuitry LED SimpleThe OSFHP and OSFHD sensors easily install on individual fixtures using standard 1/2 in. Performance Daylighting Enhanced design algorithms assure lights will not cycle during cloud cover or varying light levels. 42 in. Masking is provided for fine tuning the coverage pattern. and the sensor is ready. CrossingRelay uses a zero crossing circuitry to provide reliable. . knockouts and the quicksnap feature. down and side lighting). device will return to last known state. if power is lost to device. Auto Calibration When set to auto-calibration. relay is closed. Simply make the electrical connections inside the ballast compartment. Fast. indicates occupancy detection. saving valuable time during installation. Fast and Setting SimpleThe OSFHP and OSFHD do not require power to set the time delay. Power State InterruptionFor energy savings and safety. Upon initial power. seen at 40 ft. resulting in labor-saving testing in seconds. Fast and Testing SimpleThe OSFHP and OSFHD will "Instant On" within five seconds. Use in openand closed-loop applications.

focusing only on the addition of occupancy sensors. Annual Lighting Energy Cost According to a Midwest Energy Efficiency Alliance study. highlights the significant energy savings their adoption can provide. . the cost-saving potential of occupancy sensors is considerable.Typical Savings Occupancy Sensors Through An E Source survey.