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9-1

Solutions for Chapter 9 Problems


2. Passive Circuit Elements
P9.1: Given a 2.0 cm length of AWG20 copper wire, (a) calculate Rdc, (b) calculate Rac at
800 MHz, (c) estimate L.

31.96mils 25.4 m m
406 x106 m
2
mil 106 m
l
0.02
Rdc

666
2
a 5.8 x107 406 x106 2

At 800 MHz:
Rac

l
, where 1
2.336 x106 m
f
2 a

So Rac

0.02
58m
5.8x10 2 406 x106 2.336 x106
7

2(0.02)
L 2 x107 0.02 ln
1 14.4nH ,
6
406 x10
so L = 14 nH
P9.2: MATLAB: Repeat MATLAB 9.1 for a typical 200 chip resistor (LL = 0.40 nH,
Cx = 50 fF). Compare the resulting Bode plot with that of Figure 9.7.
%Resistor Equivalent Circuit
%P0902: modify ML0901 for typical chip resistor
%Enter equivalent circuit values
R=200;
%resistance in ohms
LR=0; %element inductance in nH
LLcc=13.4; %lead inductance in nH
CRcc=2;
%element capacitance, in
LLcr=0.4;
%lead inductance in nH
CRcr=.05;
%elem cap, in pF, for

for carbon comp res


pF for carb comp res
for chip res
chip res

f=10e6:10e6:10e11;
w=2*pi*f;
XLR=complex(0,w*LR*1e-9);
XLLcc=complex(0,w*LLcc*1e-9);
XCRcc=complex(0,-1./(w*CRcc*1e-12));
XLLcr=complex(0,w*LLcr*1e-9);
XCRcr=complex(0,-1./(w*CRcr*1e-12));

9-2

Zcc=XLLcc+parallel(R+XLR,XCRcc);
Zcr=XLLcr+parallel(R+XLR,XCRcr);
Zmagcc=abs(Zcc);
Zmagcr=abs(Zcr);
loglog(f,Zmagcc,'--k',f,Zmagcr,'k')
legend('carbon composite','chip resistor')
grid on
xlabel('frequency (Hz)')
ylabel('Z magnitude (ohms)')

Fig. P9.2
We see the chip resistor may be operated almost two orders of magnitude higher in
frequency than the carbon composite resistor.

P9.3: Recalculate L, Cx and fSRF if the AWG30 wire for the coil of Example 9.2 is
replaced with AWG40 wire.
For this wire we have t =3.145 mil = 79.9 m.
L hasnt changed from the Example, so L = 1.3 H.
d

h Nt 300mil 20(3.145mil )

12.5mils
N 1
19

S t (2 a)( N 1) (3.145mils)(2 )(0.25cm)(19)

1000mils
37 x103 mil 2
2.54cm

9-3

Cx

8.854 x10

f srf

12

F m 37 x103 mil 2 25.4 x106 m

12.5mil
1

1.3x106 666 x1015

mil

666 x1015 F

171MHz,

so fsrf = 170 MHz.


P9.4: Estimate L and the SRF if a 99.8% iron core is inserted inside the coil of Example
9.2.
From Example 9.2 we had
N 2 a 2
L o
1.3 H .
h
Now, we have the iron core with r = 5000, so
L (5000)(1.3 H ) 6.5mH .
For the self resonance frequency, we use Cx = 5.2 pF as before and find
1
f srf
866kHz,
2 6.5mH 5.2 pF
or fsrf = 870kHz.
P9.5: Consider a 99.8% iron toroidal core of inner diameter 0.50 cm and outer diameter
1.0 cm wrapped with 20 turns of evenly spaced AWG26 copper wire. Estimate
inductance and the self-resonance frequency of this toroidal inductor.
For inductance, from P3.56 we found: L

N2

b a

I
2b
where b = (a+c)/2 = 0.375 cm.
For the capacitance we have
S
C
, where S = t(2ac)(N-1), and ac = (c-a)/2 = 0.125 cm, and t = 405 m.
d
Also,
h Nt
for a toroid, where h = core length = 2b.
d
N
Plugging in the numbers we have
2
2
5000 4 x107 20 0.00375 0.0025
L
524 H
2 0.00375
S 405x106 2 0.0012519 60.4 x106 m2

9-4

2 0.00375 20 405 x106

20
60.4 x106

8.854 x10
773x10
12

f srf

1
2 LC

773x106 m

0.69 fF

1
2

524 x10 0.69 x10


6

15

8.4MHz.

P9.6: Calculate the self-resonance frequency for a 47 nF mica capacitor with a pair of 1.0
cm long AWG 24 copper leads.
We can apply the equivalent circuit of Figure 9.13(b), where we can neglect the very
small resistance Rx. Then,
H 2l
Lx 2 x107 l ln 1 , where each lead is l = 1 cm, and
m a

25.4 x106 m
1
6
20.1mils
255 x10 m, so
2
mil

2 0.01
H
Lx 2 x107 0.01 ln
1 6.7nH .
6
m
255 x10
With the two leads in series we then have Ltot = 13.4 nH, and then
1
1
f srf

6.3MHz,
2 Ltot C 2 13.4 x109 47 x109

so fsrf = 6 MHz.
P9.7: A thin film capacitor is made by sandwiching a 0.10 m thick layer of Teflon
between copper conductive layers. Determine the capacitance per unit area and the
maximum voltage that can be applied across such a capacitor.
For Teflon, from the appendix we have r = 2.1 and Ebr = 60x106 V/m.
So,
12
C 2.18.854 x10
F

186 2 ,
6
S d
0.1x10
m
and
V
Ebr max , or Vmax Ebr d 60 x106 0.1x106 6V .
d

9-5
P9.8: If the 2.2 nF capacitor of Example 9.3 has an area of 20. mm 2, what thickness mica
is used? What is the maximum voltage that can be applied across this capacitor?
For mica, from the appendix we have r = 5.4 and Ebr = 200x106 V/m.
F

5.4 8.854 x1012 20mm2

2
r o S
S
m
1m

C
, d

435nm
d
C
2.2 x109 F
1000mm
Vmax Ebr d 200 x106 435x109 87V .
P9.9: (JustAsk): Suppose a standard 300. twin-lead T-line is constructed with AWG 24
wire separated by a center-to-center spacing of 0.800 cm. If this line is terminated in a
short circuit realized using the shortest possible length of AWG 24 wire, calculate the
reflection coefficient looking into this short at 100 MHz, 1 GHz and 10 GHz.
AWG24 has a radius a = 255 m. Using Equation (9.4),
2 0.008
H 2l
Lx 2 x107 l ln 1 2 x107 0.008 ln
1 5.02nH
6
m a
255 x10
The impedance looking into the line, neglecting the very small resistance, is
ZL = jL.
At 100 MHz, we then have Z L j 2 100 x106 5.02 x109 j3.16.
The reflection coefficient is found by
Z Z o j3.16 300
L L

1e j179 .
Z L Z o j 3.16 300
Repeating the calculation at 1 GHz and at 10 GHz, we have:
Frequency
100 MHz
1 GHz
10 GHz

ZL()
j3.16
j31.5
j315

1ej179
1ej168
1ej87

3. Digital Signals
P9.10: (JustAsk): What is the spectral bandwidth for a 4.0 ns risetime signal, using
equation (9.13)? What risetime is required to achieve a 1 GHz bandwidth?
(a) The bandwidth is approximated by Equation (9.13),
1
1
BW
250MHz.
tr 4 x109 s
(b) Modifying Equation (9.13),
1
1
tr

1ns.
BW 1x109

9-6

P9.11: Suppose a 1.0 GHz clock rate is assumed.


bandwidth calculated using Eqn. (9.13).

What is the minimum spectral

The minimum bandwidth occurs for the maximum possible rise time, or when the signal
is a sawtooth function. At 1 GHz, the period is T = 1/f = 1 ns. For a sawtooth wave,
then, the risetime would be half the period, or tr = 0.5 ns. Then we have
1
1
BW
2GHz.
tr 0.5 x109 s

P9.12: MATLAB: Modify MATLAB 9.3 to look at a 1.0 GHz clock rate signal.
Minimize the rise and fall times by letting the signal be a sawtooth wave.
%
MLP0912
%
Modify ML0903 to look at a 1 GHz
%
clock rate signal, with minimum
%
rise and fall times of a sawtooth wave.
%
clc
%clears the command window
clear
%clears variables
%
Initialize variables
N=40;
fo=1e9;
wo=2*pi*fo;
To=1/fo;
Vo=1;
t1=0;
t2=0.50*To;
tf=t2-t1;
%
Determine the coefficients
a0=(Vo/To)*(t1+t2);
for i=1:N
n(i)=i;
a(i)=((2*Vo)/(pi*wo*tf*i^2))*(cos(i*wo*t1)cos(i*wo*t2));
end
%
Determine the function components
for j=1:1000
t(j)=j*To/1000;
for i=1:N

9-7
Fn(i)=a(i)*cos(i*wo*t(j));
end
F(j)=a0+sum(Fn);
end
%
Generate the plot
subplot(2,1,1)
plot(t,F)
axis([0 1e-9 0 1])
xlabel('time(sec)')
ylabel('voltage(V)')
grid on
subplot(2,1,2)
m=1:40;
b=a(m);
bar(m,b,'-k')
axis([0 40 0 0.5])
xlabel('n')
ylabel('an')

Fig. P9.12

4. Grounds
P9.13: Repeat Example 9.4 using AWG22 wire and 200 MHz current.
AWG22 wire has a

1
25.4 m
25.35mils
322 m, so we can use equation (9.4) to
2
mil

find

2 0.04
H 2l
Lx 2 x107 l ln 1 2 x107 0.04 ln
1 36nH
6
m a
322 x10
At 200 MHz, the impedance is
Z j L j 2 200 x106 36 x109 j 45

Figure P9.13 indicates our situation. By circuit analysis we then have


VA 3mA 45 135mV ,
VB 2mA 45 135mV 225mV ,
VC 1mA 45 225mV 270mV .

9-8

Fig. P9.13

P9.14: Repeat Example 9.5 using AWG22 wire and 200 MHz current.
As in P9.13, we have for AWG22 wire a = 322 m, and for a 4 cm length equation (9.4)
gives
2 0.04
H 2l
Lx 2 x107 l ln 1 2 x107 0.04 ln
1 36nH
6
m a
322 x10
At 200 MHz, the impedance of the 4 cm length impedance is
Z j L j 2 200 x106 36 x109 j 45 .
Likewise, for the 8 cm length wire we have Lx = 83nH and Z = j105.
For the 12 cm length wire we have Lx = 135nH and Z = j170.
Now,
VA 1mA 45 45mV ,
VB 1mA 105 105mV ,
VC 1mA 170 170mV .

5. Shields
P9.15: The field within a shielded enclosure is 12 kV/m. What shielding effectiveness is
required such that the field outside the shield is no more than 1.0 nV/m?
E
12 kV m
SE 20log ns 20log
262dB
1 nV m
Es

P9.16: (JustAsk): Compare the attenuation in dB at 1.0 GHz for 20 m thick layers of (a)
copper, (b) aluminum and (c) nickel.

f 1x109 r 4 x107

9-9
For copper, 1x109 1 4 x107 5.8 x107 479 x103 Np m,

dB
Np
6
And the attenuation is Atten(dB)
, which for copper is
20 x10 m 8.686
Np
m

Atten(dB) 479 x103 20 x106 m 8.686 83dB.

Using this approach the following table is generated:


r
(S/m)
(a) copper
1
5.8x107
(b) aluminum
1
3.8x107
(c) nickel
600
1.5 x107

(Np/m)
479x103
387x103
5.96x106

Atten(dB)
83
67
1040

P9.17: A particular silver-filled paint is to be used as an absorptive layer. It has =


1.0x106 S/m with r and r assumed equal to one. Calculate the attenuation of a 100
MHz wave propagating through a 50. m thick layer and compare with the attenuation
through a pure silver layer of the same thickness.
Atten = t, where f .
For the silver paint we have

paint 100 x106 4 x107 106 19.9 x103

Np
.
m

Then,

Np
dB

6
Attenpaint 19.9 x103
8.6dB.
50 x10 m 8.686
m
Np

Repeating these calculations for pure silver, we find


silver = 156x103 Np/m and Attensilver = 68dB.
P9.18: Shielding low frequency magnetic fields often requires a magnetic shield. What
thickness of 99.8% iron is required to give 20 dB attenuation of a 1.0 kHz magnetic field?
For 99.8% iron we have r = 5000 and = 1x107 S/m. So we have
Np
f 1000 5000 4 x107 1x107 14 x103
.
m
In terms of dB, we have
Np
dB

3 dB
(dB) 14 x103
.
122 x10
8.686
m
Np
m

Since atten = t, then we have


Atten
20dB
t

163 m.

122 x103 dB m

9-10
P9.19: Find the shielding effectiveness for the silver-filled paint shield of P9.17 and
compare the result with that of pure silver.
Using the program ML0904, we find
SEpaint = 80 dB
SEsilver = 156 dB
P9.20: MATLAB: Consider a 10.0 m thick copper shield. Plot the contributions to
shielding effectiveness (and the total shielding effectiveness) from each of the reflective
terms and from the absorption term from 1 MHz up to 1 GHz. Repeat for the same
thickness nickel shield.
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%

used for P9.20


Modify ML0904
Here we want to plot the SE contributions
vs frequency.
Wentworth, 2/12/03
Variables
d
shield thickness (m)
s
shield conductivity (S/m)
ur
rel permeability
uo
free space permeability
er
rel permittivity
eo
free space permittivity
f,w
freq. and ang. freq. (1/s)
c
speed of light (m/s)
Zo
free space impedance (ohms)
A,B,C
calculation variables
prop
propagation constant (1/m)
Z1
impedance (ohms)
taud
transmission coeff at z = -d
tao0
trans coeff at z = 0
ratio
power ratio
SErefd SE from reflection at front face
SEabs
SE from atten in shield
SEref0 SE from reflection at back face
SEtot
total shielding effectiveness

clc
clear

%clears the command window


%clears variables

9-11

%
Initialize variables
d=10e-6;
s=5.8e7;
ur=1;
er=1;
f=100e6;
eo=8.854e-12;
uo=pi*4e-7;
c=2.998e8;
Zo=120*pi;
%
Perform calculations
for i=1:1:4
f(i)=10^(i+5);
w=2*pi*f(i);
A=i*w*ur*uo;
B=s+i*w*er*eo;
prop=sqrt(A*B);
Z1=sqrt(A/B);
C=tanh(prop*d);
Zin=(Z1*(Zo+Z1*C))/(Z1+Zo*C);
taud=2*Zin/(Zin+Zo);
tau0=2*Zo/(Zo+Z1);
ratio=abs(taud*tau0*exp(-prop*d));
SErefd(i)=-20*log10(abs(taud));
SEabs(i)=-20*log10(abs(exp(-prop*d)));
SEref0(i)=-20*log10(abs(tau0));
SEtot(i)=-20*log10(ratio);
end
semilogx(f,SErefd,'-o',f,SEabs,'-+',f,SEref0,'*',f,SEtot,'-^')
legend('front
face
reflection','absorption','back
reflection','total')
title('10 micron thick copper shield')
xlabel('frequency (Hz)')
ylabel('loss (dB)')
grid on
This is repeated for nickel and the results plotted in Figure P9.20.

face

9-12

Fig. P9.20

6. Filters
P9.21: Derive the insertion loss expression Equation (9.20) for the series inductor circuit
Figure 9.25(b).
Removing the inductor from the circuit of Figure 9.25(b) (that is, replacing it with a
short), we have the voltage across the load without the filter element
1
vL vS .
2
Now, with the filter in place, we have
R
vLf
vS .
2 R j L

9-13
Therefore,
vLf
2R
1
1

.
vL 2 R j L 1 j L 1 j fL
2R
R
We find the magnitude of this ratio,
vLf
1

.
2
vL

fL

The insertion loss is then


2

v vLf
fL 2
fL
L

IL 20log
20log 1

10log 1
.
vLf vL

R
R

P9.22: (JustAsk): Suppose an L = 100. nH inductor is used in the series inductance filter
of Figure 9.25(b). Determine the insertion loss at 200 MHz if (a) R = 10. and (b )R =
10. k.
fL 2
We apply the equation IL 10log 1
.
R

200 x106 100 x109 2

16dB.
(a) IL 10 log 1


10

200 x106 100 x109 2

0.17 x103 dB.


(b) IL 10 log 1
3


10 x10

P9.23: Suppose a C = 47. pF capacitor is used in the shunt capacitance filter of Figure
9.25(a). Determine the insertion loss at 200. MHz if (a) R = 10. and (b) R = 10. k.

We apply the equation IL 10log 1 fRC .


2

0.36dB.

(b) IL 10log 1 200 x10 10 x10 47 x10 49dB.
(a) IL 10log 1 200 x106 10 47 x1012
6

12

P9.24: Determine the insertion loss at 1.0 GHz for a T-filter inserted between a 10.
source impedance and a 10. load impedance. Consider L = 10. nH and C = 47. pF.

9-14

Fig. P9.24 (a)


We can analyzer the circuit shown in Figure
9.24(a) by using the models in Figures 9.24
(b) & (c):
Z1 R j L,
and
Fig. 9.24(b) & (c)

j
Z 2 Z1
C .
Then we have
Z2
R
R
R Z2
v2
vS , vLf
v2 v2 , vLf
vS .
Z1 Z 2
R j L
Z1
Z1 Z1 Z 2
1
vL vS ,
2
v
and we then wish to calculate insertion loss as IL 20 log L .
vLf

This is calculated using MLP0924.

%
MLP0924
%
%
A T-Filter Problem
%
clc
clear
%
Variables
R=10;
L=10e-9;
C=47e-12;
f=1e9;
%
Run Program
w=2*pi*f;
XL=i*w*L;
XC=-i/(w*C);

9-15
Z1=R+XL;
Z2=parallel(Z1,XC);
VLF=R*Z2/(Z1*(Z1+Z2));
ratio=1/(2*abs(VLF));
IL=20*Log10(ratio)
Now we run the program:
IL = 34.5662
So the insertion loss is IL = 34.6 dB.
P9.25: Determine the insertion loss at 40 MHz for a -filter inserted between a 10. k
source impedance and a 10. k load impedance. Consider L = 10. nH and C = 47. pF.
Referring to Figure P9.25, we have
j
Z1 RL
,
C
and
Z 2 j L Z1.
Then,
j
Z3 Z 2
.
C
Using these values we find
Z3
v1
vS ,
Z1 Rs
v2

Z1
v1 vLf ,
Z1 j L

vLf

Z3
Z1
vS
Z1 j L Z1 Rs

and
RL
.
RL RS
Finally,
v
IL 20 log L .
vLf

This is calculated using MLP0925.


vL

%
MLP0925
%
% This is a pi filter.
%

Fig. P9.25

9-16
clc
clear
%
enter variables
RS=10e3;
RL=10e3;
L=10e-9;
C=47e-12;
f=40e6;
%
Perform calculations
w=2*pi*f;
XC=-i/(w*C);
XL=i*w*L;
Z1=parallel(RL,XC);
Z2=XL+Z1;
Z3=parallel(XC,Z2);
vLf=(Z1*Z3)/(Z2*(Z3+RS));
vL=RL/(RL+RS);
IL=20*Log10(vL/abs(vLf))
Now running this program:
IL = 41.3
So IL = 41 dB.