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PSG COLLEGE OF
TECHNOLOGY

MATERIAL SCIENCE
Title: LED and LCD

.
Submitted by,
Indhuja Ravi -14z315.
INTRODUCTION:

LED:

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead


semiconductor light source. It is a pn-junction
diode, which emits light when activated.
When a suitable voltage is applied to the
leads, electrons are able to recombine with
electron holes within the device, releasing
energy in the form of photons. This effect is
called electroluminescence, and the colour of
the light (corresponding to the energy of the
photon) is determined by the energy band
gap of the semiconductor.

LCD:

A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat panel


display, electronic visual display, or video
display that uses the light modulating
properties of liquid crystals. Liquid crystals
do not emit light directly.
LCDs are available to display arbitrary
images (as in a general-purpose computer
display) or fixed images which can be
displayed or hidden, such as preset words,
digits, and 7-segment displays as in a digital
clock. They use the same basic technology,
except that arbitrary images are made up of
a large number of small pixels, while other
displays have larger elements.

BASIC PRINCIPLE IN LED:


LED is a particular diode which generates
photons (light) when a stream of electrons
passes trough it.
To build a diode we use a crystal (electric
insulator) which is doped by atoms which have
one more electron on their valence band (N
doping) or missing one electron on their valence
band (P doping).

N doping:
We use an electron donor an atom which has 5
electrons on its valence band. Four electrons will
participate to the crystal structure the fifth will
stay free capable of moving in the crystal as a
negative charge.

P doping:
We use an electron acceptor element which has
3 electrons on its valence band. These will
participate in the crystal structure but is fails one
electron which creates a fixed hole like a positive
charge.
Examples of P-doping elements: boron (B),
aluminium (Al), gallium , indium.

Working principle:
The LED is a diode that restricts the direction of
movement of charge carries. The current can
flow from the P-type side (the anode) to the Ntype side (the cathode), but not in the opposite
direction.

BASIC PRINCIPLE IN LCD


The principle behind the LCDs is that when an
electrical current is applied to the liquid crystal
molecule, the molecule tends to untwist. This
causes the angle of light which is passing

through the molecule of the polarized glass and


also cause a change in the angle of the top
polarizing filter. As a result a little light is allowed
to pass the polarized glass through a particular
area of the LCD. Thus that particular area will
become dark compared to other. The LCD works
on the principle of blocking light. While
constructing the LCDs, a reflected mirror is
arranged at the back. An electrode plane is made
of indium-tin oxide which is kept on top and a
polarized glass with a polarizing film is also
added on the bottom of the device. The complete
region of the LCD has to be enclosed by a
common electrode and above it should be the
liquid crystal matter. Next comes to the second
piece of glass with an electrode in the form of
the rectangle on the bottom and, on top, another
polarizing film. It must be considered that both
the pieces are kept at right angles. When there is
no current, the light passes through the front of
the LCD it will be reflected by the mirror and
bounced back. As the electrode is connected to a
battery the current from it will cause the liquid
crystals between the common-plane electrode
and the electrode shaped like a rectangle to
untwist. Thus the light is blocked from passing
through. That particular rectangular area
appears blank.

ADVANTAGES OF USING LED:

Long life
Energy efficiency
Low voltage
Ecologically friendly
Durable quality
Zero UV emissions
Design flexibility
Operational in Extremely Cold or
Temperatures
Light dispersability
Instant lighting and frequent switching

Hot

APPLICATIONS OF LED:
Sign Applications with LEDs:

Full Colour Video, Monochrome Message


Boards, Traffic/VMS, Transportation - Passenger
Information

Illumination with LEDs:

Architectural Lighting, Signage (Channel


Letters), Machine Vision, Retail Displays,
Emergency Lighting (Exit Signs), Neon and bulb

Replacement, Flashlights, Accent Lighting Pathways, Marker Lights

Signal Application with LEDs:

Traffic, Rail, Aviation, Tower Lights, Runway


Lights, Emergency/Police Vehicle Lighting

Automotive Applications with


LEDs:

Instrument Panels & Switches, Courtesy


Lighting, CHMSL, Rear Stop/Turn/Tai, Retrofits,
New Turn/Tail/Marker Lights

Consumer Electronics & General


Applications:

Household
appliances,
VCR/
DVD/
Stereo/Audio/Video
devices,
Toys/Games
Instrumentation, Security Equipment, Switches

Mobile Applications with LEDs:

Mobile Phone, PDA's, Digital Cameras, Lap


Tops, General Backlighting

Photo
LEDs:

Sensor

Applications

with

Medical Instrumentation, Bar Code Readers,


Colour & Money Sensors, Encoders, Optical
Switches, fibre Optic Communication.

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