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Problem 1: Select the answer that is most nearly correct for each of the following 10 conceptual questions (10 points)

• 1. Which of the following statements pertaining to RC beams and PS beams is NOT correct?

• a) Under zero-load, the reinforcement strain for RC beams is equal to zero, whereas for PS beams it is not.

• b) Stress-strain curve of PS steel reinforcement has no yielding point, gradual yielding, and smaller ultimate strain as compared to conventional grade 60 steel.

• c) Under increasing loading, the lever arm between the compression and tension forces remain constant in RC beams whereas it increases in PS beams.

• d) Under increasing loading, the lever arm between the compression and tension forces remain constant in PS beams whereas it increases in RC beams.

• 2. Which of the following is NOT necessarily required if the service load tensile stress limit of

• 0.5 is used?

• a) Sufficient number of bonded reinforcement to control cracking.

• b) Amount of concrete cover is adequate to avoid corrosion.

• c) Shouldn’t be used if severely corrosive environment will be encountered.

• d) Concrete compressive strength should be increased.

• 3. Which of the following is NOT necessarily required if the service load tensile stress limit of

• 1.0 is used?

• a) Sufficient number of bonded reinforcement to control cracking.

• b) Amount of concrete cover is adequate to avoid corrosion.

• c) Shouldn’t be used if severely corrosive environment will be encountered.

• d) Section dimensions should be increased.

• 4. Stress limits on PS steel are NOT required on effective stresses, rather required on jacking and initial stresses because?

• a) PS steel is a high-strength steel of grades 250K and 270K, thus requires no stress limits.

• b) Effective stresses are not necessarily required to be checked by the code.

• c) Final stresses will always be lesser than initial stresses due to PS losses.

• d) PS steel has large ultimate strain before failure.

• 5. Decompression stage in PS concrete beam is defined as?

• a) The stage at which concrete stress at the cgs line is equal to zero.

• b) The stage at which the PS steel stress at cgs line is equal to zero.

• c) The stage at which the PS steel stress at cgc line is equal to zero.

• d) The stage at which there is zero tension on the entire section.

• 6.

If the prestressing force and eccentricity were kept constant along the span of a simply supported beam, the initial stress limits at transfer are expected to be violated at supports due to?

• a) The dead load moment at the supports is equal to zero.

• b) The PS force is large enough to exceed these stress limits.

• c) The PS steel eccentricity is large enough to exceed these stress limits.

• d) Stress limits at the supports are usually less than those at midspan.

• 7. In post-tensioned beams a small number of large tendons is used as opposed to a large number of individual strands in pretensioned beams. The reason for this is?

• a) In pretensioned beam the PS force is transferred from steel to concrete through bond, whereas in post-tensioned beams it is transferred through mechanical anchorage.

• b) In pretensioned beams a larger PS force is required as oppose to post-tensioned beams.

• c) In order to control stress limits in post-tensioned beams, fewer large tendons are used.

• d) In order to control stress limits in pretensioned beams, large number of strands is used over a large area if the PS beam cross-section.

• 8. A stirrup spacing equal to (3h/4) in PS beam oppose to (d/2) in RC beams is one candidate for the maximum stirrup spacing because?

• a) Guarantee sufficient design shear strength to prevent a shear failure prior to flexure failure.

• b) The failure in PS beams is a ductile shear failure as oppose to a brittle shear failure in TC beams.

• c) The diagonal cracking in PS beams is flatter compared to RC beams resulting in more stirrups crossing the crack line.

• d) Guarantee that at least two stirrups cross any diagonal crack that may form.

• 9. Which of the following is the main reason for Web Crushing mode of failure?

• a) Due to in adequate anchorage of the longitudinal bars, the diagonal cracks propagate horizontally through the web.

• b) Under the compression strut force, the concrete in the web crushes due to inadequate web thickness.

• c) Crushing of the concrete near the compression flange above the tip of the inclined crack as it propagates through the web.

• d) Due to inadequate shear reinforcement an inclined crack propagates rapidly shearing the beam into two parts.

• 10. Camber in PS beams increase with time due to which of the following phenomena?

• a) PS steel relaxation

• b) Concrete Shrinkage

• c) Concrete Creep

• d) Equivalent prestressing load

Problem 2: A post-tensioned square beam is reinforced with four 15mm diameter 270K 7-wire strands as shown in the figure. The strands were being jacked sequentially in the order shown with a jacking force equal to 220 kN/strand. Calculate the average elastic shortening loss due to the jacking of the strands. Assume a modular ratio n = 6. (10 points)

125mm
1
2
75mm
125mm
3
4
250mm

Problem 3: A bonded post-tensioned concrete beam has a flanged cross-section as shown. It is prestressed with tendons of area 700mm 2 , the initial prestress is 1300 MPa and effective prestress is 950 MPa. The tensile strength of the tendon is 1820 MPa, and the concrete compressive strength at 28-days f c ’= 28 MPa. Estimate the nominal ultimate flexural strength of the member using strain compatibility method. Stress-strain relationship for PS strands is given below. Use E ps = 193,300MPa (15 points)

(

(

(

)

)

)

500mm
100mm
300mm

100mm

600mm

100mm

Problem 4: A pretensioned girder is constructed according to ACI code with 32 bonded 7-wire strands. The girder must span 30m on simple supports and carry a uniform live load of 8kN/m as well as its own weight. Assume f ci ’ = 26 MPa, f c ’ = 35 MPa, f pu = 1724 MPa, f py /f pu = 0.85, and A ps = 93mm 2 /strand. (15 points)

• a) Determine if the stresses in the concrete are acceptable immediately after transfer or not. Assume that only the dead weight acts on the beam and that prestress before losses is 0.8f pu

• b) Determine if the concrete stresses are acceptable at service load or not. Assume prestress losses of 20%.

• c) Determine the stress in the lower layer of strands at transfer and service loads.

1200mm

100mm

100mm

1200mm